2nd Semester Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (51)
He was president from 1809-1817. He was a Democratic-Republican. He pushed for ratification of the Constitution and was a known Federalist. He was also president during the War of 1812.
the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize
the use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities
A drawing containing observations that express the artist's opinion or show the common opinions of the time.
Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly (protest and meeting for issues), and petition
An artifact, a document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, a recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time being studied.
Political cartoons are always propaganda.
He was president from 1801-1809. He was a Democratic-Republican and founding father. He most well known for the purchase of the Louisiana Territory and sending Lewis and Clark on their expedition.
A source of information that was created later by someone who did not experience first-hand or participate in the events or conditions of the time being studied.
The phrase "We the people..." begins this document.
Right to bear arms (possess guns) and to form a militia
He was president from 1829 - 1837. He was a Democrat. He was known for his Indian Removal Policies, ignoring the Worcester v. Georgia Supreme Court decision, and his service in several U.S. wars.
He was president from 1845 - 1849. He was a Democrat. He oversaw the Annexation of Texas which made Texas part of the U.S. He was also president during the Mexican American War and the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
He was president from 1849 - 1850 because he died just one year into his term. He was a Whig. He served in the Mexican-American War.
He was president from 1861 - 1865. He was assassinated. He was a Republican. As president, could not prevent secession and led the country during the Civil War. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves only in the Confederacy. He gave the Gettysburg Address, a famous speech. He had a moderate plan for Reconstruction because he wanted to reunite the country.
He was president from 1865-1869. He was a Democrat. He took over after Lincoln's assassination. His plan for Reconstruction was harmful to the recently freed African Americans and was "too easy" on the South. He was impeached for suspending Secretary of War Edwin Stanton without Congressional input.
Led by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster
Founded in 1833
Opposed Andrew Jackson
Believed in protective tariffs (taxes that protected U.S. business), national banking, and federally funded programs that improved the U.S.
Founded in 1854
Meant to represent abolitionists and people who opposed the Whigs and Democrats
Most famous President form the 1800s was Abraham Lincoln
Had large base of supporters in the North
Also supported homesteading, the transcontinental railroad, and immigration
Formed in 1828 after a split in the Democratic-Republican Party
During the election of 1860, split between Northern and Southern groups
Wanted to expand slavery
Some members, like Stephen Douglas, strongly supported the transcontinental railroad
Founded in 1849
Known as nativists (people who promoted the interests of native inhabitants above those of immigrants)
A strong feeling of pride about one's country, but also the belief that the country should function as one large unit and be united on large issues
Example: patriotism, promoting products made in that country, celebrating national holidays
A strong sense of pride for the state, city, or region you are from, the belief that local governments should do what is best for their people and not what is best for the entire country
Example: the secession of the southern states, different parts of the country advocating for different laws about slavery
A deal between Thomas Jefferson (U.S. president) and the French, purchased the land west of the Appalachian Mountains for ~$12 million dollars in 1803, doubled the size of the United States
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Two military leaders, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, led the Corps of Discovery west to the Pacific Coast from 1804 -1806. Jefferson asked them to survey (explore and map) the land and to interact with native people.
Began in 1849, prospectors were known as 49er's.
The hope of gold led many people within and outside of the U.S. to immigrate to California
Allowed for them to become a state very quickly because of a quick population growth
Led to a stronger economy
Hurt native populations who were then kicked off of their land unfairly
A political idea in the 1800s that the "common man" should and could have a larger part in the federal government. Inspired by Andrew Jackson, who was not as wealthy or educated as former presidents, being elected. Examples include town hall meetings and increased voter turnout.
Indian Removal Act
It forced Native Americans in the south to move to Indian Territory (modern-day Oklahoma). It was enacted in 1830.
Trail of Tears
Many Cherokees were forced to march hundreds of miles. The march started in 1831 and lasted two decades.
The Republic of Texas declared independence from Mexico in 1836. After more than a decade of conflict, the land was considered for admission to the union. In 1845, the land became an official part of the United States.
Defining the Southern Border
After gaining Texas, America fought against Mexico in the Mexican-American War to define our country's southern border. Between 1846 and 1848, the two sides fought. Eventually, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed.
In 1853, the U.S. signed a treaty with Mexico to purchase the land in southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico.
Hired young, unmarried women to work in water mills to create fabric and other cloth materials.
Rhode Island System
Hired families to work in water mills to create fabric and other cloth materials.
During the 1800s, these groups fought for a safer work environment, better pay, and shorter working hours.
Immigrants in the 1800's
In the 1800s, most _____________ were from European countries like Ireland and Germany. Some _______________ came from China, specifically to work during the Gold Rush. Most were not welcomed into America because of their religious or cultural beliefs. Specific political parties, like the Know-Nothing Party, tried to stop _______________ from coming to America or gaining rights once they were here.
Once of the most important related events during the 1800s was the Seneca Falls Convention. During the convention Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton presented the Declaration of Sentiments, which was a statement about the mistreatment of women in America.
Sectionalism in the election of 1860
The election of 1860 illustrated that there were strong feelings of ________________________. Most Northerners voted for Lincoln because they sympathized with abolitionists. Most Southerners voted for Breckinridge or Douglas because they wanted the right to own slaves.
First Battle of Bull Run
First major battle in the Civil War
Proved that the war would be long and bloody
Surprised both people in the military and regular citizens
The Confederacy won
Battle of Antietam
Bloodiest single-day battle of the war and in American history
The Union won
Battle of Gettysburg
Stopped the Confederacy from invading the North
Lee lost many of his men and suffered a huge loss
The Union won
The Confederacy never tried to invade the South again because of this battle.
Siege of Vicksburg
Union soldiers surrounded the city, which led to the Confederate army being split in half
The Union won
This victory improved General Grant's reputation
Freed slaves in the Southern states (Confederacy)
Had no power in those states though, so many slaves had to wait until Union forces were nearby and escape under their protection
General Sherman, while leading his men on a march towards the southern coast, carried out acts like destroying civilian and military resources (businesses, homes, and crops).
The location where General Lee (the Confederacy) surrendered to General Grant (the Union.
Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan
The 10% plan was meant to give forgiveness to the southern states that had seceded, to win back their loyalty, and to help them rejoin the Union as quickly as possible.
He was already unpopular because of his opinions about Reconstruction.
He often disagreed with Secretary of War Edwin Staton. Eventually, he suspended Stanton and tried to have him transferred.
Congress said this was against his rights as a president
"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."
Slavery is now abolished (illegal).
"All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
Anyone born in the U.S. or naturalized is a citizen. If they are a citizen, you cannot keep them from living their own lives. You also cannot deny them a fair trial or protections of the Constitution.
"The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
All white and black men have the right to vote.
Laws passed by Southern states after the American Civil War that were meant to restrict African Americans' freedom. It often made them work hard, labor intensive jobs that didn't pay well, which left them with a lot of debt.
The Confederate strategy during the Civil War to withhold cotton from Great Britain, in hopes that it would make them side with the south in the Civil War.