57 terms


Large Sociological Perspectives
Structural functionalism
Conflict Theory
Symbolic Interactionism
Contemporary Theories
Critical Theory
Feminist Theory
Structural Functionalism
Society is like a system with different parts that do different things; All parts of a society must function together for the society to work
Conflict Theory
Groups conflict over access to scarce resources; group conflict is constant in society
Symbolic Interactionism
Society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another
Emile Durkheim
Developed Structural Functionalism
Saw the Industrialism Revolution as positive
Society is held together by the need for each other
Karl Marx
Developed Conflict Theory
Saw the Industrialism Revolution as negative
Dehumanizing and oppressive system
Max Weber
Developed Symbolic Interactionism
"Owners of companies don't know how to make their own product"
Critical Theory
Developed out of Conflict Theory's criticism
Critical of power relationships embedded in all systems of society
Mass culture is oppressive
Feminist Theory
Developed out of Conflict Theory's views on power
How masculinity & femininity are maintained, enacted, changed in society
Developed out of Symbolic Interactionism's ideas of socially constructed reality
Distrustful of claims of "objectiviy"
Pessimistic w/out coherent theories
Not having rules, structures, norms
Macro-level theories
Work better with quantitative research methods; Structural Functionalism & Conflict Theory
Micro-level theories
Work better with qualitative research methods; Symbolic Interactionism
Quantitative Research Methods
Surveys, censuses
Large Samples
Broad amounts of info
Generalizable to all populations
Qualitative Research Methods
Lengthy observations
Few assumptions/hypotheses
"Rich" data
Small sample sizes
Few numbers
Not generalizable to large populations
Ability for someone else to replicate your experiment and produce similar results
Experiment is testing what it is intended to
Principles of Research Ethics
Protect participants:
Voluntary Participation
Informed Consent
Anonymity and Confidentiality
Honest Reporting
Little norms
Easily broken
Sanctions are small
Larger norms
Connected to moral values
Sanctions are larger
Really big norms
Not supposed to think of doing it
Connected to strong moral values
Sanctions are extreme
Any norm written down
Sanctions are imposed by governing body
Evaluating things in a different culture using your own cultural values
"Our way is the right way"
Cultural Relativism
Evaluating things in a different culture using their own values
Sapir-Whorf hypotheses
Our language shapes our experience of the world
Cultural Universals
Patterns that occur in all known societies
A position in society that someone fills
Ascribed Status
Statuses assigned to us that we can't control
Achieved Status
Statuses that we choose to attain through our efforts
Master Status
Status that becomes primary in our lives or minds
Sets of expectations assigned to a status
Role Performance
Our actual behavior in a role
Role Conflict
The expectations from two different statuses collide or compete
The process of becoming a part of your social world, people acquire knowledge, language, values and behavior
Looking Glass Self
Charles Horton Cooley
We imagine what other people think of us
Self Awareness
Self Concept
Self Image
Impression Management
Erving Goffman
We constantly work to influence how others see us
Two or more people who are bound together in relatively stable patterns of social integration and who share a feeling of unity
Two people linked together in a relatively stable set of expectations
Expressive Ties
Emotional links
Powerful relationships
Instrumental Ties
Goal oriented ties
Relationships end after goal has been achieved
Primary Group
Small group
Informal,intimate interaction
Expressive ties dominate
Secondary Group
Groups come together for a specific purpose
Formal, goal-oriented interaction
Instrumental ties dominate
Group that you belong to
"us" or "we"
Provides social identity
Group you don't belong to
"they" or "them"
May want to join, may not
Social Loafing
People in groups work less hard than they would if they were working alone
Social Dilemmas
Group members are faced with either maximizing their own gain or maximizing the gain of the group
Reference Group
Used in social comparisons
Group decision-making process that prioritizes group cohesion over rational thinking
Self Concept
Relatively stable idea of "who we really are"
Self Image
More temporary idea of ourselves in a given context
Self Esteem
The evaluation we make of ourselves
Self Efficacy
The belief that one can overcome obstacles and achieve goals
Reflected Appraisals
Messages we get from observing how others interact with us, based on body language, speech, facial expressions, etc.
Social Comparisons
Comparison based on reference groups, groups that we see as relevant references
Social Identity
Identity we create based on group memberships