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Final Exam (Not including chapters 26 or 28)
Terms in this set (98)
A political party that emerged out of the Farmers' Alliance; these frustrated farmers attacked Wall Street and the "money trust". They called for nationalizing the railroads, telephone, and telegraph; instituting a graduated income tax; and creating a new federal subtreasury. Most importantly, they wanted the free and unlimited coinage of silver and inflation.
the queen of the populists
A wealthy quarry owner with a score of supporters and a swarm of reporters
A strike by upset railroad workers because of the drastic wage cuts. The strike was led by socialist Eugene Debs but it was not supported by the American Federation of Labor. Eventually, President Grover Cleveland intervened and federal troops forced an end to the strike. The strike highlighted both divisions within labor and the government's new willingness to used armed force to combat work stoppages.
Fourth Party System
A scholars have used to describe national politics from 1896 to 1932, when Republicans had a tight grip on the White House and issues such as industrial regulation and labor concerns became paramount, replacing older concerns such as civil-service reform and monetary policy
Gold Standard Act
An act that guaranteed that paper currency would be redeemed freely in gold, putting an end to the already dying "free-silver"campaign
Big Sister Policy
James G. Blaine's policy aimed at rallying the Latin American nations behind Uncle Sam's leadership and opening Latin American markets to yankee traders.
After decades of occasionally "twisting the lion's tail", American diplomats began to cultivate close, cordial relations with Great Britain at the end of the 19th century- a relationship that would further intensify WWI
Shepherded through Congress by President William Mckinley, this tariff raised duties on Hawaiian sugar and set off renewed efforts to secure the annexation of Hawaii to the United States
Cuban insurgents who sought freedom from colonial Spanish rule. Their destructive tactics threatened American economic interests in Cuban plantations and railroads.
A boat in the Havana Harbor that mysteriously blew up with a loss of 260 sailors
A proviso to President William Mckinley's war plans that proclaimed to the world that when United States had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give Cuba its freedom. The amendment testified to the ostensibly "anti-imperialist" designs of the initial war plans
Colorful regiment of volunteers who were part of the invading army and who consisted largely of western cowboys. They were commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood
The Anti-Imperialist League
Organization created to fight the Mckinley administration's expansionist moves. They protested American colonial oversight in the Philippines. It included very prominent members, and declined after the Treaty of Paris.
Act sponsored by Senator Joseph B. Foraker, a republican from Ohio, which accorded Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular government. The first comprehensive congressional effort to provide for governance of territories acquired after the Spanish-American War, it served as a model for a similar act adopted for the Philippines in 1902.
Beginning in 1901, a badly divided Supreme Court decreed in these cases that the Constitution did not allow the flag. In other words, Puerto Ricans and Filipinos would not necessarily endure all American rights.
Amendment that the United States basically forced Cuba to pass that limited Cuba's treaty making abilities, controlled its debt, and stipulated that the United States could intervene militarily to restore order when it saw fit.
Open Door Note
A set of diplomatic letters in which Secretary of State John Hay urged the great powers to respect Chinese rights and free and open competition within their spears of influence. The notes established the "Open Door Policy" which sought to ensure access to the Chinese Market for the United States.
An uprising in China directed against foreign influence. It was suppressed by an international force of some 18000 soldiers, including several thousand Americans. This paved the way for the Revolution of 1911
Treaty signed between the United States and Great Britain giving Americans a free hand to build a canal in Central America. The treaty nullified the Clayton-Buller treaty of 1850.
Policy of preventive intervention. It stipulated that the United States would retain a right to intervene in the domestic affairs of Latin American nations in order to restore military and financial order.
Agreement which the United States and Japan agreed to respect each other's territorial possessions in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door in China. The agreement was credited with easing tensions between the two nations, but it also resulted in a weakened American influence over further Japanese hegemony in China.
Writer for the "yellow press" that described foreign exploits as manly adventures.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Captain who argued that control of the seas was the key to world dominance. He helped stimulate the naval race between nations.
James G. Blaine
Two time secretary who pushed the Big Sister Policy through Congress
Secretary of State for Grover Cleveland who provoked Britain for trying to mess with the Monroe Doctrine
Queen of Hawaii who insisted that Native Hawaiians should control the island. Not outsiders
Spanish general who aimed to crush the Cuban insurrection by forcing civilians into barbed-wire concentration camps so they could not aid the insurrectos
Dupuy de Lome
The Spanish minister in Washington, D.C.
Fought the Spaniards in a naval battle without losing a single American life which then led to him becoming an American Hero.
The Filipino insurgent commander who worked with Dewey
William H. Taft
An opinionated Chicago architect who greatly contributed to the development of the skyscraper. "Form follows function"
Fictional heroine in Theodore Driesler's novel "Sister Carrie" who escapes from rural boredom to Chicago just before the turn of the century
Human pigsties created by the inability of people to keep up with the ever growing population and cities
Immigrants in the 1880s who came from Southern and Eastern Europe: Italians, Croatians, Greeks, Polish, Slovaks, Jews
Prominent protestant who sought to apply Christianity to the slums and factories. In 1886, he became pastor of a German baptist church in New York City
A prominent protestant clergyman who sought to apply Christianity to the slums and factories in Cleveland, Ohio
Middle class woman dedicated to uplifting the urban masses; established Hull House
the first american settlement house created by Jane Addams
Mostly run by middle-class native-born women, settlement houses in immigrant neighborhoods provided housing, food, education, child care, cultural activities, and social connections for new arrivals to the United States. Many women developed lifelong passions for social activism in the settlement houses.
Leader of the lobby in 1893 for an Illinois anti-sweatshop law that protected women workers and prohibited childhood labors
Dwight Lynn Moody
A former shoe salesman who captivated audiences with his messages of forgiveness
Cardinal James Gibbens
An urban Catholic leader devoted to American unity. He employed his liberal sympathies to assist the American Labor movement
Mary Baker Eddy
Founder of the Church of Christian Scientist
Booker T. Washington
The foremost champion of black education who led the Tuskegee Institute. He taught black students useful trades so they could gain back self-respect and economic security
George Washington Carver
most notable student of the Tuskegee Institute in which he became famous for his inventions regarding the peanut
Colleges built on state provided public land grants which was mad possible through the Morrill Act of 1862 and extended by the Hatch Act of 1887
The concept that the truth of an idea was to be tested by its practical consequences
Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad Company vs. Illinois
The Supreme Court case in 1886 that decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce
Interstate Commerce Act
Act passed by Congress in 1887 which prohibited rebates and pools and required railroads to publish their rates openly. It also forbade unfair discrimination against shippers and outlawed charging more for a short haul than a long haul. It also set up the Interstate Commerce Commission to administer/enforce the new legislation.
Andrew Carnegie's creative entrepreneurial tactic of combining all aspects of manufacturing into one organization. The goal was to improve efficiency by making supplies more reliable, control the quality of the product at all stages of production, and eliminate the middle man fee.
The process of allying with competitors to monopolize a certain market. This was less justifiable than vertical integration, but Rockefeller was a master of this.
A mechanism by which one company grants control over its operations, through ownership of its stock, to another company. The Standard Oil Company became known for this practice in the 1870s as it eliminated its competition by taking control of the smaller oil companies.
Standard Oil Company
Rockefeller's Company, formed in 1870, which came to symbolize the trusts and monopolies of the Gilded Age. By 1877, Standard Oil Company controlled 95% of U.S. refineries. It was also one of the first multinational corporations and at times distributed more than half of its kerosene production outside the U.S. In 1911, due to its vast empire, the Supreme Court forced it to split into smaller companies.
Schemes for elimination "wasteful" competition in which Morgan consolidated rival enterprises and placed officers of his own banking syndicate onto their various boards or directors in order to ensure future relations. The depressions of the 1890s led to the ease of this task
Theorists who argued that individuals won their stations in life by competing on the basis of their natural talent. Wealthy people were just more talented than the poor people. This led to phrases such as "survival of the fittest". This theory was later used to explain why some nations had the right to dominate others. It was often defined by race.
Sherman Anti Trust Act
Act passed in 1890 that forbade combinations in restraint of trade, without any distinctions between good and bad trusts. Bigness, not badness, was the sin. This law was really ineffective because it had so many legal loopholes, but it was later successful in curbing labor unions or labor combinations that deemed to be restraining trade.
National Labor Union
Union organized in 1866 that represented a giant boot stride for workers. it was one of the earliest national-scale unions to organize in the U.S. It aimed to unify workers across local trades to challenge their bosses. it lasted 6 years and had 600,000 members. This union argued for the arbitration of industrial disputes and the 8 hour workday, winning the latter for government workers.
Knight of Labor
Organization that seized the torch dropped by the National Labor Union. It began as a secret society with many rituals and secrets. It ought to include all workers in one big union. "An injury to one is the concern to all". They disregarded politics and instead campaigned for economic and social reform.
The bloody episode in May 4, 1886 when Chicago Police advanced on a meeting of protestors who were protesting alleged police brutality. A dynamite bomb was thrown and dozens died. 5 people were sentenced to death as a result.
The American Federation of Labor
An association of self-governing national unions, each of which kept its independence, unifying overall strategies. No individual laborer could join the central organization. It included any skilled laborers. Led by Samuel Gompers. South for a better type of capitalism.
Leader of the American Federation of Labor
A union-organizing term that refers to the practice of allowing any unionized employees to work for a particular company. The American Federation of Labor became known for negotiating closed-shop agreements with employers, in which the employer would agree not to hire non union members.
The genius behind the success of the Western lines who facilitated it by welding together and expanding the older eastern networks. He made his millions in steam boating. He rounded Vanderbilt University. He helped popularize the steel rail.
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone
The most versatile inventor of all. As a boy, he was considered so dull-witted that he was taken out of school. He had severe deafness. He invented the phonograph, mimeograph, dictaphone, and the moving picture. He was mainly known for inventing the light bulb.
The steel king who integrated every phase of his steel-making operation in order to circumvent competition. He pioneered vertical integration in order to improve efficiency. He came from Scotland at age 12 and started as a bobbin boy making $1.28 a week. He mounted the success ladder extremely fast. He hated monopoly.
The "Oil Baron". He was the master of horizontal integration. He was the owner of the Standard Oil Company.
Mary Harris Jones
Agitator for the Knights of Labor in the Illinois coalfields.
The leader of the Knights of Labor
"waving the bloody shirt"
a term coined by Republicans to whip up enthusiasm for Grant which became a prominent feature of his presidential campaign
a symbol of Gilded age corruption led by Big Boss Tweed. Tweed and his deputies employed bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections to swindle about $200 million dollars from NYC. During this, honest citizens were cowed into silence and protestors were taxed.
Credit Mobilier Scandal
1872 Scandal in which the Union Pacific Railroad Insiders formed the Credit Mobilier company and then hired themselves at inflated prices to build the railroad line, some earning dividends as high as 348 percent. Fearing that Congress would intervene, the company distributed shares of its stock to congressman.
Panic of 1873
A worldwide depression that began in the United States when one of the nation's largest banks abruptly declared bankruptcy, leading to the collapse of many banks and businesses. This crisis intensified the inflationary calls such as printing more money and unlimited coinage of silver
The sarcastic name given by Mark Twain to the three post civil war decades. It indicated both the fabulous wealth and the widespread corruption of the era.
A prevalent system during the Gilded Age in which political parties granted jobs and favors to party regulars. It was an essential wellspring of support for both parties and a source of conflict within the Republican party
Compromise of 1877
The agreement that finally resolved the 1876 election and officially ended Reconstruction. Hayes agreed to become president as long as he withdrew the last of the federal troops from the confederate states. This deal effectively completed the southern return to white-only, Democratic dominated electoral politics.
Many blacks were forced into this type of tenant farming in which storekeepers extended credit to small farmers for food and supplies and in return, took a lien on their harvests.
Jim Crow Laws
System of racial segregation in the South from the end of Reconstruction to the mid 20th century. It was based on the concept of "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites. These laws sought to prevent public mixing of races.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
A Supreme Court case that upheld constitutionality of segregation laws, saying that as long as blacks were provided with "separate but equal" facilities, these laws did not violate the 14th amendment. In reality, the quality of black life was much lower than the quality of white life.
Chinese Exclusion Act
An 1882 federal legislation that prohibited further Chinese immigration to the United Staes. This was the first major legal restriction on immigration in US history.
The so called "Magna Carta" of civil reform. It made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and it established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of competitive examinations rather than "pull"
A strike by steelworkers angry over pay cuts at a Homestead Steel Plant near Pittsburgh. Company officials called in 300 armed detectives to crush the strike. The strikers, armed with rifles and dynamite, forced their assailants to surrender. 10 people died. 60 people were injured. Troops were eventually summoned and the strike was crushed.
A regulation established in many southern states in the 1890s that exempted from voting requirements anyone who could prove that their ancestors could vote in 1860. This basically denied blacks the right to vote.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
The last feeble gasp of the congressional radical republicans. This act supposedly guaranteed equal accommodations in public places and prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection, but the law was born toothless and stayed that way for nearly a century. The Supreme Court eventually declared the act unconstitutional in the Civil Rights Cases (1883).
A millionaire partner with Jim Fisk who attempted to corner the gold market in 1869. The plan failed when the treasury was compelled to release gold.
The fearless editor of the New York Tribune who was nominated by the Cincinnati convention for presidency.
Georgia populist movement leader who reached out to the black community. He was a farmer, but he eventually turned into a racist.
Republican; Speaker of the House; A hulking figure who was renowned as a master debater. He dominated the "Billion Dollar Congress" in which the Mckinley Tariff Act of 1890 was passed.
Republican candidate who took advantage of the deadlock between the Conklingites and the Blaineites. He was known as "The Great Unknown". He had government experience because he was governor of Ohio for three terms. Hayes was granted presidency in the Compromise of 1877.
Republican candidate who took over the party after Rutherford Hayes was denounced. After securing presidency, he was immediately ensnared in a political conflict between James Blaine. Then, as the Republican Factions dueled, a deranged office seeker named Charles Guiteau shot and killed this man. His death shocked politicians into reforming the shameful spoils system.
Vice-president to James Garfield who was a notorious Stalwart henchman. He became president after James Garfield was assented, and surprisingly began to reform the country for the better by cold shouldering Stalwarth and exposing multiple corruption schemes.
Noted reformer who Democrats looked to after a long period of unsuccessful campaigns. He had an illegitimate son who consequently cost Cleveland a lot of support. Although this caused issues, Cleveland still won the election. He lost re-election, but won again in the 1893 election.
William Jennings Bryan
A Democratic congressman from Nevada who debated over the repeal of the silver act. He championed the cause of free silver, but Grover Cleveland alienated him and the rest of his silveriness.
"the banker's banker" and the head of the Wall Street syndicate. he lent $65 million dollars worth of gold to the U.S. government.
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