Psychology Finals Questions
Terms in this set (24)
What did Pavlov's discovery demonstrate? Why did Pavlov's dog salivate at the sound of the tuning fork? Be able to describe the process of classical conditioning.
Pavlov's discovery was that his classical conditioning between neutral stimulus and uncontrolled stimulus. Pavlov's dog salivate the sound of the tuning fork because the dog reacts to the meat powder which is the neutral stimulus
What are the general principles behind classical conditioning?
CS-a once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
CR-the learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus
US-An event that elicits a certain predictable response typically without previous training
UR-an organism's automatic (or natural) reaction to a stimulus
What was the Little Albert experiment? What did it show?
An experiment created by John Watson and Rosalie Rayner that experimented a little baby and to see if he afraid of white rats just from loud noises
What is the difference between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus?
NS- a stimulus that does not initially elicit any part of an unconditioned response
US- an event that elicits a certain predictable response typically without previous training
How are generalization and discrimination related to classical conditioning?
Generalization and discrimination by how they both respond to a range of stimuli's between the neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus
Under what conditions might a conditioned response become extinct?
When the conditioned response no longer appears with the conditioned stimulus, then the conditioned response will become extinct.
What are the central features of operant conditioning? Be able to compare/contrast it to classical conditioning.
Positive Reinforcement- when something desirable is added after an action
Negative Reinforcement- when something undesirable is removed or stopped, after an action
What is the difference between a primary and secondary reinforcer? Be sure to provide examples of each.
Primary Reinforcer-stimulus that is naturally rewarding, such as food or water
Secondary Reinforcer- stimulus such as money that becomes rewarding through its link with a primary reinforcer
What are the different schedules of reinforcement? Which ones are the most effective? Be able to describe an example of each schedule of reinforcement.
Continuous- Reinforcer follows every response (new sale and order)
Fixed Interval- Response after specific time period is reinforced
Variable Interval- Response after varying period of time (an average) is reinforced
Fixed Ratio- A fixed number of responses must occur before reinforcement
Variable Ratio- A varying number (average) of responses must occur before reinforcement
What is the difference between escape conditioning and avoidance conditioning?
Escape Conditioning- training of an organism to remove or terminate an unpleasant stimulus
Avoidance Conditioning- training of an organism to respond so as ti prevent the occurrence of an unpleasant stimulus
What is the difference between punishment and reinforcement? What are some drawbacks to punishment?
Reinforcement- stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
Punishment- an unpleasant consequence and occurs to decrease the frequency of the behavior that produced
How is a token economy an example of behavior modification?
Token Economy- conditioning in which desirable behavior is reinforced with valueless objects, which can be accumulated and exchanged for valued rewards
Token Economy is an example of behavior modification by how it defines the problem in concrete terms
What principles of modeling should parents consider when rewarding and punishing their children? Provide reasons for your answer. What are the 3 types effects of modeling?
Mimicry-witnessing the behavior of others to simply increase the chances that we will follow their lead and do the same thing
Imitations- an observer watches someone perform a behavior and is later able to reproduce it closely
Disinhibition- an observer watches someone else engage in a threatening activity without being punished
How does information transition from short to long-term memory
A short-term memory's conversion to long-term memory requires the passage of time, which allows it to become resistant to interference from competing stimuli or disrupting factors such as injury or disease.
What occurs in each stage of memory? (encoding, storage, retrieval)
Encoding-the transforming of information so the nervous system
Storage- the process by which information is maintained over a period of time
Retrieval- the process of obtaining information that has been stored in memory
What is the capacity (roughly) of sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory?
Sensory Memory- virtually everything you see or hear at one instant
Short-Term memory- up to seven items in health adults
Long-Term memory- Vast; uncountable
What is the difference between semantic and episodic memory?
Semantic Memory-knowledge of language, including its rules, words, and meanings
Episodic memory- chronological retention of the events of one's life
Why is eyewitness testimony prone to distortion?
Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information.
What processes lead us to forget? Differentiate between decay, interference, and amnesia
Decay- fading away of memory over time
Interference- blockage of a memory by previous or subsequent memories or loss of a retrieval cue
Amnesia-a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma
How can we improve our memory? Describe elaborative rehearsal, mnemonic devices, establishing visuals etc.
Elaborative Rehearsal- the linking of new information to material that is already known
Mnemonic Devices- techniques for using associations to memorize information
Why is the deviance approach not a useful standard on its own?
abnormality is any deviation from the average or the majority. Because the majority is not always right or best, the deviance approach to defining abnormality is not always a useful standard.
What are the different ways psychological disorders have been diagnosed?
Substance-related disorders, Mood Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, Dissociative Disorders, Sleep Disorders
What is the DSM? How do psychologists use it?
Current version of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder and psychologists use it as categorizing which mental disorder an individual has
How are mental disorders characterized?
Axis 1- used to classify current symptoms into explicitly defined categories
Axis 2- used to describe developmental disorders and chronic personality disorders or maladaptive traits such as compulsiveness, over-dependency, or aggressiveness
Axis 3- used to describe physical disorders or general medical conditions that are potentially relevant to understanding or caring for the person
Axis 4- a measurement of the current stress level at which the person is functioning
Axis 5- used to describe the highest level of adaptive functioning present within the past year
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