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A Level Tudor History Edexcel: Gaining the Co-Operation of the Localities

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Government of Wales under Henry VII and Henry VIII
• Hardest to control regions were areas that bordered on Wales and Scotland
• Middle Ages; marcher regions developed own laws and customs, first line of defence
• Nobility controlling such areas gained legal and military power, quasi-kings in dominance of region → These trad pwrs begin to brk dwn as ryl cntrl extended
• Late 15th century Wales conquered by England, no longer threat → Still govt and marcher regions remained out of step with Eng govt (Hertforshire)
• Welsh law allowed for each local lord to maintain own pwrs and control, crimes committed in one area could escape into another lordship, law allowed for blood feuds (vengeance for death of one)
• Control of such areas necessary to ensure that nobility didn't build own power bases to challenge monarchy
• Attempted to secure control of Wales using council of Wales and the Marches, based in Ludlow Castle, headed by royal fam, royal power reinforced in 1501 when Henry VII's heir, Arthur, sent to Wales as Prince creating perm presence (dies 1502)
• Henry VIII sends daughter Mary in same way, though returns to London 1528
The Government of the North 1485 - 1537
• North was geographically remote, poor communications and under threat of Scottish invasion
• Northern marches split into Western, Middle and Eastern controlled by wardens resp for defence and keeping order, control of militarised zones diff
• Henry VII pos as usurper made him vul to invasions form rivals basing themselves over Scottish border, esp as much of North was Rich supporter
• With tax revolt of 1489 in Yorkshire and murder of Henry Percy, Thomas Howard made Lieutenant of North as rep of King Post removed 1499, pwr reverted to trad northern nobility as wardens of Marches
• Henry VIII, Dacre, Clifford, Percy earls of Northumberland and Neville earls of Westmorland involved in complex feuds, couldn't keep peace
• Lord Dacre fined £1000 in Star Chamber for tolerance of Northern disorder
• Men needed to prov line of defence vs Scotland
• Attempt to revive Council of North 1525, Henry Fitsroy, ilegit son of King, made pres of Cou, dies 1536
• Not till Pilg of Grace 1536 when royal intervention in govt of North became more direct and perm
Law in Wales Act 1535
• Response to lawlessness & lim of royal auth in Wales and marches, Cromwell begins changes 1534
• Appoints Rowland Lee as Lord Pres of Council of Wales, power to tackle crime and disorder in region
• 1535 first Law in Wales Act (Act of Union) intro, passed 1536:
- Principality of Wales and marcher lordships abolished, replaced w/12 Eng style counties
- Eng-style local govt w/sheriffs, coroners and Justices of Peace
- Banned use of Welsh in courts
- Each county allocated 2 MPs sit in Eng parl
- End of trad milit pwr of marcher lords
Law in Wales Act 1542
• Cromwell executed 1540, his wrk of extending royal control continues
• New Act intro system of Eng law into Wales, end to trad Wales system and blood feuds
• News law courts intro called courts of great session, sessions held in each country 2 times p/yr, tried crim cases, no right of appeal
• Reorganised Council of the Marches, known as Council of Wales becomes formal body w/Pres and vice appo by monarch, stronger due to auth of king and parl → Right to hear legal cases like Eng Star Chamber, oversee law and order in Wales and Marcher counties
• Eliza's reign, Marcher Council included Lord Lieutenants, lil trouble from the region during Tudor period
Re-establishment of the Council of the North 1537
• Henry unable to control North → Oct 1536 reb in Lincolnshire, spreads North leads to remodel of Council 1537
• Decide cases of treason, murder and felony, became voice of govt in London, enforcing royal proclamations, oversaw food supp, reg trade, org local musters for milt, priv cases of indivd.
• Extended authority so governed Yorkshire, Durham, Northumberland, Westmorland and Cumberland → Henry VIII signals Council status through perm base in York
• Pres either bishop or nobility from South/Midlands e.g. 1538 -14 Holgate Bishop of Llandaff (Wales) → No vested interest in decision making, impartial during disputes
• Rest of Council local
• Developed as body that would oversee admin of North, control border raids and manage order e.g. court hearings
• Signals long term decline in pwr of trad northern lords e.g. Dacres, Percies and Nevilles, continue to play imp milt role during war with Scot, pwrs decline after 1560s
• Eliza attempt to intro more Southerns into Council, increase resentment, contrib to rebellion 1569 becomes resp for combating recusancy
• 1572 Puritan Henry Hastings, Earl of Hungtindon, made president, more stable, less rel challenge, pwr of trad noble fam eroded
What were boroughs?
• Boroughs, sep to constituencies, towns that sent 2 MPs granted by royal charter
• End of Eliza's reign 191 boroughs had right
• HoC grew from 296 to 462, HoL decrease 1536-40 due to dissolution of monasteries (abbots no longer summoned)
• Edward VI created 34 new borough MPs, Mary 25 and 62 by Eliza
• 'Rotten' boroughs where population dwindled e.g. Dunwich, used due to growing comp 4 parl places
Why did borough representation grow in the Tudor period?
• Pressure from townsmen to ensure interests of community promoted through petitions and new law e.g. Edward VI reign, York town council keen for laws preventing chopping of woodland 25 km of city, continuous in this correspondence
• MPs tended to be landed gentry, didn't live in rep area e.g. Refo Parl (1529 - 36), ½ borough MPs townsmen, ½ gentry, 1559 23% townsmen, 1601 14%
• Cost £70 to fund 1 MP, wealthier towns e.g. York/Bristol/Worcester could afford this, smaller boroughs looked to wealthy gentry/nobility to cover costs and they or client sit as MP e.g. Dunwich annual income £50 p annum, 1559 Sir Edmund Rose MP, covers own expenses and able to pursue own interests in London
• Gentry become MP due to increased opp in London prov, centre for patronage, attracting royal attention and build career
Use of patronage by Crown and Nobility
• MP gentry controlled by nobility and monarch, part of patronage (Crown extending control over localities), imp monarch ensured obedience to Crown
• Most powerful able to control elections e.g. Henry VIII, Duke of Norfolk able to ensure clients elected in Castle Rising and Reigate (Sussex), 1584 Earl of Leicester ensured candidate election in Dorset and Staffordshire
• Boroughs able to ensure interests looked after e.g. 1553 Earl of Ruland nominates own cand as Lincoln MP
• Nobility ability to place clients in pos of influence measure of own pwr, lose loyalty and supp if unable to do so
• Amb gentry and noble patrons keen to find opp to extent pwr/influ, Crown encourages this e.g. Newton on the Isle of Wight created 1584 result of Sir George Carey, as Eliza's cousin trusted to ensure election of suitable MPs
• New boroughs controlled by Crown e.g. Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster
• Grampound and Camelford, 1547, in Duchy of Cornwall
• Preston, Thetford, 1529, and Liverpool, 1545, made in Duchy of Lancaster
• Crown used these to place own candidates in parl, loyal and exp servants of monarch e.g. Sir Christopher Hatton elected as MP for Higham Ferrers for 1571 parl
• Growth of borough rep was result of, and increasing challenge to, extension of royal pwr in localities, Crown encouraged creation of new seats (kept nob and gentry happy, increased manipulation of elections) but also increased number of MPs as parl grew in conf making harder to control parl debates (new methods to manage)
Impact of Increasing Literacy in the Yeoman Class
• Role of education for all emphasised → grammar skls for boys & home skl for wealthy girls
• Pub gram skls, no fee, open to rich/poor, taught reading, writing, English/Latin gram
• 'English' skl taught reading, writing and Eng gram
• Uni student # increased 1150 in Oxford 1550, 2000 1601 Only ½ gentry/nobility sons, rest came from yeomen/artisan status
• Rates measured by # who signed own name in Church court records
• Men illiteracy rates 80-72% 1550-1600, 98-92% for F
• 1530 illiteracy rates in yeomen higher in North England vs Midlands, East and South
• Increasing edu opp, more yeomen literate, tho labourers and poorest had lil change
• Diocess of Essex/Hertfordshire only 33% yeomen using mark to sign docu (not sign), Durham 73% (1561-1631)
• Early rebellions e.g. Cornish Rising of 1497 and 1549 led by high status yeomen, formulated demands and spokesmen
• Govt extension into localities increased yeomen opp to take part in loc govt, those prosperous and literate took roles such as admin of Poor Law and election voting
• Now more likely to use legal system to solve disputes and less likely to be involved in rebellion esp during Eliza's reign
• Riots and attempted rising in Oxfordshire 1596, led by poorest in society, not yeomen as they were now part of Elizabethan system of govt
How did justice work in the localities?
• Main central court was Court of King's Bench, pros cases on behalf of king and his laws
• Judges from cen court went on tours of loc to monitor local processes and hear cases in the assize courts
• Local officials (Justices of the Peace, memb of nobility and gentry) played role in keeping law and order
• JPs appointed annually for each county, could hear and decide on cases of felony and trespass, arrest suspects, supervised fixing of prices and wages, attend sessions 4x a yr to perform their role
• Ability to influence local affairs, monarch tried to monitor who became JP and used country bench to insert memb of Court into local govt to enhance control
• Didn't have to be resident in county to become JP, only qualification required was ownership of land worth at least £20 p/yr
• Some appointed formed 'quorum' all of whom were lawyers and had to be present at meetings
• Expected to administer Poor Law, control vagrants
What was the role of JPs under Henry VII?
• Henry VII began extension of powers and role of JPs
• Vulnerability as usurper meant he largely appointed trusted memb of his Court to be JPs e.g. Sir Thomas Lovell JP in Yorkshire and Sussex, not expected to be active at every session, link between centre and localities, rep of King
• Act of Parliament 1495 allowed JPs to; act on info about sus w/o jury, replace corrupt jurors, inquire into illegal retaining (army recruitment by nobility in times of peace), examine complaints of corruption vs other local officials e.g. sheriffs
Role of JPs under Henry VIII
• Beginning of Henry VIII's reign, county benches 20-35 memb, appointment for life unless susp of not following govt orders/misusing pos
• Wolsey keen to improve local justice and quality of JPs, 1526, summoned to hear speech, fill in 21 sec questionnaire on law and order in their regions
• Cromwell careful to check who was appointed as JP, to ensure enforcement of Supremacy and Reformation
Development of role of JPs in late Tudor period
• Social and eco crisis of 1540s and rebellions led to fears of social disorder 1552 Act of Parliament alehouses must be licensed by JPs
• Enforced Edward's rel changes, 1549 take inventory of parish goods to expose and prosecute thefts, 1552 enforce Second Prayer Book etc
• Avg size of county bench grew from 25 under Wolsey to 40-50 Under Elizabeth
• 1603 # of JPs p/county ranged from 40-90 as local gentry realised it was a key social/pol advancement
• Cecil reliant on reports of royal judges who only visited counties twice a year to monitor bench membership
• Lim govt intervention led to corruption tho royal control over benches strengthened by leading councillor appointment and Lord Lieutenants (1585)
• Not permanently present in every locality, leads to deputy Lieutenant formation
• Outbreak of war 1585 leads to resp of recruiting men to fight
• 1603; 309 AoP placing respo on JPs
• 1580s Eliza JPs had acquired pwrs to deal w/new felonies intro by govt e.g. riots, damage to prop, witchcraft and recusancy, deal w/minor offences (crop damage, drunkeness and heiress abduction)
Tasked w/assessment and collection of parl subsidy
How effectively was the monarch financed?
• Supp to be fin independent
• Ordinary Revenue; came from royal lands and mon status as landlord, come from rents/sale of lands
• Extraordinary Revenue; taxation granted by parl for monarch's special needs e.g. war
• Tension between Crown income and expenditure
• Henry VII spent £100,000 on building Hamptons Court and Whitehall, Royal Household in the 1550s costing £75,000 p/yr
• Poorer regions e.g. West and North, diff to meet Crown's demands esp in times of soc and eco hardship, revolts of 1489 and 1497 under Henry VII due to taxation resentment, PoG too
Taxation before 1513
• Fifteenths and tenths, based on property
• Pay taxation equivalent to tenth of value of movables, countryside expected to pay one fifteenth of goods value
• Expected to yield £29,500
• System removed the need for new assessments of community income, no account of population, soc/eco changes and fixed rate meant price inflation not taken into account
• Doesn't meet expenditure needs whilst poor paid more than the wealthy
1513 Subsidy
• Foreign war v costly 1509-1520 spent £1 mill snf only received £25,000 p/yr
• Wolsey:
- Subsidy flexible, each asses on income from diff sources of wealth (land, wages etc)
- Assessed by ability to pay, pay tax on that which they are wealthiest in, poor pay less than gentry
- Sep assessment for nobility, higher rank, more tax
- Local officials (JPs who were monitored by national commissioners) assess under oath what each person's wealth was
- Reduced the amount of resentment caused by fifteenths and tenths as wealthier contributed more than poor to tax
• Repeated 1514, 1515 and 1523 - between 1513-23 £322,099 raised vs 1512-17 only £117,936
• Cromwell developed this, 1534 asked govt for subsidy to fund govt in PEACETIME, unprecedented, justified by saying ppl should be loyal to Henry who had ruled 25 yrs
• Peacetime subsidies 1540, 1543, 1553 and 1555
Was the 1513 subsidy effective long term?
• Subsidies yielded £140,000, amount unsustained, by end of Eliza's reign yielded £80,000
• Influential in developing new methods of tax, efficacy in raising royal income unsustainable
• Demands of war meant Wolsey struggled to raise income 1512 -1519
• 1523 parl refused grant £80,000 taxation, forced to negot lesser sum
• 1525 tries to raise non-parliamentary tax (Amicable Grant) provoking mass resistance in East Anglia, 10,00 gather in Suffolk, forced to cancel Grant, not subsidy
• Eliza allows assessments to stagnate, permits rates to be fixed Those paying tax on land pay 4 shillings per pound whilst those on goods req to pay 2 shillings eight pence per pound, govt income fell in real terms
• 1563, taxpayer own assessment of wealth taken w/o oath, most lie e.g. William Ceci paid £4000 p/yr, says income is just £133
• Tax records not updated; didn't take account of new ones or those who died e.g. Suffolk 1523 17,000 assessed 1566 only 7,700
• Eliza did nada; instead in 1601 granted 4 subsidies and eitgh fifteenths and tenths
Growth of poverty
• Poverty, unemployment and vagabondage increasing prob
• Decline in pop e.g. 1525 2.6 mill, 1551 3.01 mil 1601 4.1 mill Rising prices and falling wages
• More demand = higher prices → Govt couldn't always ensure everyone was fed
• Harvests affected by bad weather reduced crop yield = dearth 1519,1527, 1549, 1554 and 1586 grain became scarce, prices high
• Monastery dissolution worsened spread of pov as they were trad source of support and alms for poor = unemployment rose, more in poverty
• Increased vagrancy and begging → Assumption jobs available unemployed too 'lazy', authorities used punishment → Vagrants made to return to own parishes to seek help to reduce wandering
• Lack of master was threat to social hierarchy and order, those wandering could be arrested on this basis alone
Social and Economic legislation before 1563
• 1495 Henry VII passed law ordering beggars and idle poor to be put in stocks for 3 days, whipped, returned to orig parish → Poor relief based on voluntary contributions by wealthier parishioners
• 1531 Poor Law ordered whipping of vagrants, impotent poor licensed by JPs, allowed to beg
• 1547 Vagrancy Act defines vagrant as one w/o master 3 days able-bodied, first offence = V branding work as slave 2 yrs for person informed on them
• Too harsh to enforce, repealed 1550, replaced 1552 Poor Law required impotent poor to register, parish priests and bishops place more pressure for voluntary contributions
• Attempt to reg wages and prices → Acts 1547 and 1555 to reg cloth-making in East Anglia and Worcester
• 1536 Cromwell intro Act ; local officials must find work for beggars, organise collections for impotent poor → Too radical, not renewed, paved further govt attempt at reg
• 1540s, 50s food prices rise, govt try encourage and control food prod
• 1548-49 laws passed vs prices and wage fixing; 1554 Act forbade export of corn when prices above a certain level
Statute of Artificers 1563
• Poor weather = bad harvest 1554 - 56 → Influenza epidemic 1555 and 1559 combination led to decline in pop
• Lack of available food led to higher prices, affected poor peasants and urban poor as they prod just enough food to survival
• Decline in pop = pushing up wages, those surviving w/skills demanded higher pay, reducing employer profit and forcing rise in prices
• Statue of Artificers first attempt by cent govt to address diff problems, holistically, placed imp of resp on JPs
- Unmarried men must work, accept any jobs offered
- Harvest; JPs force all able bodied men to bring in crops, refusal gets 2 days in stocks
- 12 - 60 yrs must work on land (except Gentry, heir to lands worth £10 or goods £40, already employed in skilled craft, mine/metal/glass indus or educ)
- Wages assessed and set by JP
- Wrking hrs 5am-8pm summer, dawn to dusk winter, absence find 1d p/hr
- Apprenticeship set at 7 yrs, comp for skilled occup
How significant was the 1563 Statute?
• Lasted entire Tudor period, placed more imp on JPs role
• Enhanced importance of apprenticeships, protecting status of skilled craftsmen e.g. thatcher, goldsmith etc
• Emphasised need for everyone to have master and food prod as essential job for those of lower rank
• Backward looking; govt trying to control wage increases and social structures since 14th century
• Response to wage cap attempts e.g. London and York corp tried to stop builder wages rising 1551-52 Socio and eco crisis encouraged more local auth to cap wages 1560-62
• 1563 statue as cent govt response to concerns about social order form localities
• Furtheer Acts needed to deal w/poverty and vagabondage 1572,76 and 98 Poor Law
• JP determination to cap wages meant tho assessments published, there were lil changes over years e.g. Kent didn't change 1563-88
• Social and eco harships of 1590s forced JPs to increased wages
• Unsuccessful at preventing unemployment and vagrancy, due to assumption of work for everyone avail e.g. cloth workers employment chances decreased due to lack of euro cloth xports w/Spain war 1585
• Poor harvest and diseased forced many to move on to find work
Act for the Relief of the Poor 1598
• Eliza changes attitudes towards poor
• 1563 - Act for Relief of the Poor made poor relief payments to parishes almost compulsory → Collector of alms appointed, refusal to contribute = imprisonment
• Choose how much they contribute
• 1572 Poor Law increased beggar punishment, harder to get license (signed by 2 JPs) but recog that there isn't enough work for able-bodied, encouraged parishes w/extra funds to build houses of correction for vagrants
• Expect that parishes wld make contributions to help poor, stability in 70s and 80s meant no further laws req → Large towns e.g. Norwich and York set up contributions to poor relief
• Severe hardship 1594-98 results in crop failures, famine, wage fall, price increase, staple foods unaffordable, plague outbreaks
• 1596 food riots Lnd, SE and SW, Privy Council fears camping rebellions forming → Oxfordshire attempted rising vs Lord Lieutenatn, failure but unrest leads to 1598 Poor Law
• Overseer of poor in each parish assesses how much relief needed, collects and distributes, supervised by JP(who can riase added comp contrib)
• 1598 Vagabond Act ordered most dangerous vagrants banished/queen galley's
• Act for the Relief of Soldiers and Mariners provided pensions for former wounded soldiers
• Acts for building hospitals and houses of correction
• National system of relief for the poor now in place, first act to make relief contributions comp, and local provision bought inot line by central govt → lasted until 1834
Relationship between Henry VII and Nobility
• Reluctant to give many rewards, trusted small group of nobility, gentry and lawyers e.g. Jasper Tudor, uncle, controlled Wales and Marches, prom from Earl of Pembroke to Duke of Bedford Dies childless 1495, Hen doesn't replace, lets title lapse, lands and possessions return to Crown
• Sir Regincal Bray rewarded, uses pos to build land, power and influence, royal councillor and Chancellor of the Ducky of Lancaster, acq land in 18 counties income of £1000 p.yr → All due to Hen trust
• Sir Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, fought vs Hen in Bosworth, imprisoned, refusal to join 1487 rebellion led to release and restored earl title, though not father's title of Duke of Norfolk
• Unprepared to restore lands and titles to Surrey, only 1499 does he allow him to control region of estates (east Anglia), sent to North where he had no connections w/loc gentry only when trust gained could he return to trad estates, only regains title of Duke 1513
• Hen so reluctant to prom pwr of nobi, # of rep of noble families dropped from 55 to 42
• Successful, no rebellion after 1497
Development of Patronage under Henry VIII
• Saw nobility as companions, generous w/grants
• Chamber becomes increasingly politicised, men serving in humble pos e.g. Groom of the Stool, friends with unrivalled opp to influence king informally
• Sir William Compton, Gentleman of Chamber and Groom of Stool, raised income from £10 to £1700by acq grants of royal lands and offices
• Charles Brandon, grew up with VIII, made Duke of Suffolk and granted estates in East Anglia, married Hen's sis w/o permission due to high favour → 1536 ordered to give up lands, granted estates in Lincolnshire instead which was w/o active nobility, allowing more control and reassertion of royal pwr in region
• Role of nobility changed as access to King/chief ministers needed for more pwr/influence, group of men who owed pos to influence at Court not landed estates
• William Paget (became Baron) and Thomas Wriothesley (became Earl of Southampton) rose due to legal expertise, civil servants, dplomats and courtiers, both used pos to acq landed estates on basis of personal relation w/Henry
• Pwr of trad nobility undermined by hen attacks on those he distrusted e.g. Duke of Buckingham executed for treason in 1521, gain control of their estates, increasing Crow estates
• Growth of royal estates allowed patronage manipulation to control localities e.g. 1535 - 46 increasing executions, land forfeits and monas dissolutions, increased income → nobility shared of land income rose from 8 to 9% whilst that of the Crown rose from 9 to 27%
• Temporary change only as monastic estates late sold, though this helped royal pos, created group of gentry and nobility w/interest n supp break w/Rome
• E.g. rise of Russel family, Sir John Ruseel, Gentlemen of Bedchamber, granted offices in SW, replaced key noble Courtenay, made Baron, granted fromer abbey Tavistock estates, Edward makes him Earl of Bedford
Problems created by Henry VIII's use of patronage
• Relied on strong, active monarch promoting reliable, loyal men → Weak monarch easily manipulated for gain of nobility
• Patronage could lead to jealousy and poltical instability
• Under Hen there were increased tensions between factions wanting to influence policy e.g. Seymour, Earl of Hertford (reformer) vs Duke of Norfolk (conservative) each tried to gain patronage for own followers, resulting in various plots tho Seymour's faction won
• Manipulated royal will as Hen was dying, he had wanted regency council to rule whilst son was minor, Seymour overrode this, made himself Lord Protector and Duke of Somerset, rewards own supp e.g. Dudley made Earl of Warwick
• Hens patronage created nobility who were too powerful and able to further own career at expense of royal will
• 1549 Somerset overthrown after rebellion → Power rested too much on influence and pos at Court, w/o these pos was unsustained
• Replacement John Dudley found despite control of Edward and patronage unable to overturn royal succession 1553
• Patronage succeeded in creating loyalty to monarchy and weakening trad milt pwr of nob
Development of networks under Elizabeth I
• Complex system to tie centre and localities together → nobility were courtiers and politicians active locally and in central govt
• Led by William Cecil, key noblemen served as councillors, MPs, Lord Lieutenants and JPs, drawing pwr and influence form close relation w/Eliza
• Unmarried Eliza played faves through flirtationships e.g. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, was potential husband (despite bing married), personal access to her presence, Master of the Horse, member of royal Household, 1562 Privy councillor, landowner w/estates in Midlands and Wales, received gen grants for Kenilworth Castle and control of Chester
• Eliza careful to keep distribution of patronage in her hands, Cecil and Dudley's ability to develop own networks of pat based on their access to her and maintain trust → Distributed pat equally between the rivals maintained pol stability
• Continuing extension of royal power in localities req to ensure stability in areas of diff control e.g. North
• Those w/Cath sympathies e.g. Earl of Northumberland couldn't be trusted to be loyal, Eliza impose southern outsiders on North to tackle this e.g. Henry Carey, Lord Hunsdon, who had no lands in North but was trustworthy
• Southern Earl of Bedford made Warden of East March → created resentment (Northern Earl Rebellion 1569) tho this allowed Eliza to remove power of trad north nobility for good
• Council of North reformed w/Puritan Huntingdon in charge who enforced crack down on Cath, North was controlled, Prot enforced
• 1590s pat starts to break down as loss of govt control occurs → trusted councillors e.g. Dudley and Walsingham dead, Cecil ageing
• Robert Cecil and Robert Devereux (Dudley step son, Earl of Essex) rise up in their places, Will Cecil used pos to advance son → 1591 Cecil part of Privy Council, position of Secretary left vacant 1590-96 until its given to Cecil
• Essex given monopoly on sweet wines 1588, appointed to Council 1593, Lord Lieut, always remained reliant on queen for pwr and influence, didn't have resources to build following in localities
• Cecil however able to build up power due to father's multiple pos, and Cecil as Secretary
• Feb 1601 Essex a d 140 supp plan rebellion to capture court and Queen, failed, executed, leaving Cecil to dominate Court
• Essex's reb showed that mismanaged patronage could result in instability, tho his lil supp shows loyalty generated in Eliza's time and role of nobility (reliant on Crown for Court)
Royal Progresses
• Progress; monarch visits region as way of showing power and prestige, political unrest subdued by physical presence, reminding ppl of mil and legal pwr and sustain contact w/localities
• First year after Boswroth, Henry went Midlands North where he faced greatest challenges, when faced w/challenges 1487 and 97, marched at head of army to encourage obedience
• Henry VIII also used progresses, not as much as father, every summer, Richmond, Hampton Court, Essex, travelled w/Court of 1000 ppl
• 1535 visited Gloucestershire, Bristol Channel, Salisbury, Winchester and Southampton preventing rebellion in SW → North, neglected, serious rebellion occurs, demanding parl to eb held there, fixes this by visting in 1541 due to further unrest
• Edward VI and Mary I saw fewer progresses due to age and illness
• Elizabeth went nearly every year, desire to save money as nob and gentry paid to have her stay in their houses, mainly travelled SE and Midlands, longest prig in N was to Staffordshire and Lincolnshire, W to Bristol and Gloucestershire
• 1560 and 69 visited Hampshire 1572, Midlands 1572, East Anglia 1578 → Never ventured to furthest regions in country e.g. Yorkshire/Cornwall
• Used to strengthen bonds of trust and royal authority e.g. Dudley (23 times) vs Cecil (20 times)
• 200 prom memb of local govt acted as JPs, MPs or LL payed host, enhancing authority and relationship