War of 1812 and Spanish-American War Study Guide

Terms in this set (38)

Causes:
- Economics (need to be able to trade) (Britain is confiscating trade goods)
- British wrongdoings (Britain is ignoring our status as an independent nation and doesn't respect our neutral trading rights)
- Native American Alliances -> killing Americans (and American Soldiers) (With Native Americans readily scalping Americans in return for British arms being one artists depiction of it all)
- Impressment (and other naval theft)
- Desire to drive Britain out of America
- Need to protect citizens harassed by Britain
- Need to almost "prove" itself as an independent nation
- British still have forts in Canada for easy attack
- Jay's treaty and embargo act (diplomatic negotiations) have failed

(1) Impressment
(2) Trade neutrality (Britain not respecting US)
(3) Naval theft (explaining another major injustice of British navy against US)
(4) Canada (and how Britain still has forts there)
(5) Native Americans (and how they're killing Americans)
(6) Diplomatic Failure (tried to peacefully resolve this (Jay's Treaty, Embargo act) and failed)

"War Hawks"
- Included politicians in Congress that wanted to declare war on Britain as a war of having America stand up for itself
- Felix Grundy being an example
- Painted picture of America being walked all over with Britain attempting "to subject our maritime rights to the arbitrary and capricious rule of her will"
- "Sir, I prefer war to submission"

James Madison on US Neutrality
- Britain is in a "state of war against the United States" while were are in a "state of peace" with them
- Thus we need to fight back
- Britain has all but declared war on us, but we refuse to fight back

Involvement:
The U.S. realizing total neutrality doesn't work, but only fighting Britain to try to return to neutrality.

The Stage:
- Britain had 6,000 troops in Canada (before Napoleon was defeated) and 125 gun ships at the ready
- America had 12,000 troops but 400,000 state militiamen could be called into action BUT they only had 6 gun ships AND had to fight on two fronts (American frontier and at sea)

Duration:
- 2.5 years of near-disasters and mistakes for the US
- Eventually entire US fleet confined to port by 80 British ships
- BRITISH BLOCKAGE MEANT NO TRADE OR DEFENSE TO THE US (and Early America needs trade)
- US militarily under-equipped and inexperienced
- US forces suffered defeats in attempts to invade Canada
- Napoleon's defeat in 1814 meant Britain could concentrate solely on the US
- Sentiments in Britain called for revocation of the Peace Treaty of 1783
- Most fighting on US soil (US just defending itself)

A turn for the better:
- US authorized 500 privateers to harass British shipping (they were met with great success, capturing over 1,300 British vessels)
Following the Spanish American War
- Many US Politicians didn't care about supporting Filipino independence
- Didn't see the Philippines as important in US Foreign Affairs
- The war there didn't have the same strategic importance to the US that Cuba had had, and so politicians weren't interested in supporting their independence
- Dewey disagreed however, seeing the Filipino forces as allies in the war against Spain, so he supplied them with 'support'
- At the same time, many US officials were still wary of Filipino independence
- Push to just make the Philippines a protectorate

Attempt at Philippines Independence -> Result of U.S. annexation
- Revolt against US rule led by Emilio Aguinaldo
- Filipinos used guerrilla tactics against US troops
- US responds by forcing people into PoW camps (thousands die from poor conditions and starvation)
- Rebellion put down by US after 3 years
- Eventually Philippines gets independence in 1946

Insurrection
- Tensions between US and Philippines at a high (after building for months)
- 1899: American soldier fired on a Filipino patrol that refused to halt
- Filipinos had assumed they'd be granted independence, but US troops had established control over the islands
- Tensions passed the breaking point and fighting broke out

The fight
- For the next three years, US forces in the Philippines fought a brutal war ending in 1902
- 4,200 Americans killed in battle and by disease (2x the death toll of Spanish-American war)
- 20,000 Filipino soldiers killed
- 200,000 civilians died from starvation and disease caused by the war
- Guerrilla warfare that US was unprepared for
- Both sides tortured and executed prisoners and committed other atrocities
- Filipino insurgents melted into the countryside (thus civilian deaths)
- To finish the fight, US adopted some tactics used by Spanish in Cuba (like punishing civilians in response to Filipino attacks and brutally killing innocents)

Annexation
- Not the end of the story
- From 1901 to 1904, Supreme Court ruled in the "Insular cases" that the Filipinos (and inhabitants of other US overseas territories) were entitled to "fundamental rights" of life, liberty, and property but weren't guaranteed the procedural rights of the Constitution without specific action by Congress
---- Result: local population living in America's newly won empire and in Hawaii did not enjoy protection of US law
- However, US would lose its appetite for administering a colony, and Filipino would gain more and more freedom until 1934 when they officially became a commonwealth
- WWII interrupted their path to complete freedom, which they finally gained in 1946
US Military Occupation of Cuba and Puetro Rico
- Began soon after Spain's surrender
- But with less violent response from the people
- Aimed to safeguard American business and security interests in the Caribbean
- Byproduct included rapid development on the islands (roads and telegraph lines build, finances reorganized, schools opened, sanitation improved, and yellow fever stamped out)

Puetro Rico's Story:
- Originally controlled by military
- Foracker Act (1900) = ended military rule and set up civil gov't
- In 1917, Congress made Puerto Rico a territory and granted its people US citizenship (they could elect some gov't officials but they wouldn't be able to elect their governor until 1947)
- Still only considered a protectorate of US (but NOT one of the 50 states)

Cuba's story is longer:
- Gave Cuba independence only after they accepted a number of limitations that gave US power over Cuban economy and right to exercise veto power over Cuban foreign policy and intervene whenever necessary "for the protection of life, property, and individual liberty"
- Cubans protested the display of US authority
- Despite protests, US went ahead with the Platt Amendment (saying it was price Cubans had to pay for US military occupation of their island to be removed)
- Cubans would eventually grow to regret the relationship and Anti-American feelings would fester and eventually fuel a revolution that brought Fidel Castro to power in 1959
- Within two years, Castro had seized American business in Cuba and established a communist regime
Part of Theodore Roosevelt
- Establish of function of American that has lasted until the present day
- America declared responsible for propagating democratic values ACROSS THE WORLD (Philippines, Cuba, etc are examples and not our limits)
- "Our duty to ourselves" and "the higher duty of promoting the civilization of mankind" is "to develop [foreign people] and make them ... law abiding, industrious, and educated people"
- "we must make it evident that we intend on this point ever to maintain this American position"
- "All that is needful is that it (Monroe Doctrine) should continue to be a cardinal feature of American policy on this continent
- "Barbarism has and can have no place in a civilized world. It is our duty toward the people living in barbarism to see that they are freed from their chains, and we can only free them by destroying barbarism itself."
- "Every encouragement should be given to their commercial development, to the introduction of American industries and products; not merely because this will be a good thing for our people, but more because it will be of incalculable benefit to the people of the Philippines"
- "We are not trying to subjugate a people"

Big Stick Diplomacy
- Asserts US as powerful police force in Americas/Western Hemisphere
- Roosevelt Corollary allows military intervention in these areas to defend Western Hemisphere against Europe (and flagrant cases of wrongdoing)

Examples:
- Getting involved between Russia and Japan to end war
- Trying to end Asian discrimination as long as Japan limited immigration to the US
- Launched 16 warships on a world tour (great white fleet) -> Heightened regard of US navy (second most potent naval power after Britain)
- PANAMA CANAL (backed a REVOLT in Panama to get the land after denied by gov't) -> $400 million // 1914 completion
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