43 terms

A Level History Edexcel: Italy Topic 3

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What was the Opera Nazionale Balila (ONB/Balilla)?
- Created 1926
- Umbrella organisation of all youth organisations
- Brought under control of Ministry of National Education in 1929
- Exposed to propaganda, encouraged to take part in sports, gymnastics, summer camps/rallies, militaristic activities
- Free sport facilities, holidays at seaside and special scholarships for the gifted
Youth Groups
• Figili della Lupa (Children of the She-Wolf); Boys and girls, 6-8 years old
• Balila: Boys 8-14, wear uniform of black shirt, blue scarf, black tasselled cap and grey shorts
• Avanguardisti: Boys 15-18, uniform similar to adult Blackshirts, given miniature rifles and bayonets and gathered together to sing the Fascist hymn Giovinezza ('Youth')
• Piccole Italiane: Girls 8-12, given traditionally feminine activities e.g. domestic training in cookery and childcare, trained to be good fascist wives and mothers
• Giovani Italiane: Girls 13-18, same activities as Piccole
• Gruppi Universitari Fascisti (GUF): University level, promoted Fascist ideas and further sporting and military training, Littoriali Games, students compete vs each other in sports as well as music and art
• Not popular w/all children, opp. From rival organisations run by Cath Church
• Anti-Fascist parents still join due to fear of childrens' careers/social integration being affected if they refuse (loss of welfare benefits/automatic failure of exams)
• After Church's movement banned, membership of ONB compulsory and rose to 8.5 mill
Fascism in Schools
• First Fascist minister of education was Giovanni Gentile
• Reinforcing authoritarian and elitist school environment
• 1929 education becomes more about indoctrination and obedience:
- Portrait of King and Mussolini hung in every class room
- Wall posters emphasise Fascist achievement
- Every day began with 'Mussolini ha sempre ragione' (Mussolini is always right)
- Younger children taught to read using Fascist cartoons and books with Mussolini quotes
- Children taught unquestioning obedience
- 1926: 101/317 txtbks banned
- 1928: one authorised govt txtbk, libro unico, concentrating on Italian history and literature focusing on Roman Empire, Renaissance, unification of Italy and rise of Fascist movement
• Increased emphasis on sport and exercise and religious instruction (due to Lateran Pacts w/Cath church)
• Teachers who disagreed w/changes dismissed 1931 those remaining take oath of loyalty (some convinced to do so by viewing it as 'formality')
• Policy of employing those who received diplomas after 1923
• 1931: teachers' associations merged into 1, 1933 all required to be PNF membs.
• Success of this is questionable; obv some parents were anti-fascist so children would've received v diff msg at hm and nt all teach. Wld be enthusiastic while teaching
Fascism in Universities
• Uni stud. Seen as less of a prio.
• Still expectd to join Gioventi Universitaria Fascista (University Fascist Youth) which prov. Sport facil. Use, half price admission to entertainment, part exemption from military service & enhanced career prospects
• # of uni stud 54,000 1921 to 165,000 1942
• Fasc. saw them as future leaders; events such as Littoriali held as games competing for 'lictor' title assessing creative arts and knowledge of fascist ideology and doctrine
• Professors and lecturers harder to dismiss and threaten into obedience, had to be coaxed into joining PNF and taking oath of allegiance still only 11/1250 refused
Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro (OND)
• Adult leisure programmes and facilities, implementing additional welfare established in 1925
• Became part of PNF in 1927, after originally being part of Ministry of National Economy
• Aimed to win masses over to fascism, and attract ordinary ppl w/ subsidised activities
• Provision of libraries, showing films, radio sets, trips/holidays, sponsoring theatre groups, arranging summer camps, welfare for workers, provision of food and clothing to poorer people
• Mid-1930s every town has its own clubhouse, membership rises from 300,000 1926 to 2.4 mil 1935 → 1939; 4 mil membs
• Allowed manipulation of public opinion and support using mass communication
• Sport successes e.g. World Cup victories 1934 and 38 used to raise national morale and belief that Italy was making progress from WW1
Cinema
• Experimental Centre of Cinematography built in Rome 1935 w/100 students trained p/yr
• Directors had free creativity if there was no fascist criticism or serious social/political commentary
• Few overtly fascist films produced before WW2
• 1934; General Directorate for Cinema (DGC) under admin control of Ministry of Pop Culture, regulating cinema and ensuring film in line w/ideology and aesthetic
• Took over Cinecitta, Italy's Hollywood, 1928, Fascist movies made after that
Radio
• Didn't require literacy, reached rural/remote areas
• First radio stations set up 1924-25, 1932 300,000 registered radios, 1938 1 mil
• Rural radio agency, ERR, set up 1933, led by PNF secretary
• During WW2, 2 mill sets installed in market places, schools, factories and military facilities
• Broadcasting state controlled, interviews w/membs of govt and PNF, 2 hrs everyday of official broadcasts
• M's major speeches were BC live, played via loudspeakers in public squares and building
• 1940 ppl increasingly listening to Radio London to obtain info on fight vs Fascism
Censorship and Control
• Until 1925 lim freedom on press, Auth. try buying all critical newspapers and appoint Fascist editors → After this, independent newspapers closed, editors arrested
• Repressive laws implemented and enforced, many banned e.g. La Stampa (anti-Fascist newspaper) Sept 1925
• Press Law of Dec 1925 stipulated only registered journalists could write for newspapers and Fascists control register
• Ministry of Pop Cult in 1938 intro strict censorship of newspapers, radio, film, theatre and foreign publications, editors not allowed to pub anti-Fascist opinion and avoided reporting neg stories that took away from the 'glorious Italian state'
• Focused on superficial matters e.g. ceremonies and M's movements etc
Cult of Il Duce
• Presented M as ideal, infalliable leader who saved Italy
• Aimed to increase his pop, and association w/Fascist success ensured his dominance of movement
• Rep as superman figure of action and energy (posed as wrestler, swimmer, pilot etc), perf role model of masculinity
• Cultured and literary, (pics of reading Shakespeare and playing violin)
• Associated w/ Roman imagery, took Fascist symbol from Fasces. Used words such as centurion and consul, similar archaeology and military elements
• Convinced many there was no realistic alternative to M, tho some were sceptical
Art
• M favoured Novecento movement as ideal fascist cultural basis, emphasising Roman styles and nationalism → Farinacci questioned validity, favoured trad Italian artists
• Neo-classicists looked to ancient Rome for inspiration
• Modernists looked for clean lines and geometric shapes, abstract
• Most fascists preferred classical approach, state allowed diversity
• Portrayed sturdy rural/industrial workers, prod women and virile youths making Italy great again
• Artists joined Syndicate of Professionals and Artists, professing loyalty to state and joining competitions in attempt to control art
Architecture
• Construction of vast and imposing buildings in neo-classical and modernist/futurist styles
• Esposizione Universale Roma (EUR) largest building project, extension to Rome designed to combine housing, monuments and govt buildings, constructions started 1935, stopped w/WW2
• Foro Musslini, sports venue built 1928-1938, based on imperial Rome
Literature, Drama and Music
• Drama remains min pursuit
• Musicians required to join Fascist Union of Musicians, develop cultural autarky rejecting foreign influences
• Writers required to join relevant Fascist syndicate
• Not successful in creating Fascist literary intelligentsia, viewed as vehicle for career advancement rather than intellectual inspiration
Repression and Terror
• 1920-22; 2000 pol opponents killed
• M recg dangers of uncontrolled vio, but also imp role it had in gaining pwr
• After dictatorship establishment, vio decreases
• Pol and local govt extensive pwrs, previous Fascist vio bred climate of fear
• Nov 1926 Public Security Decree gives gvt prefect of placing anyone considered pol threat under pol supervision
• Law for Decree of State intro Special Tribunals to try pol crimes
• Role of Security Services:
- Pol, militia and secret pol (OVRA) used to threaten imprison and punish
- Pol opponents forced into exile in foreign countries, some assassinated
- Attempt of M assassination leds to increase in state rep, Spec Tribunal meets 720 times 1927-43, total 13,547 cases, 5155 guilty and 49 sentenced to death
- OVRA established 1927, 5000 membs, spied on ppl under Ministry of Interior control ; pwr to arrest, hold w/o trial, search, tap phones, intercept post etc
- 1939, 130,000 dossiers, 4000 arrested
- Militia 50,000, intimidate pol opp
- Set up remote prisons e.g. Lipari and Lampedusa, 10,000 sent there, 5000 kept as pol prisoners 1922-1943
- Main method was encouraging conformity through propaganda, incentive and manipulation rather than violence and repression\
• Rosselli Brothers:
- Italian Jewish socialist leaders involved in anti-Fascist opposition
- Fled to France in exile, continued anti-Fascism propaganda in Italu
- June 9th 1937 stabbed to death by membs of Fas Fre group on M's orders
Anti-Semitic Decrees
• Generally Fascists and M weren't anti-Semitic, tho some indivds e.g. Farinacci, were
• Balbo has connections w. Jewish community, 1938 10,000 PNF membs Jew
• 3000 Ger Jews enter as refugees
• Changes in 1937, 38 anti-Semitic decrees start, stemming from fear of disloyal Jews in case of war due to increasing Jewish resistance w/leading membs of anti-Fasc group Justice and Lib Jewish
• Jewish freedoms and standards decline tho policies not consistently applied e.g. exemption for Italian Jews who served in WW1, M's sons protected their Jewish friends
•1943: Jewish prop confiscated, 9000 Italian Jews sent to death camps, 600 survive
• Unpopular, spoken against as many felt immoral and had Jewish friends/colleagues
• 1938; Manifesto of Racial Scientists, Jews not part of Italian race, Jews banned from all state schools and teachers can only teach in sep Jewish schools, can't marry non-Jews, foreign Jews expelled
• Italians forbidden to shake hands, greet with 'Roman Salute' (one arm salute)
• Ridiculed by Italian people as pointless with no relevancy, copied from germans, ignored
Monarchy
• Support of monarchy necessary to ensure support from judiciary, civil service and army to Fascist State and provide legitimacy
• Tho King wasn't avid supporter, he did not object, gained more titles e.g. Emperor of Ethipoia 1936 and King of Albania 1939
• Signs M's decrees, doesn't use army vs Fas or dismiss M after Matteoti crisis
• Pwrs diminished, Fas Grand Council fix line of succession, command over military transferred to M
• M observes protocol, meet every 2 weeks, King accepts imp decisions tho complains of encroachment of royal prerogative
• King Vic does resist some elements of fascism; refuses Fasc symbol in flag, critical of anti-Sem laws (still signs), 1930 largely retires from pub life tho calls for M arrest 1943
Civil Servants and Judiciary
• Anti-Fasc judges removed, exert control w/no impartiality, prison w/o trial increase, remaining judges join PNF and keep jobs
• Establish Special Tribunal for Defence of State Nov 1926
• Civil service cuts 1922-24, ministries decrease from 15 to 11, 500,000 railwaymen fired → 1925+ civil servants keep jobs, 1930 expands again, 1939 return to 15 ministries
• 1927 only 15% PNF membs, 1935 becomes compulsory
Nationalists
• 1922 - 24 play leading role in foreign policy, M's attempts to expand influence globally wins their support
• Foreign policy successes:
- Corfu Incident 50 million lire demanded in reparations after killings of Italian diplomats in Greece, refusal leads to eventual invasion
- Annexation (seizure) of Fiume; M claims standing up for Italy, presented as heroic
- Participation in Locarno Pact, Kellogg-Briand Pact and Lateran Treaty wins Nats over as Italy seen as major Euro pwr
- 1930s Abyssinian campaign leading to colony establishment
- Invasion of Albania 1939
• Manifesto of Fascist Intellectuals of 1925 imp of Ita cult
Armed Forces
• Emphasis on expansion of armed forces, aggressive foreign policy and prom senior generals gains support
• Senior positions given to Fasc
• Army has potential to replace M w/coup, never does, remains passive
• Armed services disorganised, lack of intervention disastrous in WW2 due to lack of readiness
Centralisation of Government
• Rejected cab govt and no sharing of pwr w/ministers
• Made himself head of foreign affairs, minister of interior and armed forces
• 1926 parl loses pwr to discuss policy, debate and amend legislation
• Opp pol parties banned, free elections end, results rigged
• Jan 1939 Chamber of Fasces and Corporation replaces parl
• Loc self-govt abolished, elected mayors replaced by Podesta (authoritarian figure in place of local govt)
• Policies that conservatives support and rewarded loyalty
• Fear of vio at every level of govt present, any opposition from within results in removal
• Inefficient; unameable to advice, exploited rivalries between minsters, dismissed Rocco and Turati to strengthen pos and avoid talented opp to his pos
PNF and Mussolini
• Party Congress of June 1925 demands end of all internal party arguments and Il Duce obedience → Last meeting of congress ever
• 1928 M purges PNF, used for propaganda rather than policy-making
• Appoints the loyal and unquestioning to senior pos e.g. Achille Starace, party secretary 1931-39, ineffective but also unchallenging to M so remains
• Men of ability e.g. Balbo given unthreatening posts e.g. governor of Libya preventing serious rivals emerging
• Achievements made easier by PNF divisions:
- Squadristi focused on vio
- Others demand reorganisation of industry
- Nat demand territorial expansion
- Cons emphasise need for law, order and pol stability
• M held competing interests together, allowing dominance, identified with various interests to manipulate diff groups changing pos based on what suited his interests
Agriculture
• Fasc aimed to appeal rural employers and landowners
• Continued to have close ties w/ Southern owners, undermining sign agrarian reform
• Agrarian employers benf from ban on strikes and wage controls
• Control of land reclamation, choose land to be reclaimed, stopped radical effect it was supp to have on farming
Industry
• Stefani as fin minister, support pro-bus pol increasing indust supp
• Tele companies priv, insurance reintro and taxes on excess war profits reduced/abandoned
• 1925 Vidoni Palace Pact bans Soc and Cath trade unins and strikes → Pact between Confidustria and Rossoni's Fasc trade unions, leading to rising supp of businessmen
• Some remain sceptical vs vio, lib industrialists
Early Economic policies (1922-25)
• Initially supp lib ideas of free trade
• Eco cont to grow as part of gen Euro eco boom, employment and exports rise
• 1922 - 25:
- tax cuts and reduction of war profit tax
- gaining a budget surplus
- pursuing pro-bus policies
- reducing govt interv in eco
- stimulating investment
- reducing pub spending
• Govt fin supp given to priv Ansaldo steel and shipping firm
• Exports in textiles, cars and agricul doubled 1922 - 25
• Shift after 1925 w/Stefani removed and replaced by Count Giuseppe Volpi
Battle for Grain
• July 1925 - promise make Italy self-sufficient grain prod
• Target sets for increases in crop prod, high tariffs on for imports
• Grants for mod farming tech, equip and fertilisers
• 50% rise in wheat prod, esp in fertile Po Valley (Northern)
• Not successful:
- Valuable export crops (olives/grapes) didn't receive same amount of supp so prod didn't match
- Animal livestock # drop by 500,000 by end of 1927
- Not self-sufficient in fertilisers which were required for high yield
- Meat and egg prod decline, imports increase, prices rose and living stand decline
- Govt subsidies acc allowed inefficient farms to survive in south
- 1933 - Italy was dependent on foreign imports, 500 mil tonnes of foreign food imports take place in 1933
Battle for Births
• Launched 1927, goal of population increasing from 40 to 60 million by 1950
• Vital for development of strong Italian nation - youth required to supply the army, govern and pop overseas empire
• Measures taken:
- Rewards; loans to those who get married with part cancelled w/every child (6 children = no debt), employment more available to married men w/child, married man w/6 children no taxes, health provision, medals for # of children
- Punishments: Higher tax on 'unjustified celibacy' of bachelors 35 - 50 yrs, blocked from promotion, 1933 quota to limit employment of women in pub sector to 10%
• Marriage rate didn't change significantly, birth rate acc decreases until 1936, target population not reached, women still made up 33% of workforce only 3% decline
Battle for the Lira
• Revalued from 150 to 90 against British pound (Dec 1927), state takes more active role in eco
• Tariffs on imports to protect lira
• Govt active in regulating indus relations, managing stage fin & develop and modernisation of eco
• Revaluation undermines exports but imports cheaper benefitting steel and rearmament industries
• Wages fell more than prices, wc living standard declines, export industries e.g. car manufacturing suffer, unemployment triples 1926-28, foreign buyer prices double and textile industry goes into depression
Corporate State
• System of labour relations and organisation with all Fascist economic and social policies together
• Every industry to be part of Fas led corporation resolving management, pay and working condition disputes
• Syndicalism: Ideology whereby private business would remain w/o class conflict between unions and employers, eco system between capitalism and communism
Rocco Law
• Established sep corpor in sign areas, workers, employers and state officials included, acted like councils w/rep settling any industrial relation issues
• Prom syndicates argue fas syndicates should be basis of state, corpor of employers and employees run together
• Ensure; reg of big bus in wrkr interest and wrkrs wnt engage indus unrest
• Cons indust elite concerned, fear of alienation leads M to pass Rocco Law April 1926 rights of rep, comp arbitration of disputes concerning pay and conditions at labour tribunals, go-slows, strikes and lockouts banned, synd were to have no say on govt policy
• During dep of 1930s govt pursued pol to prop up big buss such as Montecatini (chemicals) and ILVA (steel)
Palazzo Vidoni Pact
• 2 October 1925
• M inherited diff but improving eco, 1st eco policy focused on large eco interest grps e.g. Fiat, but also prot the eco interests of small shop owners, irelli
• Ital bus ben from PNF policies as trade union pl constantly adapted to take into account indus interest and fas syndicates
• Agreement signed between Confindustria, industrial employers' association, and Fas trade union federation Each side recg the other as only negotiator for respective group
• Remaining unions dissolved 1926, Fasc monopoly defended by Labour and Anti-Strike Law
• Lockouts and strikes punishable by fine/prison
• Police, teachers, civil servants of Ministries of Interior, Foreign Affair etc banned from being union meb
Ministry of Corporations (1926)
• Dominated by state officials, didn't perform key role in defining policy
• Industrialists not supp
• Not fully operational till 1934, active in 22 areas of eco
• Performed sign role in labour relations and glorified propa
Trade Union Movement 1927
• Confidustria determined to retain control of bus and factories
• Fasc head of Min of Corp, Bottai, saw Rossoni as rival, wanted partnership between employers and experts
• 1927 M sides with Big Busi and Bottai, supp 'Labour Charter' which focuses on worker rights w/o posing threat to priv ownership of busi, employers retain right to change wrking hrs & cond
• Rossoni's single confed of Fas trade unions, broken into 6, supp removed from influential posts
• Trade unions become part of PNF, influence reduced, Ros pos weakened, removed as head 1928
Was the Corporate State successful?
• Failed to have impact on eco, end 1920s only one corpo formed, takes till 1934 for all areas to be covered, Nat Council of Corpor 1930
•Wrkrs couldn't choose reps for corpor, appointed fasc who sided w/industrialists
•Paid nat holiday formally intro 1938
•Indust allowed to maintain non-fasc org, corpor regulations only advisory, not implemented
• Used mainly as propaganda:
- Cath intellectuals argued Corp State social teachings implemented
- Internationally seemed Fasc State had estab successful system to deal w/labour disputes experienced by whole of Euro
• Prov distraction within PNF, competing wings debate basis and purpose
Measures to protect economy 1929 - 36
• M & govt wrk to prtct bnks that loaned £ to struggling industries
• 1931 Instituto Mobiliare Italiano (IMI), 1933 Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (IRI) both focus on rescuing industry and banks
• IRI use state fian to buy worthless shares and lent £ to industries, develop effctv mang helped banks and indust survive tho banking becomes state-owned
• June 1932 formation of cartels compu, limits comp and keeps prices high
• Institute of Foreign Exchange (IFE) set up 1934 to monopolise & regulate foreign exchange & currency trading, maintains value of lira
• Spending on pub wrk schemes and social welfare increase
Autarky
• Formally announced 1936 in attempt to ensure self-sufficiency before war as well as response to sanctions imposed by League of Nations in response to Ethiopian War
• High Commission on Autarky intro 1937 to supervise policies
• Measures taken; Battle for Grain, controls on currency, quotas on foreign imports, productions for import subs (lanital in place of wool, rayon for cotton etc), searches for new energy sources that didn't require oil/gas importing
• Prod of consumer goods became less of prio, reduces demands for imports, more fin avail for military and industry
• Negatives:
- No coal supplies, lil iron, no oil discovered
- Prod of coal, iron and oil met 1/5 of needs, raw materials e
- Wheat imports cut, other food imp rise
- Prices increase
- Unprio indust suffer
- Living stand decline
Battle for Land
• Fasc promise prosperity and land to small peasant farmers through land reclaimation
• M Law of 1928 promises huge sums of money towards land recla, compulsory, landowners who resist have lands confiscated
• Irrigation, aqueducts, house building and road building
• Successful in Rome's Campagna, Pontine Marshes (SE to Rome), areas were main barrier was drainage, policy of irrigation effective
• Reduces unemployment, many labour to reclaim land
• Also bought health ben, irrigated and drained land means malaria case reduced by ½
• Failure in most other regions, govt claims 1934 that reclaim under way on 4.75 hectares was lies
• Scheme had bad admin, 4 bil lire given to landowners over 10 ys, no oversight to ensure £ spent properly
• Comp purchase pwrs hardly used and poor fm who resettled were tiny (less than 10,000)
• Farmer wages fall by 50% 1926-34, thousands of men leave countryside for town
Mussolini's Early views of the Church
• Atheist father, followed
• Anti-clerical nature
• Angered by attempts to make peace through peace Note of Aug 1917 - helped spread pacifism after Ita defeat at Caporetto
• 1919 programme was anti-clerical, called for confiscation of all property
• Not conducive to taking pwr in maj Cath country, drops Anti-clericalism in 1920 New Prog → angered Futurists tho mst fas agreed that this was req for pwr
• First speech to Parl 1921, asserted pos view of Church
• Pope Pius IX:
- M was helped by death of Benedict XV in Jan 1920
- Pius took pwr in Jan 1922, concern w/comm threat of Ita, feared rev
- Wanted 'National Concentration' govt (fas to save It from left-wing revol)
• M responds 1922:
- Rel education reintro in state skls
- Crucifixes in pub buildings
- Priest had state pay increase
- Vatican stake in Bank of Rome secured s M uses state money to bail out bank
- Freemasonry, anti-clerical journals and taxing on church property banned
- M remarries wife Donna in Cath Church and has 3 children baptised
Church support of Mussolini
• Cath PPI destabilising force in lib Ita
• M's actions meant pope threw supp behind PNF, orders PPI leader Sturzo to resign, calls on PNF supp Undermines PPI threat
• Matteotti Crisis, backs M as PNF still strongest option vs socialists
• Led to opening of negotiation between Church and fas state on fin resol to 'Roman Question' (Ita unification) up to 1929
Move away from anti-clerical views 1922-26
• Influenced pop customs and morals and controlled welfare, edu and fin instit
• Agreement w/Church was favourable for M's search for conser elite supp
• 1919-22 Popolari competing w/Fasc movement for pol pwr
• Before Oct 1922, Sturzo, leader of PPI, sought coalitions w/other pol part
• Once M gained pwr, tensions remain:
- Existence of Cath trade unions rival to Fasc org
- Edu; M wanted to indoctrinate youth into Fas ideals clashed w/Church values
- Fas youth org vs Cath Action
- M's atheist bg
- Church viewed Fas as threat to social stability
Policies aimed at improving relations with Church
• M first Italian leader to reach agreement w/Church
• 1923 M saved bankrupt Bank of Rome which managed Church assets using extensive state funding
• Clergy salaries increased, no tax
• 3 mill lire granted to restore damaged church
• Rel edu reinstated in elem skls, crucifix in skl rooms and courts
• M moral crusade e.g. laws on divorce, abortion, adultery penalties, swearing offence, skirts and make up discouraged
• Had children baptised, and remarried wife of 10 years in church
• End of 1923 relation much improved despite tensions over vio and totalitarian aspirations, restoration of former papal states
• 1926 M in stronger pos, consolidated pwr, lasting pol sol w/Church
• PPI forced to dissolve, formal nego w/Church to resolve relationship
Lateran Pacts
• 1929 signed, signalling end to conflict since unification of 1870
• Pact 3 protocols:
1. Vatican City indep state, Pope as head, Catholicism sole faith of nation
2. Fin agreement reached prov compensation for Church land lost, received 750 mil lire and 1 bill in state bonds
3. Concordat signed recog church admin and rel struct sep and indep from stat institutions, rel edu comp in sec skls, teachers and textbooks church approved, pope appoints bishops, govt veto cand enemy of fas
• Grants Cath Church right to censorship over books, newspapers and films, marriage had to be confirmed by rel service, Cath Action recog as official org, Pope agrees no clergy to join any pol parties
Impact of the Lateran Pacts
✓ End of state and Church tensions resulted in further supp for M and reduction of Cath anti-fas activity
✓ Lim concessions to Cath Church
✓ Supp image as great statesman and man of peace, internationally and internally
✓ 1929 referendum about Lateran pacts = maj vote in favour
✓ Fascism and Church had shared values e.g. social stability, discipline, hierarchy, imp of fam and marriage, role of women as mothers Many Caths feel they can co-exist
✓ After signing many memb of church became active in fascism, priests part in ONB, priests and PNF of cooperated in camp vs films and short skirts
✓ Agreed upon policies e.g. M support for general Franco in Spanish Civil War
✗ No complete fascist revolution, some rad Fasc critical due to 'betrayal of fas ideas' and 3000 Cath priests supp protest letter condemning Archbishop of Milan open support for Fas in 1930
✗ Clash between Pius XI and M in 1931 due to attempt to suppress Cath Action, Pope criticised this in foreign and papal newspaper, compromise agreed w/activities restricted to rel, edu and recreational Memb grew from 250,000 to 380,000 1930-39
Church's response to anti-Semitic decrees 1938-39
• 1937 Pope Pius XI condemned anti-Semitism and criticised Ger for Jew pers
• M race laws in 1938 weren't popular, fasc press tried to convince Ita pop Jews were sep race and attacked Cath church and Pope
• Pope spoke out vs racialism, and ban on inter-marriage between Christians and Jews as it broke 1929 Concordat
• Pope's failure to effectively condemn M racial laws due to church memb having anti-Sem views, Key pope advisors said Jews part of alliance w/Soc and freemasons (threat to church) No action organised
• Next Pope (Pius XII) ineffective, didn't openly criticise Jew deportation during WW2
Church's support for dictatoship
• Pope Pius called M man sent by providence, openly endorsed fas regime
• 1928 M intro new electoral law which established that a plebiscite help April 1929 (8.63 mill votes cast, 90% of electorate, 98% voted for Fasc candidates) → Do you support the Lateran Pacts and the list of fas candidates put forward by the fascist Grand Council? (contrived exercise to show M had Italian supp, not thriving demo)
• Enable M to achieve bro ad consensus for rule
• Lateran Pacts, Catholic church prom that would mobilise Cath vote for Fascists
• Felt the [acts would be stronger if endorsed by govt supp by maj of Italians