Scheduled maintenance: Thursday, December 8 from 5PM to 6PM PST
Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Psych 402 Biological Psychology Chapter 2 and 3
Terms in this set (9)
2. Know the main types of glia and their functions.
Smaller but more numerous than neurons.
Astrocytes - Wrap around presynaptic terminals of functionally similar neurons. Star shaped. Synchronize activity by taking up and releasing ions from/to axons. Also remove waste from from dead neurons and control blood flow to areas of the brain. Possibily contribute to brain signalling via glutamate.
Microglia - remove waste, viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms from the nervous system.
Oligodendrocytes in brain and spinal cord/ Schwann cells in peripheral nervous system - build the myelin sheaths that insulate certain vertebrate axons.
Radial glia - guide the migration of neurons axons and dendrites during embryotic development. After development they differentiate into neurons and other glia.
2. Understand the mechanisms underlying the excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.
Unlike action potentials which are always depolarizations, graded potentials can be depolarizations (excitatory) or hyperpolarization's (inhibitory).
A graded DEPOLARIZATION is called an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). An EPSP may not be strong enough to reach threshold and decays quickly. But can accumulate if multiple in short time.
A temporary HYPERPOLARIZATION is an IPSP and results from an increase in negative charge within the cell by way of opening potassium channels or introducing chloride ions into the cell. Reduces likelihood an action potential from being generated.
1. Be able to describe the contributions of T.R. Elliott and O. Loewi to the question of whether most synaptic transmission is electrically or chemically mediated.
Sherrington hypothesized synaptic transmission was electrical.
T.R. Elliot - 1905 discovered adrenaline would produce a sympathetic response. The evidence was compelling at the time but Sherrington's fame overshadowed T.R. and the community continued to believe in electrical synaptic transmission.
O. Loewi in 1020 - liked the idea of chemical mediated transmission. Collected fluids from frog hearts during excitatory/inhibitory periods and transferred the fluid to other frogs and witnessed the applicable effect.
2. Be able to list the six major types of neurotransmitters.
Amino Acids - glutamate, GABA, glycine, aspartate
Monoamines - indoleamines: serotonin
Catecholamines: dopamine, epi, norepi
Neuropeptides (amino acid chain) - endorphins, substance P, neuropeptide Y.
Purines - ATP, adenosine
Gases - Nitric Oxide
5. Understand the differences between ionotropic and metabotropic effects of neurotransmitters.
Ionotrpic - On/off effect. The neurotransmitter binds to ligand-gated channel receptor (paper bag) and twists it open or closed, allowing only specific ions through. Fast response and short half-life(mS).
Most of the brains excitatory inotropic synapses use neurotransmitter glutamate (the most abundant NT in the nervous system).
Most inhibitory ionotropic synapses use GABA which opens CL- gates. .
Metabotropic - initiate metabolic effects, slower and longer lasting than ionotropic (seconds). Serotonin, epi, dopamine etc. Works by initiating a second messenger within the cell such as cAMP.
7. Understand the difference in control mechanisms of the anterior and posterior pituitary and be able to list some of the hormones released from each.
Posterior pituitary is extension of hypothalamus. Posterior hypothalamus stores and releases oxytocin and vasopressin formed in the hypothalamus.
Anterior pituitary synthesizes 6 hormones: ACTH, TSH, Prolactin, FSH, GH, LH
Negative feedback system for the hypothalamus regulates hormone levels.
5. Be able to explain the differences between the effects of amphetamine, cocaine, and methylphenidate.
All stimulate the release of dopamine in the nucleolus accumbens by blocking the domapine transporter, but amphetamine also has a similar effect on serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Methylphenidate has a similar effect to cocaine at large doses.
6. Understand the different ways of increasing dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens used by nicotine, opiates, and marijuana
Nicotine stimulates the acetylcholine receptors responsible for the release of dopamine.
Opiates inhibit GABA release which is responsible for inhibiting dopamine release. Resulting in increased dopamine.
Marijuana inhibits the release of GABA and glutamate which would otherwise inhibit dopamine release.
10. Be able to describe the genetic variations that may contribute to alcoholism.
Gene coding for dopamine type 4 receptor. This receptor has a long and short form, with the long form being less sensitive (less reinforcement) and people with the gene having stronger cravings for alcohol after consuming it.
COMT breaks down dopamine. Some have a form that breaks dopamine down quicker which results in decreased reinforcement
Sets found in the same folder
Psych 402 Biological Psychology Chapter 4 and 5
Psych 402 Biological Psychology Chapter 6 and 7
Psych 402 Biological Psychology Chapter 8
Psych 402 Biological Psychology Chapter 9 and 10
Other sets by this creator
Psych 402 Biological Psychology Chapter 15
Psych 402 Biological Psychology Chapter 14
Recommended textbook solutions
Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, Being
Michael R Solomon
Laura Namy, Scott Lilienfeld, Steven Lynn
Essentials of Understanding Psychology
Robert S Feldman
Other Quizlet sets
Abnormal Psych Chapter 8 Quiz Questions
Microbiology-Exam One (section two)
EC 324 ch. 9