43 terms

A Level History Edexcel: Italy Topic 4


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Mussolini's Foreign Policy Aims
• To achieve great pwr status = to Brit and Fra
• Promote Ita prestige abroad, poor int image (result of WW1) to be changed
• Address injustice of ToV ('Mutilated victory'), gain Fiume to enhance M's rep domestically and internationally
• Estab Ita dominance in Mediterranen and extend influence in Adriatic Sea/Balkans
• Gain strong empire to add to Libya, Eritrea and Somaliland
• Ita unable to be influential 1922, paled in comparison to Brit and Fra militarily and diplomatically
• Late '20s becomes more determined to reverse ToV, tho maintains face relationship w/Brit and Fra veering between speeches of friendship and denouncing them as parasites
• Claimed Ita was prisoner encircled by Brit and Fra milt bases in Tunisia, Malta, kept in pos by Brit's control of nat resources e.g. coal
• Fasc propaganda portrayed M as infallible defender of Ita interests
• M attempted to make other leaders see him as dynamic and central pol force unsuccessful
Search for Allies
• 1923: Treaties w/ POL, Czecho and Austria
• 1924: USSR and Switzerland
• 1925: Hungary, Spain, Albania and Greece
• Largely concerned commercial matters, brang 0 prestige
• M had rep for switching allegiances when suited him treaties counted for lil politically
• British Ambassador in Rome said M 'offered Italian friendship to the highest bidder'
Corfu 1923
• 17 August, Italian general Tellini and four aides assassinated in Greece, part of League of Nations mission to establish Greece/Albania border
• M demands off apology, 50 mill lire compensation, salute by Greek navy to Ita flag, arrest of those resp within 5 day and execution one day to accept terms and 5 to pay
• Greek govt refuse, M bombs and occupies Corfu
• 31st Aug Ita navy arrive
• Referred by League of Nations to Conference of Ambassadors (council of Ita, Brit, Fra and Jap aimed to settle territorial disputes after WW1), Greece ordered to pay indemnity in return for Ita withdrawal from Corfu
Balkans 1924
• Pact of Rome 1924 = return of Fiume to Ita, increasing M prestige and pop, despite its eco decline
• Success convinces M to dominate Yugoslavia
• Ahmed Zog, took pwr in Albania, receiving fin and pol support from It, M encouraged It companies to invest in Albania
• 1926 Treaty of Friendship signed w/Albania confirming it as satellite state for Italy
• Presented Yugoslavia w/milt threat, also tried to stabalise by supp separatist Croatia + RW militias
Locarno Treaties 1925
• Conference set up in Locarno, Switzerland of Euro powers, attended by rep of great pwrs (foreign ministers of Brit and Fra, Chancellor of Ger)
• Ger western frontiers and demilt Rhineland zone confirmed
• M makes dramatic entrance, flanked by Fas bodyguard appearance boycotted by journalists
Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928
• Outlawed war as means of resolving conflict
• 9 countries sign 27th Aug, further 56 later
• M attempts to persuade delegates to travel to Rome to sign it, refused, M eventually sends rep to sign
• M later dismissed agreement in speech to parliament
Relations w/Britain and France
• Portrayed himself as model statesman supportive of Brit and Fra interests confirmed via:
- Ita remains memb of League of Nations
- M signs Locarno Treaties 1925
- Signs Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928
• Reach agreement w/Brit over location of colonial borders in North Africa, resolving tensions over border between Libya and Egypt
• M commitment to such pacts was wary, speaking lightly of them, prepared to exploit int and Euro developments for Ita benefit
Relations w/Germany
• Late '20s M prov financial supp to RW Ger grps in hopes of the emergence of a fascist sympathetic govt
• Allowed Ger to train as milt pilots within Ita, aware that strong Ger would counter-balance Bri and Fra pwr
• H comes to pwr; M concerned to lose influence to resurgent Ger
• Ger's withdrawal from Disarmament Conference and League of nations led M to call Four-Power Conference in Rome between Ita, Fra, Brit and Ger hoping for resolution to rising tensions
• Nazi racial theory labelled Ita inferior and had competing interests in colonialism e.g. clash over Austria
• When Austria was threatened by Ger, Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss sought Ita assistance, M encourages clamp down on Austrian Nazis demanding Anschluss (Union) w/Ger (Italy felt Austria was rightfully theirs, not Ger)
• Feb 1934 M encourages establishment of authoritarian regime
• July 1934 Dollfuss assassinated by Nazi supp, M ordered 40,000 troops on Austrian border, telling H not to attempt Anschluss
Stresa Front 1935
• Ger announcement of developing airforce Luftwaffe allowed M to call meeting w/Brit and Fra to discuss going vs ToV
• Conference arranged April 1935 in Stresa, Fre FM Laval and Brit PM MacDonald
• Brit, Fra and Ita jointly criticised Ger rearmament
• Agreed to cooperate to prev any indivd country from unilaterally abandoning prev agreed peace treaty
• Reaffirmed supp for Locarno Treaties signed 1925
• Would supp Austria remaining indep
• Vague, didn't include spec commitments for action, not prepared to invade Ger
• Appearance of unity but leaders divided in how to deal w/Ger
• Brit govt undermine Stresa Front when signing Anglo-Ger naval agreement June 1935 w/o consulting Ita or Fra - M uses this as excuse to abandon agreements
Mussolini's aims w/Stresa Front
• M cooperates w/Brit and Fra so he could pursue key aim of imperial expansion in NA
• Establishment of Stresa Front wasn't dramatic shift in M's FP aims, but hope to stop H pursuing further aggro FP aims and Anschluss
• Hoped to gain Brit and Fra concessions to expand Italian colonies
• Shift to Ethiopian conquest strains Brit relations and furthers Stresa Front
Reasons for invasion of Abyssinia
• M gradually increases # of Ita milt forces in Eritrea since 1932
- Satisfy Ita nat amb and build up Ita territory in East Africa and demonstrate Ita as great pwr
- Avenge Adowa humiliation 1896
- Show H that Ita was strong state
- Increase regime's pop within Ita
- Find new markets for Ita prod and sources of raw materials
- Develop colonies for Ita to move on
Wal Wal Incident
• Dec 1934, milt confrontation takes place where 150 Abyssinians and 50 Italians killed
• M had authorised establishment of fort in Wal Wal in 1930 inside Abyssinian territory
• Emperor Selassie wanted fort removed and appeal for int supp
• Confrontation bought Abyssinia and Ita closer to war
• M appoints De Bono, colonial minister, as commander-in-chief of Ita forces in East Africa in March 1935 w/continued milt build-up
• Oct 1935 220,000 troops on Eritrean border w/Abyssinia, Selassie continues seeking supp from League of Nations to prev invasion, unsuccessful
Events of Abyssinian Invasion
• 3 Oct 1935 M authorised invasion w/force of 400,000 men (way more than needed to conquer small country)
• 6 Oct Adowa captured, symbolic as this was where Ita had prev failed in 1896
• Advance was slow due to need to build roads as army moved, frustrated M, removed Gen De Bono from post, appoints Gen Badoglio in his place
• Counter-attacks stalling ita advance
• Badoglio engaged in brutal war, mass aerial bombings, murder of prisoners of war and illegal use of poisonous chemicals
• 1936 win war as result of milt build-up involving 600,000 troops and air power
• Gen Badoglio led final assault on Abyssinian capital, Addis Ababa, resulting in Selassie's exile
• End of war declared on 5 May 1936 w/250,000 Abyssinians killed and Ita first to use chemical weapons vs local community
• King Victor Emmanuel III declared Emperor of Italian Territories in East Africa, vic resulted in growing pop for M within Ita
• Church praised victory due to opportunity to spread Catholicism
Negative consequences of Abyssinian invasion
• Budget deficit rose from 2.5 - 16 billion lire
• Ongoing cost - 130,000 Ita settled and Ita garrisons (250,000 troops stationed) expensive to maintain
• Lira devalued by 40% in Oct 1936, w/only 2% of Ita trade w/colonies 1939
• Abyssinians wage guerrilla war till 1941, where country was taken by British
• Fasc Ita gain rep for brutality and Ita rule in Abyssinia was repressive and corrupt (put up carved head of M near site of Adowa humiliation of 1896)
Impact of Abyssinia on European relations
• Tensions w/Brit and Fra not resolved quick and M moved closer towards H and Nazi Ger
• Brit and Fra recognised need to supp League of Nations and prev M aggro but also didn't want to push M further towards H
• Eventually agree to supp Ita eco sanctions tho oil and war machine were exempt from sanctions
• Lack of clarity by Brit and Fra was epitomised by Hoare-Laval Pact in Dec 1935 stating that M could retain large areas of Abyssinia but smaller indep one also established (secret agreement to break Abyssinia up and give most of it to Italy)
• Pact received widespread pub condemnation in Brit and Fra, rejected by M
• 1936 M's relation w/Brit and Fra beyond repair
• Italians not interested in going to Ethopia
Intervention in Spanish Civil War 1936
• M saw Spanish Civil War as opp to display growing pwr of Ita and fascism, supp Gen Frano vs supp of Spa Second Repub as Fre took Repub side (risked tip of balance of pwr in Fra's favour)
• Provided Franco w/supp; 200 Ita bombers, 4000 fighter planes, 1400 pilots, 75,000 Ita soldiers and 150 Ita tanks
• March 1939 Franco and nat defeat Spa Repub forces due to milt supp from M and H
• Ita air pwr displayed when Barcelona bombed March 1938 weakening repub cause
• Brit and Fra didn't prov Spanish Repub w/equiv lvl of milt supp, declared neutrality
• Spa Repub received aid from USSR and from symp volunteer fighters, supp from Stalin reaffirmed M and H's arguments that they were helping to prev Spain's fall to comm
Consequence of Spanish Civil War
• Public opinion in western demo turned vs M and fasc Ita, widespread symp for Spanish Repub movement across Euro
• 40,000 volunteers join Int Brigades to fight for Spa Repub cause within Spain
• End of 1930s M dependent on Nazis
• Franco's eventual victory strengthened pos of Ita and Ger within Euro, weakening Brit and Fra failure for Brit to supp Spa Repub strained relation w/USSR
• 14 billion lire spent by Ita on Spa intervention, trade disrupted, and weakened milt strength
• Ita forces involved in Spa until 1938 and 4000 soldiers lost
Improving relations between Italy and Germany
• H and M meet in Venice June 1934, M viewed as most pwrful and influential man in Euro
• Tension resolved when M allows Anschluss to take place leading to less pop in Ita and weaker partner
• Moved closer together due to worsening relationship with Brit and Fra, Ita eco becoming dep on Ger 1936+ and M becoming impressed by H and Nazi Ger progress
• Result in M signing the Anti-Comintern Pact on 6 Nove 1937 w/Ger and Jap, driven by hatred of Communism → Axis Powers
Impact of the Sudetenland Crisis 1938
• When H seeks Czecho, M uses this to appear as int. statesman → Recommend conf held in Munich involving Brit, Ita, Fra and Ger to resolve crisis and discuss Ita peace plan
• M was prov H w/diplo avenue to gain return of Sudetenland, signing of Munich agreement 30 Sept returned Sudetenland to Ger → Brings Ita and Ger closer together
• Count Ciano develops closer ties w/ger FM von Ribbentrop → Ita signs Pact of Steel w/Ger in 1939
Italian Annexation of Albania, March 1939
• M authorises Albanian invasion to empathise Ita milt strength to Ger
• Ciano and leaders felt Albania could be exploited eco for Ita ben and planned to settle 2 mill Ita within Albania
• Invasion launched 25th March, Ita army easily defeated small Albanian force, King Zog forced to flee to London, Fas regime set up under Shefqet Verlaci
• Brit and Fra give guarantees of milt assistance to Greece and Turkey convinced M to develop closer links w/Ger
• M's actions abroad = domestic tensions
Domestic Tensions
• M and Fas State had been able to win supp of conserv. elites and most of Ita pop in '20s and early '30s
• Alliance w/Ger, anti-Sem decrees and poss of war = elites (indus, monarchy and Church) as well as some Fasc are appalled
• Anti-Ger feeling wide spread among all Ita social classes and general pop not enthusiastic about war
• Autarchy = goods expensive, living standards decline
• Milt spending and attempts at indoctrination caused anger, threatened prev appearance of consensus
• Fas squads used to violently attack anyone questioning Il Duce and regime
• Feb 1939, trade alliance signed w/Ita and Ger → Ita feel exploited by Ger
Pact of Steel 1939
• Signed 22 May rep formal alliance w/Ger and Ita
• For H meant that Brit and Fra forces were to be maintained in Mediterranean instead of redeployed to fight Ger
• Negot began when H sent Goering to visit M April 1939 to convince that Ger were milt able to win conflict w/Brit and Fra → Goering reassures M that Ita wouldn't need to enter wat for 2/3 yrs
• Meeting between Ciano and von Ribbentrop May discussing friendship pact, M shifts from wanting to avoid formal alliance to signing full one w/Ger
• Committed Ger and Ita to supp each other in time of war even if they had started war, Ita now committed to following H's FP
• After treaty M tells von Ribbentrop that Ita not entering war for at least 3 yrs, H ignores plea and invades Pol in September
Why did Mussolini sign the Pact of Steel?
• M not having clear FP plan end of '30s
• Brit for. secretary Eden and Brit failed to develop good relation w/M and Ita convincing M to side w/Ger
• Both had shared aim in wanting to expand and conquer new territories
Italian Neutrality (Non-belligerence)
• 1939 - 40
• Remain neutral mostly → August 1939 Ciano demands Ger send 17,000 milt vehicles before Ita enters war
• Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Aug 1939: agreement between Ger and USSR to divide Pol, avoid war between 2 parties for 10 yrs, M portrayed this as betrayal of Pact vs Communism and excuse not to fulfil commitment he made under Pact of Steel
• Wanted to see how war would develop, didn't want to commit to losings side
• Costs of invasion of Abyssinia and Franco supp meant Ita milt forces were depleted, eco and inus sectors were unprepared, not ready for war
• From defeat of Pol, there was lim action during war till h's invasion of Fra, Holland and Belgium April 1940 M maintains pos and doesn't enter war
Entry into War 1940
• M frustrated w/Italy's neutrality esp w/Ger success e.g. blitz on France 10th May, conquering Netherlands, Belgium surrender etc
• 10th June: Declare war on Brit and Fra, reasons:
- M feared Ita wld become 2nd rate nation in H dominated Europe
- Ideologically supp war and vio to achieve pol goals and glorify fascism
- Had to maintain image of man of action
- 20 May 1940 Fra and Brit on verge of defeat, M wants territory in Balkans, Africa, Mediterranean and cld only be part of post-war nego if involved in war
• Entry not welcomed by Ita pop despite propaganda and H recognises M only joining to take territory
Military failures in France
• 21 June 1940 Fra declare armistice to be signed w/Ger
• Ita launches offensive on Apline front (Alps Fra), advanced a lil before being resisted by Fre forces territory captured insignificant
• H and Marshal Petain (fre Chief of State) sign armistice 22nd June
• M had hoped to gain Tunisia, Corsica and SW Fra but not invited to armistice
• Overall only gained 2 small towns in Fra, Modan and Briancon
Military failures in North Africa
• Despite General advice, M sends Ita troops into Brit Somaliland, Sudan, Kenya and Egypt (September, advance onto Suez Canal) → Direct challenge to Brit domination in NA
• Brit forces advance, Ita 4x bigger, but Brit take Tobruk (Libya) and by April '41 had Abyssinia
• Jan '41 125,000 Ita soldiers held prisoner by Brit
• Ger forces sent in to save Ita in Abyssinia and Libya → Humiliating to M and Italian army
• '42; Axis forces retreating from NA, unable to supply troops due to Brit controlled Malta
• Ger's forces halted in Egypt, El Alamein June '42, capturing Suez Canal now unlikely
• Second Battle of El Alamein Oct '42 Brit breaks → Axis defence, forced to retreat Axis surrender 12 May '43
Military failure in Greece
• M invades Greece using Albania in attempt to gian territory w/o informing H → Saw Balkans as own sphere of influence
• 26 Oct '40 M's ambassador in Athens delivers ultimatum to Greek govt, grant Ita right to occupy key areas of Greece in exchange for neutrality → Rejected
• 28 Oct, 70,000 Ita troops invade Greece led by General Prasca
• Invasion force was small and poorly led vs a Greek army that knew the terrain, instead of just 2 weeks to occupy all of Greece, took entire winter
• Many Ita surrender, Greek counter-attack Dec '40 drives Ita back to Albania
• Marshal Badoglio removed, M orders reinforcements into Greece, fighting still goes badly → March '41 Brit defeats Ita navy at Cape Matapan
• Ita laughing stock, M's il Duce personality dented and milt humiliated
• Spring '41 Ger invade and take over Greece, Ita only given cntrl of Croatian coastline, evident Ita is junior partner comp to Ger
Italy's War Economy
• Proportion of GDP (gross domestic prod, monetary value of all goods/services produced within nation) directed towards war prod never more than 25% vs Ger's 64%
• Ita forces weapons, food and clothing poorly equipped = despite larger armies, Brit's smaller forces able to defeat due to training and equipment
• Fuel and Raw Materials:
- Dependent on Ger coal for fuel, only able to import ½ of oil requirements, hydro-electric supp not flexible to adjust for demand
- Ger cld only send 1 mill tonn of coal p/mnth and factories lacked coal, oil, iron and steel = poor rate of weap and ammunition prod e.g. '43 1.7 mill tonnes of steel prod
- '42 bombing raids destroyed industrial capacity
Impact of Allied bombing raids
• 25,000 houses in Turin destroyed, 500,000 wrkrs flee to Milan
• Govt decides only head of fam receives evacuation allowance of extra mnth wages, triggers strikes across north Ita → 100,000+ wrkrs stop wrk for week March '43, become anti-Fascist
Weakness of Bureaucratic System
• Failed to develop efficient centralised eco
• System poorly led, inefficient and corrupt, many joined only to advance career of avoid army conscription
• '41 Vidussoni made secretary of PNF, inexperienced, incompetent, removed from position April '43
• Autarchy had failed and no material stockpiling till June '40
Domestic Impact of the War
• Dec '40 food shortages e.g. rice and olive oil, soap and coffee become luxury commodities and private cares requisitioned '42
Jan '43 crisis of milk prod, food prod feel by 1.5 mill tonnes '38 - '43
• Bread rationed Oct '41, extremely low rations, only 1000 calories p/day for adults → Malnutrition among wrkrs widespread and formation of black market = price rises
• June '43 bread 8x off price and eggs 12x, farmers refuse to sell prod to regime, more money in black market
• Transport system badly damaged due to bombings, factory wrkrs constantly seeking bomb shelter refuge, unable to work effectively
• Mass evacuations poorly org, damaged morale of Ita pop, start to turn vs M
Italy's Military Weaknesses
• No unified lines of command, lack of coordination = disastrous results e.g. air forces bombed own ships Punta Stilo July '40
• M insists on strategy involvement, tho lil exp of war and knowledge of global situation weak
• Milt academies out of date = poor training
• Poor morale; spring '41 used to losing
• '39 only had 1500 tanks, numbers didn't sufficiently increase, '41 1/3 of tanks lost in transit
• Food rations were 3000 calories p/day for soldiers (inadequate)
Political Tensions
• Entry into war = decline of living standards = opposition to M and fascism
• Cath, Soc and demo supp use opp to gain more supp w/M becoming person blamed for Ita surviving and propaganda failed
• '43 wrks grew increasingly agitated by conditions, increasing opp due to:
- longer wrking shifts
- increased bomb raids
- rationing and food shortages
- rising prices
- Results in strikes March '43, direct threat to M and his govt → Comm activists active in organising and prom strikes
• Fascist unions infiltrated by older anti-fas wrkrs, soldiers returning w/illness spoke about front line conditions, further angering pop, posters expressing opp to war spread
• Loss of 200,000 It at Salingrad angered ppl, labelled it Ger's war, not Ita, frustration at skilled wrkrs being sent to wrk in Ger factories and unable to supp brutality of Ger methods in Greece and Yugoslavia
• Party numbers fall e.g. out of 46000 squadristi invited to March on Rome anniversary, only 800 turn up
• By July '43 Ita want to abandon Ger alliance, remove M and reach peace agreement w/Allies (view even held by leading Fasc)
Allied Invasion of Sicily July 1943
• Allies hoped invasion would result in Fascist regime collapse and withdrawal of Ita from war
• Combined Brit and US air/sea invasion w/150,000 troops, 3000 ships and 4000 aircraft, after 38 days of fighting Ger and Ita troops flee → Light resistance, w/H only sending 2 divisions and sev hundred thousand troops captured by Allies in NA
• First allied foothold on Euro soil, Ita mainland now under threat of invasion, defeat likely inevitable
• 25th July '43 M deposed & arrested and Ita & Ger troops start to withdraw from Sicily
• As Allied forces close in on Messina, Ger and Ita evacuate 100,000 men, vehicles, supplies and ammunition to mainland
• 17 Aug '43 US enter Messina, discover Axis evacuation, undermining Allied victory
Mussolini Deposed
• Partly due to generals pressuring King Victor Emmanuel III and Fascist Grand Council opp to M
• '43 M called Fascist Grand Council meeting hoping to ensure their declaration of support for him, leading Fas Grandi sees this as opp to remove M
• Grandi gathers supp from other memb to his resolution of no conf id M, King to become head of Grand Council, govt, parl and corporations → 24th July M taken by surprise when council votes 19 to 7 in supp of Grandi
• M initially ignores vote, meets King on 25th in which M is told Badoglio has replaced him as PM, M arrested and taken as prisoner
Allied Invasion
• Jan '43 Allies use milt resources in Mediterranean to launch Ita invasion in hopes of removing Ita from war, controlling Med, forcing Ger to divert divisions from Russian front
• Resulted in Allied advancement throughout Ita, constnt threat to Ger's southern flank
• US troops land on Ita coast Salerno 9 Sep '43, Ger army nearly succeed in driving US forces back to sea, halted Allied advance for 4 mnth
• Took Allied forces 4 battles to break through heavily fortified Monte Cassio and Gustav Line across Ita peninsula, finally breakout May '44
Impact of D-Day:
- US forces into Rome 4 June '44, but Normandy D-Day landings scheduled 6 June
- Six allied divisions removed Ita
- Allied High Command aim to keep Ger divisions in Ita for rest of war, meaning battles were brutal and long e.g. Anzio alone = 59,000 casualties
- Northern Ita civil war between Ita Fasc supp and those determined to end Fascism
Salo Republic
• Italian Social Republic (Salo Rep) established by Nazis in North Ita w/M as head after being rescued by Ger forces → no clear central authority, Rome made capital tho M had no auth there
• Only lasted 600 days, M as head of state and FM, setting up diff govt departments (e.g. defence minister Graziani), PNF replaced by Repub Fas party (only had 487,000 memb compared w/2.6 mil memb of '39) headed by Pavolinio until April '45
• Had army, navy, air force fought alongside Ger forces
• July '44 4 divisions estab w/50,000 men to demonstrate continuing pwr of fascism over the yng
• Fas police force and militias (Black Brigades) fought Ita partisans (been around since '43, former soldiers, Commuinists vs fascists, ruling elites and German occupation, guierella), those who voted for Grandi's motion condemned to death, 5 executed, including M's son in law Ciano
• Pwr limited due to:
- Most Ita lost all faith in M and Fasc
- Repub dependent on Ger supp and M controlled by Ger
- '44 partisans a serious threat to Ger forces & Rep stability
Government in the South
• Allies rule Sicily and most of southern Italy using Allied Military Government (AMG) → Provisional govt controlled Sardiania and 4 SE provinces (concessions granted by Allies)
• Govt influence minimal, 'Kingdom of the South' barely had army, only 22/62 divisions existed
• Ger commander Kesselring org forces to maintain stubb def lines in Ita, slowing Allies advances '43 - '44 → Ita ppl reliant on black market to survive
• Corruption widespread, US use Mafia to fain info and undermine Ger pos
• Declining eco cond made many Ita unsupp of Allies
• Alternative govt formed in Bari by anti-Fascists who were vs Badoglio's govt & the monarchy
• New govt under Bonomi seeks to be more credible by aiding milt situation in Normandy → gradual return to 'normal' pol in south Ita w/Cat/Soc/Lib alliances to create govt
German Surrender
• Allied forces forced Ger retreat, Salo Republic fails
• 9 April '45 Allies launch final push into north Ita while US and USSR troops meet in cent Ger
• 25 April M heads towards Lake Como, w/no clear plan but joined by Ger milt convoy, stopped by Ita comm parties and M taken prisoner
• 28 April partisan leader Valerio orders his execution, his mistress and other leaders also killed
• Allied soldiers push across Po Valley May '45, ger forces in Ita surrender 2 May '45
Post-war Italy
• Cost of living '45 23x higher than '38
• Eventual peace treaty w/Allies, stripped of all colonies except Somalia
• First post-war govt, ld by Parri, estab June '45, consisted of Soci, COmm and Christian Demo
• 5 mnths later new govt formed Nov headed by De Gasperi, dom by Chris Demo
• King unable to regain authority, Ita becomes republic
• Referendum in '46 opts for republic establishment (12 mill to 10 mill), tho south wanted to keep monarchy
• Emmanuel's son Umberto serves as King for 34 days before going into exile
• Enrico de Nicola becomes prov head of new repub state, new electoral system of Prop Rep
Elections '46
• Elections for Constituent Assembly held on same day as referendum
• Women allowed to vote, Chris Demo won 35.2% (207 seats), Comm 102 seats, Soc 115, Libs 41
• Chris Demo, Comm and Soc made up govt alongside Rep Party (25 seats)
• Senate to be elected, president symbolic figure and PM elected by parl, Govt to be cabinet of ministers resp for parliament, anti-Fascist