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glossary of usage PAPWLIT
Terms in this set (59)
these indefinite articles refer to a member of a general group. A is used before words beginning with a consonant sound. AN is used before words beginning with a vowel sound
ACCEPT is a verb meaning "to receive". EXCEPT may be used as a verb or as a preposition, and as a verb it means "to leave out". as a preposition, it means "excluding"
AFFECT is a verb meaning "to influence." EFFECT may be used as a verb or noun; as a verb it means "to bring about"/"to accomplish." as a noun it means "the result (of an action)."
AIN'T is nonstandard. avoid using ain't in speech and in all writing other than dialogue
all ready, already
ALL READY (adj.) means "all prepared." ALREADY (adv.) means "previously."
ALL RIGHT means satisfactory, unhurt, safe, correct, or in a response, yes. although the spelling ALRIGHT is sometimes used, it has not become accepted as standard usage
all the farther, all the faster
avoid using these expressions. instead, use as far as and as fast as
an ALLUSION is an indirect reference to something historical, literary, or mythological. an ILLUSION is a mistaken idea or a misleading appearance
with the article A, LOT may be used as a noun meaning a large amount or number or as a verb meaning a great deal or very much. both uses are informal; avoid them in formal speaking and a writing situation. ALOT is a misspelling of the expression in either use.
ALUMNI is the plural of alumnus (a male graduate). ALUMNAE is the plural of alumna (female graduate). considered as a single group, they are referred to as ALUMNI
use BETWEEN when referring to only two items or more than two when each items is being compared to each other item
use AMOUNT to refer to uncountable nouns. use NUMBER to refer to countable nouns
since AND is used in the definition of ETC., using AND with ETC. is redundant
these words and similar words, such as everywhere, somewhere, and nowhere, should not have a final S
as if, as though, like
in formal situations, avoid using the preposition LIKE. as for the conjugation AS IF or AS THOUGH should be used to introduce a subordinate clause
avoid using AT after a construction beginning with WHERE
a while, awhile
used with the article A, WHILE is a noun meaning "a period of time." AWHILE is an adverb meaning "for a short time."
BAD is an adjective, BADLY is an adverb. in standard english, only the adjective form should follow a sense or other linking verb
in formal writing and speaking, do not use the construction REASON...BECAUSE. instead, use REASON...THAT. (an adverb clause cannot function as a predicate nominative)
being as, being that
avoid using either of these expressions for BECAUSE or SINCE.
BESIDE is a preposition meaning "by the side of." BESIDES may be used as a preposition meaning "in addition to" or as an adverb meaning "moreover."
BORROW means "to take [something] temporarily." LEND means "to give something temporarily." Its principle parts are lend, is lending, lent, (have) lent.
BRING means "to come carrying something"; TAKE means "to go carrying something."
avoid using these words as verbs. use for of break or burst, or catch or arrest, depending on the meaning you intend.
do not use OF in place of HAVE
DISCOVER means "to learn of the existence of something." INVENT means "to bring something new into existence."
DONE is the past participle of DO. avoid using DONE for DID, which is the past form of DO and does not require a helping verb
DON'T is the contraction of DO NOT. DOESN'T is the contraction for does not. DOESN'T is singular; DON'T is plural
EMIGRATE is a verb meaning "to leave a country or region to settle elsewhere." IMMIGRATE is a verb meaning "to come into a country or region to settle there."
use FEWER which tells "how many," to modify a countable noun. use LESS which tells "how much," to modify an uncountable noun
do not use OF in place of HAVE
had ought, hadn't ought
do not use HAD or HADN'T with OUGHT
he, she, it, they
avoid using a pronoun along with its antecedent as the subject of a verb. such an error is sometimes called a double subject.
hisself, theirself, theirselves
these are not words. avoid using these forms in speech and in all forms of writing other than dialogue
means "in a hopeful manner" or "it is to be hoped"
IMPLY means "to suggest"; INFER means "to draw as a conclusion"
IN means "from within." INTO means "from the outside to the inside." in formal situations, avoid using IN for INTO.
IT'S ALWAYS means "it is." possessive pronouns NEVER require apostrophes
kind of, sort of
in formal situations, avoid using KIND OF for somewhat or rather
kind of a, sort of a
drop the A for standard accepted usage
kinds, sorts, types
with the singular form of each of these nouns, use THIS or THAT; with the plural form, use THESE or THOSE
LEARN means "to gain knowledge"; TEACH means "to provide with knowledge."
LEAVE means "to go away"; LET means to "permit." do not use LET for LEAVE
LIKE can function as a preposition. do not use LIKE for the conjunction AS to introduce a subordinate clause.
like, as if, as though
do not use that preposition LIKE for the conjunction AS IF or AS THOUGH to introduce a subordinate clause.
avoid using OF after other prepositions such as INSIDE, OFF, and OUTSIDE
off, off of
do not use OFF or OFF OF in place of FROM
use OR with either; use NOR with neither
standard english requires the use of SOMEWHAT rather than SOME to mean "to some extent."
supposed to, used to
when writing the past form of SUPPOSE or USE, especially before the word TO, avoid omitting the -d ending.
THAN is a subordinating conjunction used on comparisons; THEN is an adverb telling when
try and, try to
us TRY TO, not TRY AND
type, type of
avoid using TYPE as an adjective. add OF after TYPE
use WAY, not WAYS, in referring to distance
unless you are defining a time or place, do not use WHEN or WHERE to begin a definition
do not use WHERE for THAT
who, which, that
WHO refers to people only, WHICH refers to things only. THAT may refer to either persons or things
when referring to people in general, use??
nonsexist expressions rather than gender-specific ones.
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