A Level Tudor History Edexcel: Gaining the Co-Operation of the Localities

Terms in this set (27)

• MP gentry controlled by nobility and monarch, part of patronage (Crown extending control over localities), imp monarch ensured obedience to Crown
• Most powerful able to control elections e.g. Henry VIII, Duke of Norfolk able to ensure clients elected in Castle Rising and Reigate (Sussex), 1584 Earl of Leicester ensured candidate election in Dorset and Staffordshire
• Boroughs able to ensure interests looked after e.g. 1553 Earl of Ruland nominates own cand as Lincoln MP
• Nobility ability to place clients in pos of influence measure of own pwr, lose loyalty and supp if unable to do so
• Amb gentry and noble patrons keen to find opp to extent pwr/influ, Crown encourages this e.g. Newton on the Isle of Wight created 1584 result of Sir George Carey, as Eliza's cousin trusted to ensure election of suitable MPs
• New boroughs controlled by Crown e.g. Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster
• Grampound and Camelford, 1547, in Duchy of Cornwall
• Preston, Thetford, 1529, and Liverpool, 1545, made in Duchy of Lancaster
• Crown used these to place own candidates in parl, loyal and exp servants of monarch e.g. Sir Christopher Hatton elected as MP for Higham Ferrers for 1571 parl
• Growth of borough rep was result of, and increasing challenge to, extension of royal pwr in localities, Crown encouraged creation of new seats (kept nob and gentry happy, increased manipulation of elections) but also increased number of MPs as parl grew in conf making harder to control parl debates (new methods to manage)
• Eliza changes attitudes towards poor
• 1563 - Act for Relief of the Poor made poor relief payments to parishes almost compulsory → Collector of alms appointed, refusal to contribute = imprisonment
• Choose how much they contribute
• 1572 Poor Law increased beggar punishment, harder to get license (signed by 2 JPs) but recog that there isn't enough work for able-bodied, encouraged parishes w/extra funds to build houses of correction for vagrants
• Expect that parishes wld make contributions to help poor, stability in 70s and 80s meant no further laws req → Large towns e.g. Norwich and York set up contributions to poor relief
• Severe hardship 1594-98 results in crop failures, famine, wage fall, price increase, staple foods unaffordable, plague outbreaks
• 1596 food riots Lnd, SE and SW, Privy Council fears camping rebellions forming → Oxfordshire attempted rising vs Lord Lieutenatn, failure but unrest leads to 1598 Poor Law
• Overseer of poor in each parish assesses how much relief needed, collects and distributes, supervised by JP(who can riase added comp contrib)
• 1598 Vagabond Act ordered most dangerous vagrants banished/queen galley's
• Act for the Relief of Soldiers and Mariners provided pensions for former wounded soldiers
• Acts for building hospitals and houses of correction
• National system of relief for the poor now in place, first act to make relief contributions comp, and local provision bought inot line by central govt → lasted until 1834
• Saw nobility as companions, generous w/grants
• Chamber becomes increasingly politicised, men serving in humble pos e.g. Groom of the Stool, friends with unrivalled opp to influence king informally
• Sir William Compton, Gentleman of Chamber and Groom of Stool, raised income from £10 to £1700by acq grants of royal lands and offices
• Charles Brandon, grew up with VIII, made Duke of Suffolk and granted estates in East Anglia, married Hen's sis w/o permission due to high favour → 1536 ordered to give up lands, granted estates in Lincolnshire instead which was w/o active nobility, allowing more control and reassertion of royal pwr in region
• Role of nobility changed as access to King/chief ministers needed for more pwr/influence, group of men who owed pos to influence at Court not landed estates
• William Paget (became Baron) and Thomas Wriothesley (became Earl of Southampton) rose due to legal expertise, civil servants, dplomats and courtiers, both used pos to acq landed estates on basis of personal relation w/Henry
• Pwr of trad nobility undermined by hen attacks on those he distrusted e.g. Duke of Buckingham executed for treason in 1521, gain control of their estates, increasing Crow estates
• Growth of royal estates allowed patronage manipulation to control localities e.g. 1535 - 46 increasing executions, land forfeits and monas dissolutions, increased income → nobility shared of land income rose from 8 to 9% whilst that of the Crown rose from 9 to 27%
• Temporary change only as monastic estates late sold, though this helped royal pos, created group of gentry and nobility w/interest n supp break w/Rome
• E.g. rise of Russel family, Sir John Ruseel, Gentlemen of Bedchamber, granted offices in SW, replaced key noble Courtenay, made Baron, granted fromer abbey Tavistock estates, Edward makes him Earl of Bedford
• Complex system to tie centre and localities together → nobility were courtiers and politicians active locally and in central govt
• Led by William Cecil, key noblemen served as councillors, MPs, Lord Lieutenants and JPs, drawing pwr and influence form close relation w/Eliza
• Unmarried Eliza played faves through flirtationships e.g. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, was potential husband (despite bing married), personal access to her presence, Master of the Horse, member of royal Household, 1562 Privy councillor, landowner w/estates in Midlands and Wales, received gen grants for Kenilworth Castle and control of Chester
• Eliza careful to keep distribution of patronage in her hands, Cecil and Dudley's ability to develop own networks of pat based on their access to her and maintain trust → Distributed pat equally between the rivals maintained pol stability
• Continuing extension of royal power in localities req to ensure stability in areas of diff control e.g. North
• Those w/Cath sympathies e.g. Earl of Northumberland couldn't be trusted to be loyal, Eliza impose southern outsiders on North to tackle this e.g. Henry Carey, Lord Hunsdon, who had no lands in North but was trustworthy
• Southern Earl of Bedford made Warden of East March → created resentment (Northern Earl Rebellion 1569) tho this allowed Eliza to remove power of trad north nobility for good
• Council of North reformed w/Puritan Huntingdon in charge who enforced crack down on Cath, North was controlled, Prot enforced
• 1590s pat starts to break down as loss of govt control occurs → trusted councillors e.g. Dudley and Walsingham dead, Cecil ageing
• Robert Cecil and Robert Devereux (Dudley step son, Earl of Essex) rise up in their places, Will Cecil used pos to advance son → 1591 Cecil part of Privy Council, position of Secretary left vacant 1590-96 until its given to Cecil
• Essex given monopoly on sweet wines 1588, appointed to Council 1593, Lord Lieut, always remained reliant on queen for pwr and influence, didn't have resources to build following in localities
• Cecil however able to build up power due to father's multiple pos, and Cecil as Secretary
• Feb 1601 Essex a d 140 supp plan rebellion to capture court and Queen, failed, executed, leaving Cecil to dominate Court
• Essex's reb showed that mismanaged patronage could result in instability, tho his lil supp shows loyalty generated in Eliza's time and role of nobility (reliant on Crown for Court)
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