7th Grade Science Review
Terms in this set (345)
All living things are made up of ______.
A parent containing two of the same alleles.
A parent containing two different alleles.
Cloud that is highest in the atmosphere, above 6000 meters up.
Most abundant gas in the atmosphere. (Makes up 78%)
Second most abundant gas in the atmosphere. (Makes up 21%)
Layer of the atmosphere that we live in; also contains most weather.
Coldest layer of the atmosphere where most meteors burn up.
Layer of the atmosphere that contains our protective ozone and is right below the mesosphere.
Layer of the atmosphere that contains auroras. It is in between the mesosphere and thermosphere.
Farthest out layer that extends into space.
Tool used for measuring wind speed.
Tool used for measuring air pressure.
The distance above sea level is called __________.
Result of weight of a column of air pushing down on an area.
The amount of mass in a given volume of air.
Logical explanation drawn from prior knowledge; an educated guess.
Pollen, dust, ash, and salt.
What solid particles are in the atmosphere?
Water droplets and acids.
What liquid particles are in the atmosphere?
Water in the form of a gas.
This weather tool determines wind direction.
This weather tool measures air temperature.
Explanation made based on observation and inferences as a starting point prior to further experimentation.
A statement about what you think will happen next in a series of events.
This weather tool measures the amount of precipitation at a given time.
There is less dense air and therefore less pressure in this altitude.
There is denser air and therefore greater air pressure in this altitude.
Displays of colored light that occur in the ionosphere.
When humans exhale, we produce this gas that organisms use during photosynthesis.
Pulls everything towards the Earth's surface.
The direct transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves.
High speed winds found about 10 km above the Earth's surface.
Process by which the Earth's atmosphere traps heat in the air.
Air movement caused by differences in air pressure.
Flow of air from land to water.
Flow of air from water to land.
Transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid.
Transfer of heat by two touching substances.
Effect where the wind curves due to Earth's rotation.
The Earth rotates on its _____.
Form of energy that can travel through the vacuum of space.
Winds that blow over short distances.
Winds that blow over long distances.
These are formed as warm air rises and cold air sinks.
This type of air rises.
This type of air sinks.
Type of energy that has short wavelengths and can cause sunburns or cancer.
Steady winds that flow towards the equator.
Areas of high pressure and calm air.
The amount of water vapor in the air at a given time.
Part of the water cycle where gaseous water cools and condenses to form clouds.
Part of the water cycle where excess water travels across the Earth into varying lakes, ponds, and oceans.
Part of the water cycle where water changes from a liquid to a gas.
Part of the water cycle where this substance falls from clouds as snow, rain, sleet, or hail.
Amount of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount of vapor the air could have at a given temperature.
These form when water droplets or ice crystals condense in the atmosphere.
Clouds that form near the Earth's surface.
Fluffy clouds that are found 2000-6000 meters up in the atmosphere.
Flat, white layered clouds found up to 2000 meters up in the atmosphere; the lowest of the three.
Most common form of precipitation that's at least 0.5 mm in diameter.
Round pellets of ice larger than 5 mm in diameter. They grow in size when passing through cold regions of the cloud.
Makes flakes that are different sizes and are 6-sided crystals. Water vapor condenses into ice crystals to form this substance.
Forms when ice particles are less than 5 mm in diameter. When rain falls through air below 0 degrees C (32 degrees F), it freezes into ice particles known as this.
Type of rain that freezes when it touches a surface. Forms a smooth, thick layer of ice on a surface.
Temperature at which air is saturated and condensation can occur.
1. All living things are made of cells.
2. Cells are the smallest unit of structure and function in all living things.
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
A tiny structure that carries out a function within a cell.
A rigid outer layer found only in plant cells that surrounds the cellular membrane of a cell.
Found in both plant and animal cells, it controls what comes in and out of a cell.
Part of the cell that contains DNA and is known as the "control center."
Gel-like plasma membrane found in cells that supports the organelles.
The "powerhouse" of a cell that produces most of the energy used to carry out cellular functions.
Organelle that has passageways used for transporting proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another.
Organelle that assembles amino acids to create proteins.
Receives proteins and molecules from the ER, packages them, and distributes them.
Captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food in plant cells through a process known as photosynthesis.
A water-filled sac inside a cell that acts as a storage area for food, water, wastes, and other materials.
Organelle that breaks down food and digests old cell parts to help "clean" the cell.
A single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.
An organism whose cells contain a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
Tiny strands inside the nucleus that contain the instructions (DNA) for directing the cell.
Found inside the nucleus; it produces ribosomes.
Scientist that named the cell.
Cell Wall, chloroplasts, and bigger vacuoles.
What does a plant cell have that an animal cell does not?
What does an animal cell have that a plant cell does not?
Envelope that surrounds the nucleus.
Nucleic acid, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.
What are the four types of macromolecules found in a cell?
The process a plant goes through to make sugar or glucose using sunlight.
Cell division where 2 identical cells are formed, which are called daughter cells. The nucleus and its contents divide in this phase.
A process of cell division that involves two rounds of cell division and that is specific to sex cells in which 4 daughter cells are formed.
Reproduction that requires only one parent.
Two cells that come from the division of a cell.
Body cells, like nerve cells or blood cells, are known as ___________ ______.
Structures found within a cell that are made up of DNA and genes.
Reproduction that requires the joining of an egg cell and a sperm cell, which come from two separate powers.
Specific site on a chromosome that determines the physical trait of an organism.
Sex cells are known as __________.
First phase of mitosis begins where centrioles appear and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell.
Occurs right before mitosis starts, where chromosomes are copied and appear threadlike.
Second stage of mitosis where chromatid attach to spindle fibers and they line up in the middle of the cell.
Third stage of mitosis where chromatids begin to move to opposite ends of the cells.
Fourth stage of mitosis where two nuclei form and chromosomes appear as chromatin.
Last stage of mitosis where the cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells. The cytoplasm and its contents divide in this phase.
Genetic information or coding within a cell.
Two identical strands of DNA that make up the duplicated chromosome.
Object that holds the sister chromatids together.
When cells become specialized so that different cells can be formed.
Cells with two sets of chromosomes. Body cells are _________.
Cells with one set of chromosomes. Sex cells are __________.
Structure formed in prophase along which the chromosomes move.
A form of sexual reproduction in single-celled organism by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size.
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for movement.
A protist that has a single flagellum to move itself and can obtain its nutrients by photosynthesis.
Long, whiplike structure that aids a cell in movement.
Found in a paramecium, it's an opening of the mouth pore that stores food.
An organism that cannot make its own food and eats other things.
Unicellular eukaryotes that must live in a wet environment and can be plant-like or animal-like.
A type of protist characterized by great flexibility and the presence of psuedopods.
An organism that is capable of making its own food.
A group of volvox together is called a ________.
An area on a protist that is sensitive to the amount of light in an environment.
A false foot found on a protist.
A colony of green algae, resembling a hollow ball.
The passing of physical characteristics from parent to offspring.
Genetic makeup of an organism.
Physical appearance of an organism, resulting from its genotype.
Different forms of the same gene.
The scientific study of heredity.
Organism composed of two different alleles; heterozygous is also known as this.
Organism composed of two of the same alleles; homozygous is known as this.
Trait that always shows up in a phenotype when the allele is present.
Trait that does not show up in a phenotype because it's blocked by the dominant allele.
A physical characteristic such as eye color, hair color, height, seed color, etc.
Inheritance pattern in which the alleles are neither dominant nor recessive. Both traits can be present in the organism. Ex.) Black chicken and white chicken make a black and white speckled chicken.
Inheritance pattern in which both traits blend together. Ex.) White flower and red flower make a pink flower.
Scientist who studied genetics with pea plants, and is also known as the Father of Genetics.
A diagram that shows inherited traits within a family.
These can sometimes influence or affect the expression of a gene.
These show possible outcomes (offspring) produced from genetic crosses.
Two X chromosomes make an offspring of this sex. (XX)
An X and a Y chromosome make an offspring of this sex. (XY)
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell.
These genes are carried on the X chromosomes.
An X-linked recessive disease. The individual's blood does not clot properly, causing severe bleeding from minor cuts.
Someone who has one recessive and one dominant gene; a heterozygous individual.
On a pedigree, females are represented by this shape.
On a pedigree, males are represented by this shape.
This color of shapes on a pedigree means the individual has the condition.
This color of shapes on a pedigree means the individual does not have the condition.
Half White/Black Shapes
This color of shapes on a pedigree means the individual is a carrier of the condition.
Affects the nerve cells of the brain, which results in deterioration of the mental and physical abilities.
A slight mutation of the X chromosome that causes the individual to see certain colors incorrectly.
A genetic mutation that leads to difficulty breathing and lack of enzyme production in the pancreas. It also causes the production of mucus in the lungs, liver, and pancreas.
Down Syndrome or Trisomy 21
A genetic mutation caused by an extra 21st chromosome, which leads to developmental disabilities and distinctive facial features.
The skeleton of the head that forms a bony case that encloses and protects the brain and chief sense organs and supports the jaws.
The lower jaw bone.
The collarbone; a very sensitive bone.
The bone that connects the ribs.
The upper arm bone.
The bones of the hand that connect to the fingers.
The bones of the foot that connect to the toes.
The bones of the kneecap.
Finger and toe bones.
Bone in forearm "on the thumb side," that's larger in the proximal forearm.
The bones in the chest that protect the heart and lungs.
The inner and thicker of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle.
Inner and larger bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger.
The bones of the ankle.
The bones of the wrist.
The 26 small bones that make up a backbone.
The thigh bone.
The lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg between the knee and ankle.
Protects internal organs and supports the lower extremities. A cup-shaped ring of bone at the lower end of the trunk.
An oval, bony case that protects the brain.
Nerves and blood vessels are located in this part of the skin.
This type of muscle tires quickly during exercise.
The process by which an organism's internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment.
Muscle cells can only contract.
Why must skeletal muscles work in pairs?
Injury in which a bone comes out of a joint.
Protection from sunburn.
What is the function of melanin in the skin?
Muscle found only in the heart.
A hinge joint goes __________ and ___________.
This is a structure made up of different kinds of tissue.
By enabling excess heat to escape the body through perspiration.
How does the skin help regulate body temperature?
This type of body tissue can contract.
Joint at the base of the neck.
Joints in the elbows and knees.
Joints in the wrists and ankles.
Ball and Socket
Joints in the hips and shoulders.
Joints in the skull.
Protects organs, allows movement, produces blood cells, provides shape & support, and stores minerals and materials.
What are the functions of the skeleton?
Connector between two bones.
Name the thing the arrow is pointing to.
Name the thing the arrow is pointing to.
Name the thing the arrow is pointing to.
Name the thing the arrow is pointing to.
The outer layer of skin.
Blood travels through these.
Strong, connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
This type of muscle is inside many internal organs, is involuntary, isn't striated, and does not tire or react quickly.
This type of muscle is attached to bones, is voluntary and striated, and tires and reacts quickly.
This type of muscle found in the walls of the heart is involuntary, striated, and does not tire quickly.
Injury in which a bone is cracked but does not break completely.
Structure in which waste material is compressed into solid form.
A flap of tissue that seals off your windpipe when you swallow food.
A thick, slippery substance that lines the esophagus.
The process that involves the movement of nutrients through the walls of your digestive system into your blood.
Involuntary waves of muscle contractions that keep food moving in one direction through the digestive system.
Most mechanical digestion occurs in this organ that's a part of the digestive system.
Tube that connects the mouth and the stomach.
This liquid mixes with with food to moisten and soften it.
The process of breaking down food into small nutrient molecules.
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body. Chemical digestion is accomplished by _________.
This part of the digestive system is where nutrients are removed from food and enter through the blood stream. Digestion is completed here.
This part of the digestive system is where solid material, which is not used by the body, is stored here for at least 24 hours. Water is removed during that time.
Produces bile used to break down food.
Stores bile produced by the liver.
Produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine.
Solid waste exits the body through this opening.
This enzyme breaks up fat molecules and is produced in the liver.
Tiny finger-shaped structures in the small intestine in which absorption occurs.
Filter waste and excess water from the blood.
Tubes that take urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
A sac that stores urine.
Small tube that leads urine out of the body.
Kidneys, lungs, and the skin.
Name the 3 organs that excrete waste.
Removes excess water, urea, carbon dioxide, and other wastes from our blood.
What is the function of the excretory system?
These remove carbon dioxide from the blood and are the main organs of the respiratory system, used to take in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide.
Water, urea (waste product of broken down proteins by the liver), and trace minerals.
What does normal urine have in it?
T and B Cells
What are the 2 major kinds of lymphocytes?
Which cells produce antibodies that destroy pathogens?
Marker molecules that the immune system recognizes as part of the body or not.
Fluid inside your lymphatic system consisting of water and dissolved materials.
Where the body falsely identifies part of itself as an invader or a pathogen.
By recognizing the antigen on the pathogen.
How do T cells recognize pathogens?
Phagocytes destroy the cells and their viruses.
What happens to body cells infected by viruses?
This system consists of a network of tubes and organs that transport fluids and filter out wastes before returning blood to the blood stream.
Liquid part of the blood. Water makes up 90% of ________.
A small knob of tissue that removes wastes and germs from the lymph.
An iron-containing protein that binds to oxygen molecules.
What takes deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart?
What takes oxygenated blood from the heart to different parts of the body?
These are one cell thick as to exchange materials in the blood.
White Blood Cells
These cells are known as "disease fighters."
What helps blood clot by creating fibrin?
Glucose, fat, vitamins, and minerals.
Plasma contains these 4 items.
Red Blood Cells
These cells carry oxygen and hemoglobin.
Lower chambers of the heart that pump blood.
This body system consists of blood, blood vessels, and the heart.
The force caused by the pumping of blood in the ventricles.
Upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the body to pass to the ventricles.
Loop of the cardiovascular system that brings blood to the body and then back to the heart.
Loop of the cardiovascular system that brings blood to the lungs and then back to the heart.
A hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood through the body.
Blood returning from the lungs is oxygen-_______.
Blood returning from the body is oxygen-________.
A tube made up of rings of cartilage that air passes through after it leaves the pharynx (throat).
A system of organs that we use to inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide.
The passageways from the trachea to the lungs.
Voice Box (Larynx)
The organ that covers the vocal chords.
Tiny air sacs found at the end of the bronchioles, where gas exchange occurs between the lungs and the bloodstream.
The muscle that controls the movement of air into and out of the lungs. It contracts and air rushes into the lungs. It relaxes and air rushes out of the lungs.
Part of the brain that controls breathing and your heartbeat.
Part of the central nervous system that controls most body functions.
Your ____________ nervous system controls involuntary actions.
Part of the brain that controls and interprets input from the senses. Controls the movement of skeletal muscles and carries out complex mental processes.
Part of the brain that maintains balance.
Thick column of nerve tissue.
What your body does in reaction to a stimulus.
Messages that neurons carry.
Cells that carry information through the nervous system.
Bruise-like injury to the brain.
Automatic response that you have no conscious control over.
Change in the environment that causes a reaction.
Bundle of nerve fibers.
Part of the brain that sends nerve messages, makes hormones, and maintains homeostasis.
Chemical product of the endocrine system that turns on, turns off, speeds up, or slows down the activities of different organs and tissues.
Gland that responds to emergencies.
Gland that works with the hypothalamus to control body activities.
Gland that controls the release of energy from food.
Hormones only react to this type of cell.
The _________ nervous system controls voluntary actions.
Lobe in the brain that stores memories.
This system controls emotions.
An object's mass and velocity.
An _____________ force causes an object's motion to change; the forces are not balanced.
A ____________ force does not cause an object's motion to change as the net force is zero because they cancel each other out.
An object is considered in _________ if its distance from the reference point is changing.
Forces that either attract or repel each other.
An object's speed and direction.
Force one surface exerts on another when the two come in contact with each other.
Rolling, static, and sliding.
Name the three types of friction.
Combination of all forces acting on an object.
What is the unit for force?
The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.
Force that causes an object to move in a circular motion.
A push or a pull.
The amount of matter in an object.
Newton's 2nd Law (of Acceleration)
Force = Mass x Acceleration
Newton's 1st Law (of Inertia)
Things at rest stay at rest and things in motion stay in motion, unless acted upon by an outside force.
Newton's 3rd Law (of Action and Reaction)
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
The force that gravity has on an object or person to the surface of a planet.
Turbines in a power plant rotate these around a piece of wire to make an electric current.
Negatively charged particles; electricity is the flow of these.
This is a combination of amps (amperage) and volts (voltage).
Static electricity is a form of ___________ energy.
In power plants, coal is burned to make steam and the steam turns this which rotates magnets to create an electrical field.
Currents are controlled with _________.
In this current, electrons flow in the same direction. (DC)
In this current, electrons flow in different directions. (AC)
Type of energy from friction, stove burners, and baking in an oven; heat energy.
Type of energy found in a battery, when burning coal, or lighting a match.
Type of energy in sunlight, x-rays, gamma rays, and microwaves.
Type of energy in power lines and power cords.
This circuit has all components on one path, so if the circuit is broken, all components turn off.
This circuit has several branching circuits so that if one circuit is broken, only the components on that branching circuit turn off.
This measures the amount of electricity flowing through a current.
The build up of an electrical charge on the surface of an object.
This measures the pressure of electricity.
Rate at which the work is done.
Wheel and Axle
Simple machine where wheel revolves around a post. Ex.) Screwdriver
Simple machine made up of an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder. Ex.) Jar lid
A lever rotates on this fixed point.
Simple machine of a solid bar that rotates around a fulcrum. There are 1st, 2nd, and 3rd class _______s.
A machine made from two or more simple machines.
1st Class Lever
In this lever, the fulcrum is in the middle, with effort and load on either side. Ex.) Seesaw
2nd Class Lever
In this lever, the load is in the middle with the fulcrum and effort on either side. Ex.) Wheelbarrow
3rd Class Lever
In this lever, the effort is in the middle with the fulcrum and load on either side. Ex.) Shovel
Simple machine with a rope or chain wrapped around a grooved wheel.
Simple machine that is a flat, slanting surface.
Simple machine that is thick on one end and tapers to a thin edge at the other end.
The transfer of energy to an object by a force that makes an object move in the direction of the force.
Unit of measure for distance when recording work done.
A device that makes doing something easier.
Ratio of the input force to the output force of a machine.
The rate of change of position in which the same distance is traveled each second.
Speed of an object at a specific instance in time.
Total distance traveled divided by the total time taken to travel that distance. (S=D/T)
On a speed-time graph, a line at (0,0) means the object is __________.
On this distance-time graph, the object is ____________.
If the object is accelerating in this picture, this is a ________-time graph.
On this distance-time graph, the object is ___________.
In this picture, the object is moving at a _________ speed.
If the speed increases, if the speed decreases, or if the direction changes.
What are the three ways an object can accelerate?
On a distance-time graph, the steeper the slope of a line, the ___________ the speed of the object.