HD FINAL Study Guide

Operant Conditioning
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Terms in this set (79)
Mirror Neuronsspecialized cells in motor areas of the cerebral cortex in primate that underlie these capacities. -linked to autism when mirror neurons are dysfunctional -They fire identically when a primate hears or sees an action and when it carries out that action on its ownHabituationAn organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it -a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulationSchemesorganized paradigms of action or thought that we use to interpret our experience -They change as we age - a carpenter has a limited number of ideas about how to use a hammer, a child has many -specific psychological structures, organized ways of making sense of experience, change with ageAssimilationUsing current schemes to interpret external world -we create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely -Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemasAdaptionBuilding schemes through direct interaction with environment - -The process of becoming adapted to an environmentObject Permanencethe awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived -peek a boo not as effective (8 -12 months) -the understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sightCognitive Disequilibration-occurs when children are in a rapid cognitive change a state of balance between individuals' mental schemata, or frameworks, and their environment. Such balance occurs when their expectations, based on prior knowledge, fit with new knowledge.Egocentrismfailure to distinguish others' symbolic viewpoints from one's own • Tend to focus on their own viewpoint and simply assume that others perceive, think, and feel the same way they doAnimistic Thinking• the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, feelings, wishes, and intentionsTelegraphic Speechearly speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram—"go car"—using mostly nouns and verbs. - two-word utterances, like a telegram, they focus on high-content words, omitting smaller, less important onesCriticisms of Piaget w/ Follow Up Research-A major criticism stems from the very nature of a stage theory. The stages may be inaccurate or just plain wrong. Weiten (1992) points out that Piaget may have underestimated the development of young children. -These views do not result from egocentrism, as Piaget suggested. Rather they are partly an outgrowth of advances in perspective taking, which cause young teenagers to be more concerned with what others thinkProximal Distancethe distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance,Scaffoldingthe support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growthSensorimotor Stagebirth-2 years, senses and motor skills (object permanence)Pre-operational Stage2-7 years, represent things with words and images (pretend play, egocentrism, language development)Concrete Operational Stage7-12 years, think logical about concrete events and grasping concrete analogies (conservation)Formal Operational Stage12-adulthood, think about hypothetical scenarios and processing abstract thoughts (abstract, logical, potential for mature moral reasoning)Reversibility• capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting pointClass inclusionregarded by Piaget as a measure of the child's mastery of the structure of hierarchical classificationconservation• the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changeshypothetico deductive reasoningwhen faced with a problem young people start with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. Then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real worldmetacognition• central to adolescent cognitive development • is a powerful asset in training efforts. Most are aware of memory declines. Their metacognitive understanding is also evident in the wide-ranging techniques they devise to compensate for everyday cognitive challenges -awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes.imaginary audienceadolescents' belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern. May serve positive, protective functionspersonal fablecertain that others are observing and thinking about them, teenagers develop an inflated opinion of their own importance - a feeling that they are special and unique.idealismany of various systems of thought in which the objects of knowledge are held to be in some way dependent on the activity of mind.stereotype threata situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of conforming to stereotypes about their social group. Since its introduction into the academic literature, stereotype threat has become one of the most widely studied topics in the field of social psychology. -girls verbal, boys mathepisodic memorythe collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place -recall of everyday experiencesremote memory-Very long-term recall -Autobiographical memoryrecallA measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlierfluid intelligencethe general ability to think abstractly, reason, identify patterns, solve problems, and discern relationships.crystallized intelligenceis the ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience. It does not equate to memory, but it does rely on accessing information from long-term memoryWisdom-Depth and breadth of practical knowledge -Reflect on knowledge -Apply knowledge to improve life -Listening and evaluating -Advice -Altruistic creativity -Doesn't matter how old you are -experience death contributes to wisdom -Anne Frank=wise for 15who is wise?-Life experience -Age is no guarantee ◦Combined with life experience, it helps -Human service training, practice -Overcoming adversity -Rare -Age not a predictor -Use of consultation and reflection -Seems to require intelligence, personality, cognitive styleterminal declineDistance to death, getting worse without any chance to improvePre conventional level• Morality is externally controlled. Children accept the rules of authority figures and judge actions by their consequences • Behaviors that result in punishment are viewed as bad, those that lead to rewards as goodstage 1: punishment & obediencechildren @ this stage find it difficult to consider two points of view in moral dilemma. As a result, they overlook people's intentions. Instead, they focus on fear of authority and avoidance of punishment as reasons for behaving morally "I would cheat if I knew I wouldn't get caught"stage 2: instrumental purposechildren become aware that people can have different perspectives in a moral dilemma, but at first this understanding is concrete. They view right action as flowing from self-interest and understand reciprocity as equal exchange of favors: "you do this for me and I'll do this for you"conventional levelindividuals continue to regard conformity to social rules as important, but not for reasons of self-interest. Rather, they believe that actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive relationships and societal orderstage 3: "Good boy-good girl" (Morality on interpersonal cooperationThe desire to obey rules b/c they promote social harmony first appears in the context of close personal ties. Want to maintain the affection and approval of friends and relatives by being a "good person" -trustworthy, loyal, respectful, helpful, and nice. Individuals understand ideal reciprocity: they express the same concern for the welfare of another as they do for themselves. -"I'm not going to tell because I want her to like me"Stage 4: Social Order Maintainingthe individual takes into account a larger perspective—that of societal laws. Moral choices no longer depend on close ties to others. Instead, rules must be enforced in the same evenhanded fashion for everyone, and each member of society has a personal duty to uphold them. Believes that laws should never be disobeyed b/c they are vital for ensuring societal order and cooperation b/w people -"You can't do that because the teacher said no"Post conventional or Principle Levelmove beyond unquestioning support for their own society's rules and laws. They define morality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societiesStage 5: Social Contractindividuals regard laws and rules as flexible instruments for furthering human purposes. They can imagine alternatives to their own social order and they emphasize fair procedures for interpreting and changing the law. When laws are consistent w/ the interests of the majority, each person follows them b/c of a social contract orientation—free and willing participation in the system b/c it brings abut more good for people than if it did not exist "In this case, the rule may be wrong"Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle@ the highest stage, right action is defined by self-chosen ethical principles of conscience that are valid for all people, regardless of law and social agreement. Mention abstract principles as respect for the worth and dignity of each person "You shouldn't lie b/c it violates the Golden Rule"Who gets to post conventional moral level and why?The resulting consensus is the action taken. In this way action is never a means but always an end in itself; the individual acts because it is right, and not because it avoids punishment, is in their best interest, expected, legal, or previously agreed upon. Although Kohlberg insisted that stage six exists, he found it difficult to identify individuals who consistently operated at that levelSigns of impending deathBlood pressure drops, body temperature drops, hands and feet begin to turn blue, body turns gray-blue, activity declines, urine declines, communication declines, sleeping, etc. death is long and drawn out for three-fourths of people - more than in times of the past, as a result of life-saving medical technology • In the days/hours before death, activity declines, the person moves and communicates less, shows little interest in food, water, and surroundings, body temp, blood pressure, and circulation to the limbs fall (hands and feet are cold and skin changes to a dull gray hue),Clinical deatha short interval follows in which heartbeat, circulation, breathing, and brain functioning stops, but resuscitation is still possibleMoralitythe individual passes into permanent death. Within a few hours, the newly lifeless being appears shrunken, not at all like the person he or she was when aliveSocial attitudes towards death by: teensCan explain the permanence and cessation aspects of death but are attracted to alternatives • Describe death as darkness, eternal light, nothingness • Formulate personal theories about life after death • Teenage deaths are typically sudden and human-induced: unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide=leading causes • Difficulty with integrating logic with reality in the domain of death • Might be attracted to romantic notions of deathSocial attitudes towards death by: childhoodHopeful about things because they don't understand how final death is and may blame themselves and often asks several questions • Understanding of death based off of permanence, inevitability, cessation, applicability, causation • Children need to know basic notions of biology and break down their global category of not alive, into dead, inanimate, unreal, and nonexistent • May believe they caused the death, that having a stomachache can lead to death, that dead people eat, see, go to the bathroom, and think, and that death is like sleep • Encourage kids to think of positive qualities and sustain emotional connections • Terminally ill kids under age 6 have well-developed concept of death • Religious teaching affect children's understandingSocial attitudes towards death by: adulthoodWant to brush aside thoughts of death • Prompted by death anxiety or due to relative lack of interest in death-related issues • Adults think and talk about death more b/c it is closer • Death anxiety—fear and apprehension of death. Even people who clearly accept the reality of death may fear itzone of proximal developmentVygotsky -tasks child cannot do alone but can learn to do with help of more skilled partners -social contexts contribute to cognitive developmentdeferred imitationthe ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not presentcircular reactionprovides a special means of adapting their first schemes. it involves stumbling onto a new experience caused by the baby's own motor activity. the reaction is circular b/c as the infant tries to repeat the event again and again, a sensorimotor response that first occurred by chance strengthens into a new schemeorganization-a process that takes place internally, apart from direct contact w/ the environment -once children form new schemes, they rearrange them, linking them with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive systemgoal-directed behaviorcoordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problemsmental representationsinternal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate 1. Images 2. conceptsmake believe playchildren act out everyday and imaginary activitiesviolation-of-expectation methodthey may habituate babies to a physical event to familiarize them w/ a situation in which their knowledge will be tested. or they may simply show babies an expected event and an unexpected event. heightened attention to the unexpected event suggests that the infant is surprised by a deviation from physical reality and is aware of that aspect of the physical worldvideo deficit effectpoorer performance after a video than a live demonstrationcore knowledge perspectivebabies are born w/ a set of innate knowledge systems, or core domains of thought. each of these prewired understandings permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid developmentlanguage acquisitionan innate system that contains a universal grammar, or set of rules common to all languages. it enables children no matter which language they hear, to understand and speak in a rule-oriented fashion as soon as they pick up enough wordscooingaround 2 months, make vowel-like noisesbabblingconsonant-vowel combos in long stringsjoint attentionchild attends to the same object or event as the caregiver - the child attends to the same object or event as the caregiverunder extensionapply words too narrowlyoverextensionapplying a word to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriatereferential stylevocab consists mainly of words that refer to objectsexpressive styleproduce many more social formulas and pronounsrecoverynew stimulus causes responsiveness to return to a high level