38 terms

War of 1812 and Spanish-American War Study Guide


Terms in this set (...)

Washington's Neutrality Proclamation
Focus on foreign interaction SOLELY for trade. Stay NEUTRAL.

Washington's response to the current mindset of Americans as he left office. Americans at the time were caught up with "Bastille Fever" and a desire to, in general, do a lot.

Washington never said "neutrality" but still argued:
- Realistic assessment of America's limited power and economic interests mean we should pursue friendly/impartial relations with warring nations of Europe
- US citizens should not carry items to countries that would help them wage war

James Madison disagreed:
- Washington was setting a precedent for Presidential power
- Asserted president had the power to decide that there should not be war
- Constitution doesn't let the President, alone, declare war, so he can't, alone, decide to NOT declare war
Complication to Neutrality
(1) Are we bound by alliance with France
- Jefferson says yes: can't backstab France (brothers in arms, and they helped us)
- Hamilton says no: our alliance was with the crown, that's no longer France

(2) Arrival of French diplomat Minister Genet
- Representative of France and accepting a meeting would mean identifying the U.S. with the turmoil in France.
- Set precedent that US would recognize the appointed representative of any foreign government regardless of sentiment
- Also precedent of Execute Branch establishing relationship with foreign governments

(3) British Impressment
Sedition Act
Prohibited publication or utterance of "false, scandalous, and malicious writings" against the government. (Talk about impeding on free speech)
Jay's Treaty (1794)
Reaffirms that only the President (with Senate approval) can make treaties.
- Set out to fix problems inherent in US-Britain relations but, in reality did very little to affect anything
Quasi War (1796-1800)
No actual battles. Precedent that the Executive branch can wage war without official declaration by congress.
- During John Adams
- A "state of war" with France in which no actual battles were fought
Peaceable Coercion
Economic approach to foreign policy using trade and commerce, rather than war, as a diplomatic weapon.
- The US attempted to enforce neutral trading rights by putting economic pressure on Britain and France (who both made neutral trade difficult)
Embargo Act (1807)
Part of Peaceable Coercion
- Prohibited all US ships from trading
- Was supposed to hurt Britain and France by denying them agricultural and manufactured goods
- Did a better job of hurting the US
- Seen as rather unsuccessful (only really hurts US merchants)
Nonintercourse Act (1809)
Part of Peaceable Coercion
- Prohibited all trade with Britain and France BUT the President would allow trade with the first country to stop attacking our ships
Part of War of 1812
- Practice of British ships stopping American merchants and, proclaiming that the people on board were British, taking them and forcing them into the British navy
- Incredibly unfair (Americans essentially being stolen)
War of 1812 (1812-1814)
- Economics (need to be able to trade) (Britain is confiscating trade goods)
- British wrongdoings (Britain is ignoring our status as an independent nation and doesn't respect our neutral trading rights)
- Native American Alliances -> killing Americans (and American Soldiers) (With Native Americans readily scalping Americans in return for British arms being one artists depiction of it all)
- Impressment (and other naval theft)
- Desire to drive Britain out of America
- Need to protect citizens harassed by Britain
- Need to almost "prove" itself as an independent nation
- British still have forts in Canada for easy attack
- Jay's treaty and embargo act (diplomatic negotiations) have failed

(1) Impressment
(2) Trade neutrality (Britain not respecting US)
(3) Naval theft (explaining another major injustice of British navy against US)
(4) Canada (and how Britain still has forts there)
(5) Native Americans (and how they're killing Americans)
(6) Diplomatic Failure (tried to peacefully resolve this (Jay's Treaty, Embargo act) and failed)

"War Hawks"
- Included politicians in Congress that wanted to declare war on Britain as a war of having America stand up for itself
- Felix Grundy being an example
- Painted picture of America being walked all over with Britain attempting "to subject our maritime rights to the arbitrary and capricious rule of her will"
- "Sir, I prefer war to submission"

James Madison on US Neutrality
- Britain is in a "state of war against the United States" while were are in a "state of peace" with them
- Thus we need to fight back
- Britain has all but declared war on us, but we refuse to fight back

The U.S. realizing total neutrality doesn't work, but only fighting Britain to try to return to neutrality.

The Stage:
- Britain had 6,000 troops in Canada (before Napoleon was defeated) and 125 gun ships at the ready
- America had 12,000 troops but 400,000 state militiamen could be called into action BUT they only had 6 gun ships AND had to fight on two fronts (American frontier and at sea)

- 2.5 years of near-disasters and mistakes for the US
- Eventually entire US fleet confined to port by 80 British ships
- US militarily under-equipped and inexperienced
- US forces suffered defeats in attempts to invade Canada
- Napoleon's defeat in 1814 meant Britain could concentrate solely on the US
- Sentiments in Britain called for revocation of the Peace Treaty of 1783
- Most fighting on US soil (US just defending itself)

A turn for the better:
- US authorized 500 privateers to harass British shipping (they were met with great success, capturing over 1,300 British vessels)
Orders of Council
Part of War of 1812
- Demand that U.S. ships stop in Britain for inspection regardless of where they're travelling
- Eventually repealed under pressure of British merchants, but word of that wouldn't reach the U.S. until after war was declared
Battle of Washington, D.C. (1814)
Part of War of 1812
- British military forces invaded D.C. and burned down parts of the capital
- Forced government officials to flee
- Burned down the Executive Mansion (White House)
- Attack not significant militarily, but it did wound the nations pride
Battle of Baltimore and Fort McHenry
Part of War of 1812
- Inspired Francis Scott Key to write "The Star Spangled Banner"
- British siege and bomb the fort with 5,000 men and 19 ships
- Unable to defeat Americans: turning point in American morale and Americans use it as a reason to force a peace treaty (Treaty of Ghent)
Treaty of Ghent (1814)
Part of War of 1812
- Marked the official end of the War of 1812
- Confirmed that the fighting would stop
- Acknowledged America is still independent
- Did little beyond that (no territory exchange, nothing to address Impressment, etc)
- Similar to Jay's treaty: meant to make a difference, but it really didn't to much)
- Despite doing little, they did fight the war without raising a large army, incurring a huge war debt, or upsetting the Consitution's checks and balances
- This led Americans to emerge from the war in high spirits
- A wave of nationalism followed and US entered Era of Good Feeling

Britain Relations Improve:
- Despite nothing being said in the treaty, Britain began to respect the rights of America (i.e. they stopped impressment and respected right to neutral trade)
- Some tensions remained until the end of the 19th century, but since then both nations have cooperated extensively ("special relationship")
Battle of New Orleans (1815)
Part of War of 1812
- Like the Battle of Saratoga from the America revolution
- Last major battle in the War of 1812
- Despite being outnumbered, the American forces CRUSHED Britain
- Battle considered biggest British defeat by the US
- Irony: peace treaty was already signed (albeit not delivered) at the time of the battle
- Battle really convinced Britain to agree to peace
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
The Stage:
- Post War of 1812
- Huge burst in nationalism
- Need for TERRITORY
- South America fighting for its independence (could become commercial interest to the U.S.)
- John Quincy Adams sees Latin American revolutions and says American should support fighting for independence but we can't FIGHT because then we're getting into wars
- Need to balance our interests AND support recognizing independent South American colonies, without getting militarily invested

The Solution:
- Monroe decided to anact his Doctrine
- Europe: stay away from us, we'll stay away from you
- Warning: stop trying to keep colonies in this hemisphere
- In exchange, we won't get involved in European wars again

The Impact:
- 1st foreign policy we have FOR OURSELVES that isn't just reaction to Europe
- Stay out of our backyard, we stay out of yours
- Demand for Europe to stay out of our hemisphere is either a defence of American security and ideals OR a way of giving America the green light to expand into the hemisphere as they saw fit (leading into manifest destiny)
- Steadily after the doctrine, the US acquired territory through conflict, purchases, and annexation
Part of American Ideology Pre-Spanish American War

"Domination of one country over another country or group of people for political, economic, cultural gain"

- The American Identity in the 19th century was defined by the frontier
- Manifest destiny
- Once America expanded from coast to coast, imperialists were left afraid that a lack of expansion would lead to American stagnation
- Expansion overseas (imperialism) was their answer
- Thus a culture of American Imperialism was born

By 1896, the importance of Imperialism in politics had begun to die down
- With McKinley winning the 1896 election for his policies of economic prosperity despite Americans losing interest in Imperialism

Mark Twain brutally criticized Imperialism at many points. A leading anti-imperialist author
White Man's Burden
Part of American Ideology Pre-Spanish American War
- Belief in the obligation of superior white men to conquer and reform inferior peoples
- Otherwise these people won't know any better
- Christianity and civil liberty = Superior civilization that NEEDS to spread over the world
Missionary Spirit
Part of American Ideology Pre-Spanish American War
- Captures the belief in the superiority of Christian civilization and the duty of Christians to spread the word of God to primitive un-believers around the world
- Used as justification for imperialism to take over areas in the name of converting "savage" people
- "The two great ideas of mankind are Christianity and civil liberty (democracy, human rights). The Anglo-Saxon (white) civilization is the great representation of these two great ideas." -Reverend Josiah Strong 1891
Social Darwinism
Part of American Ideology Pre-Spanish American War
- An adaptation of Darwin's theory of natural selection applied to societies or groups of people based on race or ethnicity. As a result it says stronger countries have superior qualities that justify them dominating weaker countries and spreading their influence
- Stronger countries have the responsibility to dominate weaker countries as it forwards a natural process in which only the strongest civilizations can prevail
- Reverend Josiah Strong: "US will assert itself, having developed aggressive traits necessary to impress its institutions upon mankind"
- Dominance of Western cultures by imperialism was as justified as evolution
- Justified imperialism and expansionist policies because competing for supremacy was a natural process and thus the domination of Western European cultures was a natural process
- Social Darwinists saw themselves as of a superior race and their supremacy, some of them would go so far as to say, was part of God's plan

- Europeans and Native Americans
- U.S. annexing Hawaii in 1898
US Interest in Cuba (1890)
Part of Spanish American War
- $50 million worth of American investment flowed into Cuba
- Channeled into island's sugar industry (represented four-fifths of Cuban economy
- US was also largest customer for Cuban sugar by far
- In 1890, US removed tariffs on Cuban sugar entering American market
- All this legislation boosted fortunes of both the overall Cuban economy AND American investors on the island
- Cuban-American trade soon approached $100 million annually
- US had economic interest in Cuba (until US economy crashed and they had to pull back)
Economic Depression (1893)
Railroads and banks go bankrupt
- Millions lose jobs
- Those who are still working worried about their future
- Nervous workers band together and demand their companies treat them fairly (in 1894, 500,000 workers go on strike in protest of working conditions)
- Solves few problems, just exacerbates it
- New immigrants number in 1000s and will work for less than existing employees
- Economy continues downward spiral

Our economic depression affected Cuba:
- Turned out economic focus inward and away from Cuba (people less willing to spend money buying stuff from other countries, can only afford to SELL to other countries) which left Cuba flailing
- This, in turn, brought down their economy
- This economic ruin (and the pressure exerted by it) was a large cause of the revolt that erupted against the Spanish in 1895 (the second Cuban revolution attempt)
- US also, around the time of the depression, had a thirst for NEW MARKETS as a potential solution to overproduction of goods and at-home unemployment and the depression
- Annual value of American exports passed $1 billion during the 1890s
- Foreign policy centers on how to keep American prosperous from selling cotton, grain, beef to the world
- Europe places HIGH TARIFFS (taxed on imported goods) which means America has to search elsewhere to make a good profit

- Latin American and Asia become the US focus instead of Europe
Queen Liliuokalani & Annexation of Hawaii (1898)
Part of American Ideology Pre-Spanish American War
- US Imperialists saw Hawaii as a valuable prize (location of strategic advantage)
- Halfway across the Pacific, Hawaii offered a crucial stopped point for American ships en route to East Asia and the Volcanic soil was ideal for growing some profitable tropical crops
- By the mid 1800s, the Hawaiian economy was mostly controlled by American sugar plantation owners (wanted the territory fully annexed)
- As such, a revolt was organized with US Marines in January 1893 that toppled the nations monarchy
- US President Grover Cleveland saw this as bad: returned Hawaii to the monarchy
- US President William McKinley (after Cleveland) didn't see this as bad: passed the treaty that officially annexed Hawaii

Queen Liliuokalani = progressive ruler
- Proposed eliminating property qualifications for voting
- Wanted to preserve islands for the native Hawaiians
- She was removed from power by Sugar planation owners and US marines
- Sanford B. Dole becomes the new head of gov't

- An effect of Imperialism and Social Darwinism
USS Maine (1898)
Part of Spanish American War
- USS Maine docked peacefully in Cuba's Havana Harbor
- The ship mysteriously exploded February 15th
- 260 American sailors were killed
- People blamed Spain
- Despite no one knowing who was really at fault, the blame to Spain stayed and US-Spanish tensions rose
- Large factor to eventually pulling the US to war against Spain
Yellow Journalism
Part of Spanish American War
- Not crisp, white, truthful
- It's yellowed, less than true/less than new, crisp, white
- Refers to period of anti-Spanish media in the U.S. that shaped the public's opinion on Spain (very negatively)

Businessmen and politicians remained very anti-war
- But the press's nondiscriminatory printing of articles that showed all real AND FICTITIOUS atrocities in Cuba spurred the American Public to cry out for intervention
- Press coverage of the rebellion made American's want their country to intervene in Cuba and ease the suffering there
Spanish American War (1898)
Causes: (JIPUD)
- Journalism (yellow journalism and the media's impact)
- Imperialism (and the American mindset that led to our true intentions in the war)
- Private letter from Spanish diplomat that insulted the President (called him weak) (February 9th)
- USS Maine mysteriously exploded which led to declaring war on Spain
- Depression (economic depression that set America's interests on the Spanish colonies)

The Philippines
- Knowing that Spain had a fleet based in the Philippines, Commodore George Dewey drew up plans to attack the fleet and weaken the Spanish military machine before war had really started
- On May 1, Dewey led an American fleet to attack the Spaniards and sunk every ship in the Spanish fleet
- This military victor bolstered the War effort as it grew American pride which led to more than 220,000 volunteers signing up to fight Spain
"Rough Riders"
Part of Spanish American War
- Roosevelt and his "Rough Riders" were a figurehead in the American military, as they comprised a unit of strong American soldiers who were also prominant and important Americans (now in full support of the war effort)
- They also spearheaded the military assault up Kettle Hill
- The assault, in conjunction with an assault on San Juan hill and a naval encounter brought the war in Cuba to a quick end and an American victory
- As such, they played a major role in the war effort
Battle of San Juan Hill and Battle of Kettle Hill (1898)
Part of Spanish American War
- Two hills near Santiago Cuba
- Considered key US victories and turning point in the war
Reconcentration Camps
Part of Spanish American War
- Terrible conditions
- Used by spain to isolate Cuban nationalist forces from the general population
- Wanted to (like British before revolutionary war) cut the head off of the snake
- Tried to do this by herding hundreds of thousands of innocent Cubans into "towns" policed by Spanish troops and lacking in basic necessities
- Isolated Cuban nationalists from general population in an attempt to limit rebellion

Other Related Spanish Actions:
- Executions of expected traitors/spies
Treaty of Paris (1898)
Part of Spanish American War
- December 10, 1898
- Gave US right to control Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam
- Finally approved on February 6, 1899

- Spain couldn't beat American navy or army in either Cuba or the Philippines
- Spain freed Cuba, gave Guam and Puerto Rico to the US
- Spain sold the Philippines for $20 million

Amendment to grant Philippines independence once a stable government was established
- Defeated when Vice President Garrett Hobart cast the tie-breaking vote
Teller Amendment (1898)
Part of Post-Spanish American War
- Stated the U.S. had no intention to take over Cuba
- Explained the US was simply trying to defend the rights of the Cuban people
- No interest in asserting "sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control" over Cuba and promised to "leave the government and control of the island to its people" once peace was restored
- Amendment meant to appeal to American anti-imperialists who didn't want Cuban intervention to be a means of acquiring a larger American Empire at the Spanish expense
- Also an appeal to sugar growers in the States who didn't want to compete with the island's sugar plantations
- Leave once peace is restored
Platt Amendment (1901)
Part of Post-Spanish American War
- Stated the US had the "right to intervene for the preservation of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government for the protection of life, property, and individual liberty"
- States US could intervene in Cuban affairs
- Also made Cuba a protectorate of US
- States Cuba = free in spirit alone. For all practical purposes, they were controlled by US gov't (despite earlier 'intentions' to leave ex-Spanish colonies alone)

- Allowed US troops to occupy Cuba and forbade Cuba from making its own treaties with other nations

- Opened the door to an upsurge of American investment in Cuba's economy
- By 1928, US companies produced 75% of Cuba's sugar
- This economic domination of Cuba by American business left Cubans upset and would eventually fuel their revolution
Emilio Aguinaldo
Letter to the American People:
- Analogies to the Cuban revolution and American Revolution (YOU'RE SPAIN // YOU'RE BRITAIN)

- Captured in March 1901 (turning point in US-Filipino conflict)
- Agreed to declare allegiance to the US in exchange for a pension
The Philippines
Following the Spanish American War
- Many US Politicians didn't care about supporting Filipino independence
- Didn't see the Philippines as important in US Foreign Affairs
- The war there didn't have the same strategic importance to the US that Cuba had had, and so politicians weren't interested in supporting their independence
- Dewey disagreed however, seeing the Filipino forces as allies in the war against Spain, so he supplied them with 'support'
- At the same time, many US officials were still wary of Filipino independence
- Push to just make the Philippines a protectorate

Attempt at Philippines Independence -> Result of U.S. annexation
- Revolt against US rule led by Emilio Aguinaldo
- Filipinos used guerrilla tactics against US troops
- US responds by forcing people into PoW camps (thousands die from poor conditions and starvation)
- Rebellion put down by US after 3 years
- Eventually Philippines gets independence in 1946

- Tensions between US and Philippines at a high (after building for months)
- 1899: American soldier fired on a Filipino patrol that refused to halt
- Filipinos had assumed they'd be granted independence, but US troops had established control over the islands
- Tensions passed the breaking point and fighting broke out

The fight
- For the next three years, US forces in the Philippines fought a brutal war ending in 1902
- 4,200 Americans killed in battle and by disease (2x the death toll of Spanish-American war)
- 20,000 Filipino soldiers killed
- 200,000 civilians died from starvation and disease caused by the war
- Guerrilla warfare that US was unprepared for
- Both sides tortured and executed prisoners and committed other atrocities
- Filipino insurgents melted into the countryside (thus civilian deaths)
- To finish the fight, US adopted some tactics used by Spanish in Cuba (like punishing civilians in response to Filipino attacks and brutally killing innocents)

- Not the end of the story
- From 1901 to 1904, Supreme Court ruled in the "Insular cases" that the Filipinos (and inhabitants of other US overseas territories) were entitled to "fundamental rights" of life, liberty, and property but weren't guaranteed the procedural rights of the Constitution without specific action by Congress
---- Result: local population living in America's newly won empire and in Hawaii did not enjoy protection of US law
- However, US would lose its appetite for administering a colony, and Filipino would gain more and more freedom until 1934 when they officially became a commonwealth
- WWII interrupted their path to complete freedom, which they finally gained in 1946
Cuba and Puerto Rico
US Military Occupation of Cuba and Puetro Rico
- Began soon after Spain's surrender
- But with less violent response from the people
- Aimed to safeguard American business and security interests in the Caribbean
- Byproduct included rapid development on the islands (roads and telegraph lines build, finances reorganized, schools opened, sanitation improved, and yellow fever stamped out)

Puetro Rico's Story:
- Originally controlled by military
- Foracker Act (1900) = ended military rule and set up civil gov't
- In 1917, Congress made Puerto Rico a territory and granted its people US citizenship (they could elect some gov't officials but they wouldn't be able to elect their governor until 1947)
- Still only considered a protectorate of US (but NOT one of the 50 states)

Cuba's story is longer:
- Gave Cuba independence only after they accepted a number of limitations that gave US power over Cuban economy and right to exercise veto power over Cuban foreign policy and intervene whenever necessary "for the protection of life, property, and individual liberty"
- Cubans protested the display of US authority
- Despite protests, US went ahead with the Platt Amendment (saying it was price Cubans had to pay for US military occupation of their island to be removed)
- Cubans would eventually grow to regret the relationship and Anti-American feelings would fester and eventually fuel a revolution that brought Fidel Castro to power in 1959
- Within two years, Castro had seized American business in Cuba and established a communist regime
"Big Stick Speech" (1901)
Part of Theodore Roosevelt
- Establish of function of American that has lasted until the present day
- America declared responsible for propagating democratic values ACROSS THE WORLD (Philippines, Cuba, etc are examples and not our limits)
- "Our duty to ourselves" and "the higher duty of promoting the civilization of mankind" is "to develop [foreign people] and make them ... law abiding, industrious, and educated people"
- "we must make it evident that we intend on this point ever to maintain this American position"
- "All that is needful is that it (Monroe Doctrine) should continue to be a cardinal feature of American policy on this continent
- "Barbarism has and can have no place in a civilized world. It is our duty toward the people living in barbarism to see that they are freed from their chains, and we can only free them by destroying barbarism itself."
- "Every encouragement should be given to their commercial development, to the introduction of American industries and products; not merely because this will be a good thing for our people, but more because it will be of incalculable benefit to the people of the Philippines"
- "We are not trying to subjugate a people"

Big Stick Diplomacy
- Asserts US as powerful police force in Americas/Western Hemisphere
- Roosevelt Corollary allows military intervention in these areas to defend Western Hemisphere against Europe (and flagrant cases of wrongdoing)

- Getting involved between Russia and Japan to end war
- Trying to end Asian discrimination as long as Japan limited immigration to the US
- Launched 16 warships on a world tour (great white fleet) -> Heightened regard of US navy (second most potent naval power after Britain)
- PANAMA CANAL (backed a REVOLT in Panama to get the land after denied by gov't) -> $400 million // 1914 completion
Roosevelt Corollary
Part of Theodore Roosevelt
- New idea Roosevelt added to Monroe Doctrine
- US had the right to intervene to deal with "serious problems" involving countries in the Americas (good intentions: at the time, some countries were very badly run and wanted to avoid European temptation to step in and take over)
- Used by presidents in early 1900s to send military into countries (like Haiti, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua)
- By the late 1920s, US presidents rejected the Corollary (made US look like a bully)
---- Began to say we shouldn't intervene in affairs of other countries
---- 1930s emphasis on stronger FRIENDSHIPS between US and other American Nations ("Good Neighbor Policy")

- Took Monroe Doctrine 1 step further
- US justified to act as "International Police Power"
- "In the Western Hemisphere, the adherence to the Monroe Doctrine may force the US, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of wrongdoing, to the exercise of an international police power"

Additionally at the time:
America had vital interests in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Caused Roosevelt to build the Panama Canal to allow US Navy to move more easily between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to protect our interests
- Easy access to trade in these areas to increase American economy