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two or more people interacting for more than a few moments


co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity

social facilitation

strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others

evaluation apprehension

concern for how others evaluate us

social loafing

tendency to exert less energy when people in a group work together, no individual accountability

free riders

people who benefit from the group but give little in return


losing self awareness when in a group

self awareness

self conscious state in which your attention focus is on yourself

group polarization

group produced enhancement of members preexisting tendencies;

social comparison

evaluating ones opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others

pluralistic ignorance

a false impression of what other people are thinking or feeling or how they respond


thinking that people engaged in concurrence seeking groups becomes so dominant in a cohesive group that it tends to override reality


group members motivating other group members

task leadership

leadership that organizes work,sets standards and focuses on goals

social leadership

leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict and offers support

transformational leadership

leadership that enables vision and inspiration and exerts external influence


Triplett conducted one of social psychology's first laboratory experiments by asking children to wind string on a fishing reel. The results of the study indicated that there was a _______ relationship between the speed at which the children wound the reel and the presence of other children.

pulled less

Ingham (1974) found that when blindfolded participants thought they were pulling a tug of war with other participants, they _______ than when they thought they were pulling alone.

social facilitation effect

_______ refers to the strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others

social facilitation; social loafing

. When being observed increases evaluation concerns, _______ occurs; when being lost in a crowd decreases evaluation concerns, _______ occurs.


. The relationship between group size and the probability of deindividuation occurring is

administer longer shocks

Zimbardo reported that women who were masked and hooded in KKK-style hoods and robes tended to _______ than women who were visible and wore name tags.

anonymous and in a group

On Halloween night, Diener and her colleagues (1976) conducted a study of trick-or-treat theft at homes scattered throughout the Seattle area. Given a chance to steal candy, the children who were _______ were most likely to commit transgressions.

group polarization

Students who join extracurricular groups on campus tend to find their attitudes regarding the groups' purpose increase if they stay in the group. This is an example of

pluralistic ignorance

A false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding is what social psychologists call

isolated from dissenting viewpoints

Julio is a directive leader of a highly cohesive student group on campus. When discussing important policy decisions, the group will be at greatest risk for groupthink if it is also


Which of the following does NOT strengthen the group minority influence?

task leadership

Martha is excellent at organizing her employees, setting goals, and focusing on achieving those goals for the company. Martha excels in

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