AP Human Geography Unit 2
Terms in this set (59)
Land that can be used for growing crops.
The proportionate numbers of persons in successive age categories in a given population.
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
The maximum number of individuals of a given species that an area's resources can sustain.
A complete enumeration of a population.
Crude birth rate
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude death rate
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
The scientific study of population characteristics.
The tendency for a growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution.
Regions grouped together by the stage of the demographic transition model that most countries in the region are in.
Demographic transition model
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
How disease spreads in a population. Ex. Hierarchical diffusion spreads from urban to rural areas.
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality.
Epidemiological Transition Model
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Infant Mortality Rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
A growth curve that depicts exponential growth.
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Population growth threatened future generations because population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Contemporary people who agree with Malthus and argue that two characteristics of recent population growth make Malthus's thesis more frightening than originally thought.
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Rate of natural increase
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
A curve that depicts logistic growth
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
The ability to keep in existence or maintain.
Total fertility rate
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Zero Population Growth
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Population determines agricultural methods.
Large-scale emigration by talented people
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
Movement - for example, nomadic migration - that has closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
A function that represents the way that some entity or its influence decays with distance from the geographical location
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs
Historic patterns of Migration
Migration to a new location
Permanent movement within a particular country
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another
Permanent movement within one region of a country
Movement from a rural place to an urban place
Movement that consists of one person migrating from one place to another
Movement involving longer periods of time further away from home
A negative perception about a location that induces a person to move away
A positive perception about a location that induces a person to move there
Under a quota, only a certain amount of designated people can be entered into a country during a specific time period
Most migrants move only a short distance
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to a nearby village and later to town or city
The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe
A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements
Permanent movement undertaken by choice