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AV News Midterm Review
Terms in this set (59)
Four kinds of audio
Interview Clips, Voice Over, Natural Sound, Ambient Sound
Recording of the story's subject
On location- preferably. Or by phone
Edit to use soundbites that tell the story
Scripted Narration, Not always necessary
Natural (NAT) Sound
Think- "sound effects"
Specific sounds that grab the listener's attention
Ex. Carpenter: sound of someone hitting a nail
The background noises that create a sense of place, The sound in a bowling alley vs. the sound in an office
Tiny mics that mount on the shirt, Great for picking up speaker's voice, Great if wanting to have a different composition for video interviews
Omnidirectional mic, One of the most common, Picks up sounds from all directions...multidirectional
Picks up sound from a specific direction, Good if interviewing in loud location, good to pick up nat sound
Make sure your mic is close enough
Always use headphones...the cheap kind
Stay aware of recording levels
Make sure you're recording
This will happen if the mic is too far away or if the recording levels are not up enough. A continuous unchanging sound that serves no purpose.
Audio will accentuate this
Wind screens help, if not move somewhere else
Or clipping or peaking. Occurs if the volume is too high or
The levels are too hot or loud or mic too close or combination of both.
You will hear noticeable distortion and you can't fix it
General rule of thumb, keep your levels between -6 and -12
This is also good to pay attention to while editing.
Layer your audio
Add breaks where you hear nat sound come in and to help with pacing
Fade in and out
Keep it short and to the point
DO NOT repeat the same nat sound multiple times
Start with the nat sound and a great quote- set the scene, pace and paint the picture
You might have to re-arrange quotes to better tell a story. It is not OK to change what the person is saying. Normally okay to out mmms, coughs, sneezes and mic movement.
Ethics & Audio
It is unethical to change what the interviewee is saying. You cannot collect audio from one situation and gather sound from another location. Equally you cannot download stock sounds and use them for your story.
Make sure mic is ON
Do quick tests to check the recording levels
YOU always hold the mic. Do not let the interviewee hold it.
Make sure mic is close enough...6-12 inches.
Place mic under mouth and slightly off the the side
Brainstorm- jot down quick ideas
Free write what you know about the topic
Jot down questions you have about the topic
Research the topic!
Start broad and get specific-- get an angle
Pitching your ideas to editors
The more prepared you are, the better.
Have a brief description: who, what, where, when, why
Make contacts and calls beforehand
Be passionate about it!
Always ask open- ended questions
Always ask for the spelling of the person's name
Make sure mic is close enough
Be mindful of your verbal responses while recording
Don't jump to the next question too fast
Tell me more about that, can you explain that?- for more detailed responses
Present yourself as attentive and alert
Broadcast Writing Tips
Keep it simple, think short sentences. Steer clear of dependent clauses
Use active voice
Nat sound is important
Good audio is important
Use the best soundbites
More Script Writing Tips
Be clear if you have to use them
Transcribe part of the interview if you want to
Do most of the talking and pull soundbites to highlight.
Useful in writing in broadcast packages- something effecting a large number of people.
1. Introduce the problem or issue through an example to illustrate.
2. Use comments from experts and background info.
3. Tie it together/ wrap it up by returning to the specific example.
One line of copy= about 4 seconds
There are many different ways to write scripts, but most are similar
The total package
Voice Over/ script
B-roll (for video--secondary footage)
Stand-up (not always needed)
Legal and Ethical Considerations
The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution guarantees the freedom of press and speech.
The Fourth Amendment guarantees an individuals right to privacy.
Defamation by written, printed, spoken words, photographs, video.
A false statement (stated as fact) that holds someone in hatred or contempt and lowers the esteem of the individual. Property and businesses included.
Actual malice (knowingly false)
You can't use a libelous quote.
When you communicate a false statement of fact.
Oral defamation can be called 'slander'
Times v. Sullivan
In 1960, the New York Times ran a full-page advertisement paid for by civil right activists. The ad openly criticized the police department in the city of Montgomery, Alabama for its treatment of civil rights protestors. Most of the descriptions in the ad were accurate, but some of the statements were false. The police commissioner, L. B. Sullivan, took offense to the ad and sued the New York Times in an Alabama court. Sullivan rgued that the ad had damaged his reputation, and he had been libeled. (uscourts.gov)
Ruled in favor of Sullivan.
Supreme Court ruled in favor of the newspaper
Must prove actual malice
Telling the truth
Fair reporting-- quoting what a public official said in public, quotes from lawsuits or public documents
Fair comment or criticism--it is my opinion Jones is rude (OK) It is my opinion Jones is addicted to drugs (Not OK--asserting a fact)
Getting quotes from both sides
If you have proof, it's not libel, it's news.
Other Legal Considerations
Using copy-written music without permission
Photographing/ Videotaping individuals without their consent
Recordings--The person must be fully aware that he or she is being recorded during an interview; phone, video, audio, etc.
KNOW THE FACTS
Know what libel is and have an understanding of it
Know where you are allowed to be and what you are allowed to do as a journalist. Know your rights.
If you ever have a question if something is ethical, ask an editor or just don't do it.
The rules of living and conduct that you impose on yourself or that your profession strongly suggests (shook)
In photojournalism it is unethical to "set up a shot"
--Shouldn't alter scenes or move things out of the way to better a photograph
NPPA Code of Ethics
Visual Journalists and those who manage visual news productions are accountable for upholding the following standards in their daily work.
1.Be accurate and comprehensive in the representation of subjects.
2.Resist being manipulated by staged photo opportunities.
3.Be complete and provide context when photographing or recording subjects. Avoid stereotyping individuals
and groups. Recognize and work to avoid presenting one's own biases in the work.
4.Treat all subjects with respect and dignity. Give special consideration to vulnerable subjects and
compassion to victims of crime or tragedy. Intrude on private moments of grief only when the public has an
overriding and justifiable need to see.
5.While photographing subjects do not intentionally contribute to, alter, or seek to alter or influence events.
6.Editing should maintain the integrity of the photographic images' content and context. Do not manipulate
images or add or alter sound in any way that can mislead viewers or misrepresent subjects.
7.Do not pay sources or subjects or reward them materially for information or participation.
8.Do not accept gifts, favors, or compensation from those who might seek to influence coverage.
9.Do not intentionally sabotage the efforts of other journalists
It is okay for reporters to ask the subject to do something, staging is normally accepted ex. photo op, press conferences
Adjusting the length of time the shutter remains open controls the amount of light that reaches the light sensitive area
1 second=open a very long time=lots of light=very blurry image without a tripod
1/800 of a second=open very fast=less light=time stopping sharp image
The size of the lens opening
Controls the brightness of the light
Also called f-stop (full stop)
Depth of Field
f2.8=a large opening= more light= less DOF (less focus from near to far)
f16= a small opening= less light let in= more DOF/ more in focus
International Standard Organization
-The film speed or how sensitive your camera is set per lighting situation
Plays a very important role in producing a proper exposure
The higher the ISO the less light you need, however the higher the ISO the more grainy the photo is
Also change ISO to accommodate light situations
You combine shutter, aperture and ISO to make a proper exposure
Both the shutter speed and the aperture affect the amount of light entering the camera and the sharpness
Shutter speed affects the sharpness of a moving object and aperture affects the DOF--sharpness from near to far
17mm is a wide angle lens--more distortion
50mm is a standard focal length for a full frame camera. It is 35mm for a digital camera with a crop-- it is what the eye sees
100-300mm is a long lens. This compresses/ flattens the image. It is good for portraiture and sports
Rule of thirds
Different focal lengths plus different exposure settings affect the image
Bird's eye view
Worm's eye view
Plays an important part in the information and complexity of a composition
Think about layers- foreground, background, edges of the frame
Rule of Thirds
A composition rule that divides the screen into thirds horizontally and vertically, like a tic-tac toe grid placed over the picture on a television set. Almost all of the important information included in every shot is located at one of the four intersections of the horizontal and vertical lines
The first sentence of a photo caption is in the present tense, Who, what, where, when, why. The second sentence and on can be in the past. You can use quotes in the second sentence.
Video Shooting Basics
Always use a tripod
Always use headphones
Manual white balance works best
Always shoot wide, medium, tight tight tight
Shoot and move
Try to get a minimum of 10 seconds for each shot
Let subjects walk in and out of the frame
Don't zoom stylistically
Try different angles
Unless for sports, avoid panning
MAKE SURE YOU'RE RECORDING
Make sure video is in focus
Say dog, see dog
Try to interview first, then get B-roll
If on camera look bus profesh and no large logos
Interviewee should be slightly to the side, look off camera at you.
Don't look into the camera
Best to have them sitting down
Be eye level with interviewee
Make sure mic is close enough and under the chin
However! For now do not have the mic in the shot
A series of quick shots that depict the same action over a real-life period of time.
Much better than showing one shot for 10 seconds
Composed for wide, medium and tight shots
Five Shot Sequencing
Tight Shot: Hands in action doing something
Tight Shot: Face of person doing action
Medium to wide shot: Hands and face doing action
Medium to wide shot: Over the shoulder
Something else, a creative shot
Two or more shots that make a strong continuous action
Shoot and Move
Don't just shoot and zoom in for the next shot, the clips might look too similar
Try to shoot about 10 secs of each shot if there is time
Repetitive motions work easiest
180 Degree Rule
Draw an imaginary line (AKA the axis) down the center of what you are shooting for your sequence and don't cross the line (axis of evil)
It's easier for the viewer to visually understand and see what is hapenning
No Jump Cuts
Is a transition between the two shots that are too similar in distance and composition so they appear to jump.
Avoid this in shooting and in the editing process.
Social Media Positives
A source of news to come
Can drive traffic to news sites
Can be informal or conversational with the artist
We can get important information out sooner to a broader range of people
There are news apps to get information pushed right to your phone
Our society thrives on "instant" information
Anyone who has access to the internet has the ability to spread information quickly
A day for this type of journalist will include:
Sending photos for the field
Calling in stories
Common events that make mobile journalism and Social Media very useful
Local news outlet
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