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122 terms

Research in Psychology Ch 4 Types of Variables

Most if this is directly drawn from McBride, D.M. (2010). The Process of Research in Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. and lecture notes
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dependent (response) variable
A variable that is measured or observed from an individual
reliability
The degree to which the results of a study can be replicated under similar conditions
operational definition
The definition of an abstract concept used by a researcher to measure or manipulate the concept in a research study
nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
What are the four scales of data measurement?
nominal
Scale of data measurement that involves non-ordered categorical responses
qualitative
Type of data that is non-numerical participant responses
quantitative
Type of data that is numerical.
ordinal
Scale of data measurement that involves ordered categorical responses.
interval
Scale of data measurement that involves numerical responses that are equally spaced, but scores are not ratios of each other.
ratio
Scale of data measurement that involves numerical responses, where scores are ratios of each other.
Likert scale
A scale of responses that measures a participant's agreement or disagreement with different types of statements often with a rating from 1 to 5 or to 7.
reaction time
Measurement of the length of time to complete a task
construct validity
Indicates that a survey measures the behavior it is designed to measure
nonverbal scale
survey response scale that involves pictorial response categories for participants with low verbal skills (eg children)
face validity
On the surface, a study or scale appears to be intuitively valid
interrater reliability
A measure of the degree to which observers rate behaviors in similar ways.
independent
A variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the researcher such that the levels of the variable change across or within subjects in the environment.
presence/absence
A variable that involves a manipulation with a level that involves the treatment and a level that does not involve the treatment. Also called bivalent independent variable.
bivalent
An independent variable with two levels - the simplest type of independent variable. Also called presence/absence variable.
type
A variable that involves a manipulation of types of a treatment
amount
Variables that include levels with a different amount of the treatment changing from level to level.
multivalent
An independent variable that includes three or more levels - this adjective is used to describe a design even if there is only one independent variable that contains three or more levels.
quasi-independent/subject
Variable that allows comparison of groups of participants without manipulation (i.e. no random assignment)
internal validity
the degree to which a study provides causal information about behavior
confounding variable
an extraneous factor present in a study that may affect the results
experimenter bias
a source of bias in a study created when a researcher treats groups differently (often unknowingly) based on knowledge of the hypothesis.
single-blind design
Procedure used to hide the group assignment from the participants in a study to prevent their beliefs about the effectiveness of a treatment from affecting the results.
placebo
A sugar pill given to the control group in a drug study to allow all groups to believe that they are receiving a treatment.
double-blind design
Procedure used to control for experimenter bias by keeping the knowledge of the group assignments from both the participants and the researchers who interact with the participants.
testing effects
This occurs when participants are tested more than once in a study with early testing affecting later testing
within-subjects variable
Each participant experiences all levels of the variable
between-subjects variable
each participant experiences only one level of the independent variable
counterbalance
A control used in within-subjects experiments where different participants are assigned in equal numbers to the different orders of the conditions.
regression toward the mean
This can occur when participants score higher or lower than their personal average - the next time they are tested, they are more likely to score nearer their personal average, making scores unreliable.
history effect
events that occur during the course of a study to all or individual participants that can result in bias
maturation
natural changes that occur to the participants during the course of a study that can result in bias.
attrition/mortality
This occurs when participants choose not to complete a study.
external validity
The degree to which the results of a study apply to individuals and realistic behaviors outside the study.
hawthorne effect
A source of bias that can occur in a study due to participants changing their behavior because they are aware that they are being observed.
field experiment
an experiment conducted in the participants' natural environment.
demand characteristic
a source of bias that can occur in a study due to participants changing their behavior based on their perception of the study and its purpose.
construct, internal, external, face
Four types of validity that can be measured.
hypothesis
Predictions derived from our theory and expressed in terms of conceptual variables (abstract theoretical entities) or constructs.
manipulation checks (correlations), pilot study
Two methods of "debugging" your study, to attempt to directly measure whether the IV variable really affects the DV and try out your research method.
setting representativeness
Three main factors determining external validity: 1) variable representativeness, 2) subject representativeness, 3) _________.
large enough range to show effects
Choosing the right levels of your independent variable: 1) lit review, 2) pilot experiment, 3) cost and resource limitations, 4) real world levels, 5) _______, 6) aim for mid-range.
interval
Which scale of measurement has equal differences between numbers on the scale, which reflect equal differences in magnitude?
6
An experiment has two independent variables. One has two levels and the other has three levels. How many conditions are there?
operational
Type of variables that are defined and concrete so that they can be measured or manipulated within the experiment.
conditions
Combination of all the levels of all of the independent variables.
internal
Which type of validity are you considering when you assess whether change in the DV comes from manipulating the IV or whether it comes from something else?
test-retest, inter-rater, internal consistency
Three types of reliability that can be measured.
demand characteristics
Potential problems for levels of IV and DV: 1) _______. 2) experimenter bias, 3) reactivity, 4) floor and ceiling effects.
comparison
Each independent variable must have at least two levels because the point of an experiment is _______.
indirect observation
Three broad methods of measuring the dependent variable: 1) self report, 2) direct observation, 3) _______.
internal consistency
Type of reliability in which you measure using multiple items that testing the same construct and compare how well the scores correlate with each other. This is measured using Cronbach's alpha or using split half reliability
experimenter bias, regression to the mean
Seven threats to internal validity: 1) history, 2) maturation, 3) non-random selection, 4) mortality, 5) Hawthorne effect on testing, 6) _______, 7) _______.
external
Which type of validity are you considering when you assess whether the variables, subjects, and setting are representative of settings outside the lab.
reactivity
Term for the effect on an experiment when participants know that they are being measured and don't always respond the way they normally would.
non-random selection, mortality, Hawthorne effect on testing
Seven threats to internal validity: 1) history, 2) maturation, 3) ______, 4) ______, 5) ______, 6) experimenter bias, 7) regression to the mean.
stimulus, instructional
Two types of straightforward manipulation of the independent variable.
reactivity
Potential problems for levels of IV and DV: 1) demand characteristics 2) experimenter bias, 3) _______., 4) floor and ceiling effects.
nominal
Which scale of measurement does not make any quantitative distinctions between observations and consists of sets of categories that have different names
validity
When you are assessing whether your measure is actually measuring what you intended, what are you assessing about that measure?
validity
If you are wondering whether your measure really measure the construct, or if there is bias in the measurement, what are you questioning about your measure?
nominal, ordinal
Which are the two categorical types of scales of measurement?
experimenter bias (expectancy effect)
Potential problems for levels of IV and DV: 1) demand characteristics 2) _______., 3) reactivity, 4) floor and ceiling effects.
self report
What sort of method of measurement is a rating scale: self report, direct observation or indirect observation?
obvious manipulation
Three causes of demand characteristics: 1) experiment title, 2) ________, 3) biased or leading questions.
cost and resource limitations
Choosing the right levels of your independent variable: 1) lit review, 2) pilot experiment, 3) _______, 4) real world levels, 5) large enough range to show effects, 6) aim for mid-range.
constants
Type of variables that have the same value for all individuals in an experiment.
aim for mid-range
Choosing the right levels of your independent variable: 1) lit review, 2) pilot experiment, 3) cost and resource limitations, 4) real world levels, 5) large enough range to show effects, 6) _______.
introspection
Method of measuring the dependent variable in which specially trained observers of their own thought processes. This method fell out of favor in early 1900's.
external validity
Do the research results generalize to other individuals, methods, or settings? is a question of ________.
ratio
Which of the two quantitative scales of measurement has ratios of magnitudes that ARE meaningful?
subject (participant)
Type of manipulation used in quasi-experiments based on are (pre-existing mostly) differences between the subjects in the different conditions.
straight forward, staged, subject (participant)
What are the three methods of manipulating the independent variable?
biased or leading questions
Three causes of demand characteristics: 1) experiment title, 2) obvious manipulation, 3) ________.
floor and ceiling effects
Potential problems for levels of IV and DV: 1) demand characteristics 2) experimenter bias, 3) reactivity, 4) _______..
factor
Another name for the independent variable, what it is often called in the analysis phase.
interval
Which of the two quantitative scales of measurement has ratios of magnitudes that are NOT meaningful?
direct observation
Three broad methods of measuring the dependent variable: 1) self report, 2) _______, 3) indirect observation.
test-retest
Technique of measuring reliability in which you take Measurement from the same person at two different times and expect the same answer across the two different administrations.
blind
Method of avoiding expectancy problems in an experiment.
confounded
We want to be sure that random variables are not ___________with our manipulated variables.
spread variability equally
Random variables may freely vary, to _______ ________ _________ across all experimental conditions?
conceptual
Type of variable (constructs) in the experiment that are abstract theoretical entities (not operationalized).
experiment title
Three causes of demand characteristics: 1) ________, 2) obvious manipulation, 3) biased or leading questions.
control, random
What are two types of extraneous variables (if you consider confound not to be extraneous)?
self report
What sort of method of measurement is introspection: self report, direct observation or indirect observation?
real world levels
Choosing the right levels of your independent variable: 1) lit review, 2) pilot experiment, 3) cost and resource limitations, 4) _______, 5) large enough range to show effects, 6) aim for mid-range.
pilot experiment
Choosing the right levels of your independent variable: 1) lit review, 2) _______, 3) cost and resource limitations, 4) real world levels, 5) large enough range to show effects, 6) aim for mid-range.
event manipulation
Type of staged manipulation in which the experimenter manipulates characteristics of the context, setting, etc.
inter-rater
Technique of measuring reliability in which least two research assistants observe behavior and determine the extent to which they agree in their observations.
random
Which type of variables may freely vary, to spread variability equally across all experimental conditions?
variables
Elements of an experiment that have potentially different values for each individual in the experiment.
ceiling effect
A potential problem with a badly chosen IV level where the dependent variable reaches a level that cannot be exceeded .
instructional
Type of straightforward manipulation of an independent variable in which different groups are given different instructions.
indirect observation
What sort of method of measurement is a physiological measure (e.g. GSR, heart rate): self report, direct observation or indirect observation?
reliable
Would you consider a measure reliable or valid if you measure the same thing twice (or have two measures of the same thing) and you get the same values?
direct observation
What sort of method of measurement is a choice or decision: self report, direct observation or indirect observation?
demand characteristics
Characteristics of the study that may give away the purpose of the experiment, and influence how participants behave
ratio
Which scale of measurement has an absolute zero point?
confound, control, random
Three types of extraneous variables in an experiment.
excessive random variability
We hold variables constant in an experiment to control for ___________.
explanatory
What would an independent variable be called in a correlational design?
face
Which type of validity are you considering when you assess whether, at the surface level, it looks as if the measure is testing the construct
randomization
A procedures that assure that each level of an extraneous variable has an equal chance of occurring in all conditions of observation.
nominal, ordinal
Which are the two categorical types of scales of measurement?
lit review
Choosing the right levels of your independent variable: 1) _______, 2) pilot experiment, 3) cost and resource limitations, 4) real world levels, 5) large enough range to show effects, 6) aim for mid-range.
floor effect
A value below which a response cannot be made; a potential problem with badly chosen IV levels.
response
What would a dependent variable be called in a correlational design?
confound
Variables that haven't been accounted for (manipulated, measured, randomized, controlled) that can impact changes in the dependent variable(s).
variable representativeness
Three main factors determining external validity: 1) _________, 2) subject representativeness, 3) setting representativeness.
indirect observation
What sort of method of measurement is a behavioral measure (e.g. speed, accuracy): self report, direct observation or indirect observation?
assumptions
Be aware of the underlying _________connecting your constructs to your operational variables.
ordinal
Which scale of measurement has rank observations ordered in terms of size or magnitude?
stimulus
Type of straightforward manipulation of an independent variable in which different conditions use different stimuli.
subject representativeness
Three main factors determining external validity: 1) variable representativeness, 2) _________, 3) setting representativeness.
self report
Three broad methods of measuring the dependent variable: 1) _______, 2) direct observation, 3) indirect observation.
reliability
"Consistency" refers to what characteristic of a measure?.. in other words, what is another word for consistency?
history, maturation,
Seven threats to internal validity: 1) ______, 2) ______, 3) selection (non random), 4) mortality, 5) Hawthorne effect on testing, 6) experimenter bias, 7) regression to the mean.