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Italian music director at St. Marks who indicated dynamics and prescribed instruments


Last great Italian madrigalist and first opera composer; wrote "Orpheo" and "Coronation of Poppea", his first and last operas


English singer, organist, and composer that adapted elements from Italy and France; put England on the "musical map". Composed Dido and Aeneas. Student of John Blow.


Italian composer and singer that wrote "Begii Occhi". Wrote sacred motets.


(Germany) - Many children...Famous Lutheran organist and composer. Wrote pieces for and trained many religious choirs. Composed Cantata 80 and Contrapunctus I. Wrote for the church and composed weekly.


(Italy) "red priest" - Concerto composer, Violin virtuoso, and music master and teacher at the Conservatorio dell'Ospedale della pieta, "la chiesa di vivaldi". Composed the Four Seasons.


(France)- official court composer of Tragedie lyrique, father of French opera, wrote for Louis the XIV


(International: Germany, Italy, England)- born in Germany but recognized as an English composer as he composed mainly English opera and became a nationalized citizen. Key compositions- Messiah, Water Music


(French) - Known for his comic opera, worked for Duke of Maine (Louis XIV's son) --Composed Rondeau


Secular - music drama sung throughout, combining vocal and instrumental music with poetry, acting, pantomime, scenery, and costumes. Started in Venice, Italy.


large scale dramatic genre based on a text of religious or serious character and performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra; similar to opera but without scenery, costumes, or action (and obviously Sacred)


sacred or secular vocal genre for solo singers, chorus, and instrumentalists based on a lyric or dramatic poetic narrative, consisting several movements like recitatives, arias, and ensembles (20 min max)


congregational hymn of German Lutheran Church.

chorale prelude

short Baroque organ piece in which a traditional chorale melody is embellished

basic vs. festive baroque orchestra

strings and continuo / strings, continuo, woodwinds, brass, timpani

sonata da camera

chamber music, played at parties, dance music. Soloist with cello/harpsichord; a 17th century designation for music not intended for religion.

sonata da chiesa

church; a 17th century designation for music intended primarily for the church (four movements: slow-fast-slow-fast)

trio sonata

contains three staves of music; two violins and a continuo (favorite combination is two violins and continuo - four total instruments!)

solo sonata

unaccompanied instrument with basso continuo


musical composition for a soloist and orchestra


a refrain in a concerto that returns periodically

concerto grosso

several soloists accompanied by an orchestra


group of soloists in a concerto grosso


larger of two ensembles in a concerto grosso

orchestral suite

collection of orchestral pieces based on formal dances


root of Baroque meaning "pearl of irregular shape"

Venice, Italy

where the Baroque era was born

St. Mark's Cathedral

place where Gabrieli composed his music for the choir there

polychoral singing

split choirs; method used in St. Mark's Cathedral


responsive alternation between two singers

extravagance and control

theme of Baroque era

Venetian School of Painters

art commissioned by churches to teach doctrines; Caravaggio, Titian, Tintoretto

Dutch School of Painters

art commissioned because of strict Protestant ethics; Terbrugghen, Rembrandt, Vermeer


complete power comes from the king through God

Louis XIV

French king that came up with absolutism and divine right of kings. Extended the palace at Versailles. The palace's gardens are extremely symmetrical, and the whole palace is extravagant (extravagant vs. control)


where Louis XIII built his palace and Louis XIV later extended

Collegium Musicum

association of musicians who voluntarily played the latest music in public settings; music for the middle class, a group of amateur musicians

Balance of Culture

rising middle class, the city and palace culture became more equal

Sir Issac Newton

discovered idea of gravity and that light is made of particles; encompasses the baroque spirit


discovered the modern idea of the solar system; was placed under house arrest by the Catholic Church for publishing his ideas; science

Florentine Camarata

word painting is childish; polyphonic writing needs to stop; emotion should be expressed through human voice, not music


music consisting of single vocal part with accompaniment - came from Florentine Camarata

figured bass

numbers written above/below notes showing the relative notes that are to be played- allows for improvisation only chord number written, no notes

ground bass

short bass melody that is constantly repeated; ostinato

continuo (basso continuo)

bass part played by a keyboard or low stringed instrument (cello, harpsichord)


Italian violin maker - perfected the technique of violin making


Male singer who was castrated during boyhood to preserve the soprano or alto vocal register, prominent in seventeenth- and early-eighteenth-century opera. best combination of man, woman, and boy. Farinelli is a famous castrato singer


performance given without planning or preparation; embellishments

Doctrine of Affections

entire movement or work built around a single emotion


vocal passage of narrative text delivered with natural speech rhythms

accompagnato vs. secco

Secco (one person singing accompanied by harpsichord) and Accompagnato (one person singing accompanied by small orchestra). No steady beat - telling a story


operatic solo - virtuosity - with pause for reflection

da capo aria

Uses ternary form (ABA) that brings back the first section with embellishment

arioso style

lighter than an aria. Arioso is similar to recitative due to its unrestrained structure and inflexions, close to those of speech. It differs however in its rhythm. Arioso is similar to aria in its melodic form, both being closer to singing than recitative; however they differ in form, arioso generally not resorting to the process of repetition.


(duet, trio, quartet) all singing/playing independent lines


sung by choir (large group) in the opera


pre-opera orchestra piece (played while audience is finding their seats etc) (like prelude music)


poetry text they'll sing, written by the Librettist (composer only wrote the music)

tragedie lyrique

genre of opera, french, told tales of courtly love, sumptuous dance scenes.


"semi-opera"-used as loop hole the restriction wasn't to the opera, it was that the commonwealth outlawed ACTING/theater, so to be able to have plays they sang them to pass them off as a concert which was allowed by commonwealth (book pg 127)


when things in England became more restricted because of Puritan influence

opera seria

serious Italian opera

Dance Suite

collection of different stylized dances - binary and ternary form

binary vs. ternary form

two-part (ABABAB) / three-part (A-B-A)


A short performance, typically a ballet, that is presented as an interlude in an opera or play. During the 17th and 18th century, the term implied incidental aspects of an entertainment (usually involving singing and dancing) that might be inserted in an opera or ballet or other stage performance. In the operas of Lully these 'divertissements' were sometimes linked to the main plot, or performed at the close of the performance.


Ritornello was a predecessor to the Rondeau. It has the form ABACA. Most likely written for festivals. music that is fast and vivacious—normally allegro. Many classical rondos feature music of a popular or folk character. Music that has been designated as "rondo" normally subscribes to both the form and character. musical form (round dance) that is the last movement of a sonata


composition with systematized imitative polyphony and single main theme


first section in which the major thematic material is stated


main idea or theme


second theme presented against the main idea


interlude serving as an area of relaxation between subject statements


first female composer to write an opera, "La Liberazione di Ruggiero"


composed first English opera entirely sung, "Venus and Adonis"; taught Purcell

Monteverdi: Orpheo, The Coronation of Poppea

Monteverdi's first and last operas: Greek Gods vs. Epic Heroes

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