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74 terms

Music 101 - Exam 2: Baroque Era

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Gabrieli
Italian music director at St. Marks who indicated dynamics and prescribed instruments
Monteverdi
Last great Italian madrigalist and first opera composer; wrote "Orpheo" and "Coronation of Poppea", his first and last operas
Purcell
English singer, organist, and composer that adapted elements from Italy and France; put England on the "musical map". Composed Dido and Aeneas. Student of John Blow.
Strozzi
Italian composer and singer that wrote "Begii Occhi". Wrote sacred motets.
Bach
(Germany) - Many children...Famous Lutheran organist and composer. Wrote pieces for and trained many religious choirs. Composed Cantata 80 and Contrapunctus I. Wrote for the church and composed weekly.
Vivaldi
(Italy) "red priest" - Concerto composer, Violin virtuoso, and music master and teacher at the Conservatorio dell'Ospedale della pieta, "la chiesa di vivaldi". Composed the Four Seasons.
Lully
(France)- official court composer of Tragedie lyrique, father of French opera, wrote for Louis the XIV
Handel
(International: Germany, Italy, England)- born in Germany but recognized as an English composer as he composed mainly English opera and became a nationalized citizen. Key compositions- Messiah, Water Music
Mouret
(French) - Known for his comic opera, worked for Duke of Maine (Louis XIV's son) --Composed Rondeau
opera
Secular - music drama sung throughout, combining vocal and instrumental music with poetry, acting, pantomime, scenery, and costumes. Started in Venice, Italy.
oratorio
large scale dramatic genre based on a text of religious or serious character and performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra; similar to opera but without scenery, costumes, or action (and obviously Sacred)
cantata
sacred or secular vocal genre for solo singers, chorus, and instrumentalists based on a lyric or dramatic poetic narrative, consisting several movements like recitatives, arias, and ensembles (20 min max)
chorale
congregational hymn of German Lutheran Church.
chorale prelude
short Baroque organ piece in which a traditional chorale melody is embellished
basic vs. festive baroque orchestra
strings and continuo / strings, continuo, woodwinds, brass, timpani
sonata da camera
chamber music, played at parties, dance music. Soloist with cello/harpsichord; a 17th century designation for music not intended for religion.
sonata da chiesa
church; a 17th century designation for music intended primarily for the church (four movements: slow-fast-slow-fast)
trio sonata
contains three staves of music; two violins and a continuo (favorite combination is two violins and continuo - four total instruments!)
solo sonata
unaccompanied instrument with basso continuo
concerto
musical composition for a soloist and orchestra
ritornello
a refrain in a concerto that returns periodically
concerto grosso
several soloists accompanied by an orchestra
concertino
group of soloists in a concerto grosso
ripieno
larger of two ensembles in a concerto grosso
orchestral suite
collection of orchestral pieces based on formal dances
barroco
root of Baroque meaning "pearl of irregular shape"
Venice, Italy
where the Baroque era was born
St. Mark's Cathedral
place where Gabrieli composed his music for the choir there
polychoral singing
split choirs; method used in St. Mark's Cathedral
antiphonal
responsive alternation between two singers
extravagance and control
theme of Baroque era
Venetian School of Painters
art commissioned by churches to teach doctrines; Caravaggio, Titian, Tintoretto
Dutch School of Painters
art commissioned because of strict Protestant ethics; Terbrugghen, Rembrandt, Vermeer
absolutism
complete power comes from the king through God
Louis XIV
French king that came up with absolutism and divine right of kings. Extended the palace at Versailles. The palace's gardens are extremely symmetrical, and the whole palace is extravagant (extravagant vs. control)
Versailles
where Louis XIII built his palace and Louis XIV later extended
Collegium Musicum
association of musicians who voluntarily played the latest music in public settings; music for the middle class, a group of amateur musicians
Balance of Culture
rising middle class, the city and palace culture became more equal
Sir Issac Newton
discovered idea of gravity and that light is made of particles; encompasses the baroque spirit
Galileo
discovered the modern idea of the solar system; was placed under house arrest by the Catholic Church for publishing his ideas; science
Florentine Camarata
word painting is childish; polyphonic writing needs to stop; emotion should be expressed through human voice, not music
monody
music consisting of single vocal part with accompaniment - came from Florentine Camarata
figured bass
numbers written above/below notes showing the relative notes that are to be played- allows for improvisation only chord number written, no notes
ground bass
short bass melody that is constantly repeated; ostinato
continuo (basso continuo)
bass part played by a keyboard or low stringed instrument (cello, harpsichord)
Stradivarius
Italian violin maker - perfected the technique of violin making
castrato
Male singer who was castrated during boyhood to preserve the soprano or alto vocal register, prominent in seventeenth- and early-eighteenth-century opera. best combination of man, woman, and boy. Farinelli is a famous castrato singer
improvisation
performance given without planning or preparation; embellishments
Doctrine of Affections
entire movement or work built around a single emotion
recitative
vocal passage of narrative text delivered with natural speech rhythms
accompagnato vs. secco
Secco (one person singing accompanied by harpsichord) and Accompagnato (one person singing accompanied by small orchestra). No steady beat - telling a story
aria
operatic solo - virtuosity - with pause for reflection
da capo aria
Uses ternary form (ABA) that brings back the first section with embellishment
arioso style
lighter than an aria. Arioso is similar to recitative due to its unrestrained structure and inflexions, close to those of speech. It differs however in its rhythm. Arioso is similar to aria in its melodic form, both being closer to singing than recitative; however they differ in form, arioso generally not resorting to the process of repetition.
ensemble
(duet, trio, quartet) all singing/playing independent lines
chorus
sung by choir (large group) in the opera
overture
pre-opera orchestra piece (played while audience is finding their seats etc) (like prelude music)
libretto
poetry text they'll sing, written by the Librettist (composer only wrote the music)
tragedie lyrique
genre of opera, french, told tales of courtly love, sumptuous dance scenes.
masque
"semi-opera"-used as loop hole the restriction wasn't to the opera, it was that the commonwealth outlawed ACTING/theater, so to be able to have plays they sang them to pass them off as a concert which was allowed by commonwealth (book pg 127)
Commonwealth
when things in England became more restricted because of Puritan influence
opera seria
serious Italian opera
Dance Suite
collection of different stylized dances - binary and ternary form
binary vs. ternary form
two-part (ABABAB) / three-part (A-B-A)
divertissement
A short performance, typically a ballet, that is presented as an interlude in an opera or play. During the 17th and 18th century, the term implied incidental aspects of an entertainment (usually involving singing and dancing) that might be inserted in an opera or ballet or other stage performance. In the operas of Lully these 'divertissements' were sometimes linked to the main plot, or performed at the close of the performance.
Rondeau
Ritornello was a predecessor to the Rondeau. It has the form ABACA. Most likely written for festivals. music that is fast and vivacious—normally allegro. Many classical rondos feature music of a popular or folk character. Music that has been designated as "rondo" normally subscribes to both the form and character. musical form (round dance) that is the last movement of a sonata
fugue
composition with systematized imitative polyphony and single main theme
exposition
first section in which the major thematic material is stated
subject
main idea or theme
countersubject
second theme presented against the main idea
episode
interlude serving as an area of relaxation between subject statements
Caccini
first female composer to write an opera, "La Liberazione di Ruggiero"
Blow
composed first English opera entirely sung, "Venus and Adonis"; taught Purcell
Monteverdi: Orpheo, The Coronation of Poppea
Monteverdi's first and last operas: Greek Gods vs. Epic Heroes