Chapter 16 - Circulatory System

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Cardiovascular System
The body system that consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood; also known as the circulatory system.
Heart
A hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
Atrium
Each of the two upper chambers of the heart that receives the blood that comes into the heart.
Pacemaker
A group of cells located in the right atrium that sends out signals that makes the heart muscle contract and regulates the heart rate.
Ventricle
Each of the two lower chambers of the heart which pump blood out of the heart.
Valve
A flap of tissue in the heart or in a vein that prevents blood from flowing backwards.
Artery
A blood vessel that carries blood out of the heart.
Capillary
A tiny blood vessel where substances are exchanged between the blood and the body's cells.
Vein
A blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart.
Aorta
The largest artery in the body; receives blood from the left ventricle.
Coronary Artery
An artery that supplies blood to the heart itself.
Pulse
The alternating expansion and relaxation of an artery wall as blood travels through the artery.
Diffusion
The process by which molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Blood Pressure
The pressure that is exerted by the blood against the walls of blood vessels.
Plasma
The liquid part of blood; 90% made up by water
Red Blood Cells
A cell in the body that takes up oxygen from the lungs and delivers it to the rest of the body.
White Blood Cells
A blood cell that fights disease.
Hemoglobin
An iron-containing protein that binds chemically to oxygen molecules; makes up most of red blood cells.
Platelets
A cell fragment that plays an important part in blood clots.
Lymphatic System
A network of veinlike vessels that returns the fluid that leaks out of blood vessels to the bloodstream.
Lymph
The fluid that the lymphatic system collects and returns to the bloodstream.
Lymph Nodes
A small knob of tissue in the lymphatic system that filters lymph, trapping bacteria and other microorganisms that cause disease.
Atherosclerosis
A condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of a buildup of fatty materials.
Hypertension
A disease in which someone's blood pressure is consistently higher than normal; also called high blood pressure.
Heart Attack
A condition in which blood flow to a part of the heart's muscle is blocked, causing heart cells to die.
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