The War of 1812 may have stimulated the growth of manufacturing, but it also produced chaos in shipping and banking, and it exposed the inadequacy of the existing transportation and financial systems. After the expiration of the first Bank's charter, state banks had begun operations. They issued vast quantities of bank notes but did not always bother to retain a large enough reserve of gold or silver to redeem the notes on demand. The notes passed from hand to hand more or less as money, but their actual value depended on the reputation of the bank that issued them. Thus there was a wide variety of notes, of widely differing value, in circulation at the same time.
Congress decided to deal with the currency problem by chartering the Second Bank of the United States. It was essentially the same institution Hamilton had founded in 1791 except that it had more capital than its predecessor. By law, the Bank was the only place that the federal government could deposit its own funds. Biddle was the president of the bank. Andrew Jackson opposed this bank too!
The efforts to renew the Bank's charter put the institution at the center of the general election of 1832, in which BUS president Nicholas Biddle and pro-Bank National Republicans led by Henry Clay clashed with the "soft-money" and "hard-money." The soft-money faction consisted mainly of state bankers and their allies who wanted more currency in circulation and believed that issuing bank notes unsupported by gold and silver was the best way to circulate more currency. The "hard-money" people believed that gold an silver were the only basis for money. They condemned all banks that issued bank notes, including the Bank of The U.S. The soft-money advocated were believers in rapid economic growth and speculation; the hard-money forces embraced older ideas of "public virtue" and looked with suspicion on expansion and speculation.
Clay, Webster, and other advisers persuaded Biddle to apply to Congress for a bill to renew the Bank's charter. Jackson of course, vetoed it.
Jackson wanted to destroy the "monster" but could not abolish it before its charter expired. Instead, he removed all govt. funds from it and transferred it all to "pet banks." Two secretaries of treasury refused to follow through before Roger Taney complied with the action. Biddle called in loans and raised interest rates, explaining that without the government deposits the Bank's resources were stretched too thin. He hoped a short recession would persuade Congress to recharter the Bank. Both parties blamed each other for the worsening financial conditions. Finally, Biddle contracted credit too far even for his own allies. Biddle at last reversed himself and began to grant credit in abundance and on reasonable terms. His unpopular tactics ended his chances of winning a recharter of the Bank.
Jackson had won a considerable political victory. But when the Bank of the US died in 1836, the country lost a valuable financial institution and was left with a fragmented and chronically unstable banking system that would plague the economy for more than a century.
The Virginia dynasty is a term sometimes used to describe the fact that four of the first five Presidents of the United States were from Virginia. The term sometimes excludes George Washington, who, though a Virginia planter, was closely aligned with the policies of the Federalist Party, and was succeeded by his Vice President, John Adams of Massachusetts. The first five presidents were, in order, George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe.
The defeat of Adams in 1800 by his Vice President, Thomas Jefferson, who had previously served as Washington's Secretary of State, marked the true beginning of the Virginia Dynasty, which is usually associated with what is now called the Democratic-Republican Party, although it was generally referred to as simply the "Republican" or "Jeffersonian" Party at the time. Jefferson served two terms before retiring, in the Washingtonian precedent, in favor of his Secretary of State, fellow Virginian James Madison, the so-called "Father of the Constitution." Although the War of 1812 greatly weakened Madison's popularity in the Northeast, especially in New England which consequently discussed secession, he was nonetheless re-elected rather easily in 1812 and was able to assist another Virginian who had remained loyal to him and the party, James Monroe, to be elected President in 1816.
By the end of Monroe's first term the Federalist Party had essentially disbanded and Monroe was re-elected in 1820 without any real opposition, receiving every electoral vote except one, which went for Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, son of John Adams. (Much later a myth arose that the dissenting elector had done so in order that George Washington would be the only president in American history to be elected unanimously.)
Monroe's second term marked the end of the Virginia Dynasty. In the election of 1824, supporters of William H. Crawford portrayed him as "the rightful and legitimate successor of the Virginia Dynasty," but the Democratic-Republican Party splintered. John Quincy Adams won the disputed 1824 election over General Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, then considered to be part of the Southwest.
After having contributed four of the first five Presidents and their having held office for thirty-two of the first thirty-six years of the constitution, to date four more Virginians have served as President. They are William Henry Harrison, Virginia-born but elected as a resident of Ohio; John Tyler, who was elected Vice President in 1840 as Harrison's running mate, but wound up serving all but the first month of the latter's term after Harrison became the first President to die in office; Zachary Taylor, who made his name as a Kentucky resident; and Woodrow Wilson, who was a Virginia native but was elected President after serving as the president of Princeton University and Governor of New Jersey.
McCulloch v. Maryland, 17 U.S. 316 (1819), was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland. Though the law, by its language, was generally applicable to all banks not chartered in Maryland, the Second Bank of the United States was the only out-of-state bank then existing in Maryland, and the law was recognized in the court's opinion as having specifically targeted the U.S. Bank. The Court invoked the Necessary and Proper Clause of the Constitution, which allowed the Federal government to pass laws not expressly provided for in the Constitution's list of implied powers, provided those laws are in useful furtherance of the implied powers of Congress under the Constitution.
This case established two important principles in constitutional law. First, the Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government. Second, state action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.
Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 17 U.S. 518 (1819), was a landmark decision from the United States Supreme Court dealing with the application of the Contract Clause of the United States Constitution to private corporations. The case arose when the president of Dartmouth College was deposed by its trustees, leading to the New Hampshire legislature attempting to force the college to become a public institution and thereby place the ability to appoint trustees in the hands of the governor. The Supreme Court upheld the sanctity of the original charter of the college, which pre-dated the creation of the State.
The decision settled the nature of public versus private charters and resulted in the rise of the American business corporation and the free American enterprise system.
After the Dartmouth decision, many states wanted more control so they passed laws or constitutional amendments giving themselves the general right to alter or revoke at will, which the courts found to be a valid reservation. The courts have established, however, that the alteration or revocation of private charters or laws authorizing private charters must be reasonable and cannot cause harm to the members (founders, stockholders, and the like).
The traditional view holds that this case is one of the most important Supreme Court rulings, strengthening the Contract Clause and limiting the power of the States to interfere with private charters, including those of commercial enterprises.
Andrew Jackson called Native Americans "savages" because he said that they couldn't adjust civilization amongst them. But there was five tribes who had already adjusted to civilization they were the Cherokee, Seminole, Creek, Chickasaw, and Choctaw together they were known for the "five civilized tribes". They lived in western Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. Congress had conceded the power to the federal government to negotiate treaties with the tribes to move westward for white settlement. In 1830 congress passed the Removal Act (with Jackson's approval) an act that financed the relocation of southern tribes into the west. The Cherokee signed a treaty that said that they would grant Georgia for $5 million, and they would get the reservation of west of Mississippi. But most Cherokee's didn't agree to that treaty and they wouldn't leave their houses, so Jackson sent 7,000 soldiers under the command of General Winfield Scott. About 1,000 Cherokee's plus the "five civilized tribes" were force to travel to an Indian reservation which was known as (the great American desert) and later called Oklahoma in the winter of 1838. About 1/8 or more of the emigrants died, and many more suffered. This trail is known as the "trail of tears". Martin Van Buren was renominated by the Democrats in 1840.The Whigs, hungering for the spoils of office, learned from their mistake in 1836 and the Whigs united behind one candidate, Ohio's William Henry Harrison. The aging hero, was known for his successes against Indians and the British at the Battles of Tippecanoe and the Thames; "Old Tippecanoe" was nominated primarily because he was issueless and enemy-less—a tested recipe for electoral success
John Tyler of Virginia was selected as vice-presidential running mate (afterthought)
A Democratic editor played directly into Whig hands; stupidly insulting the West, he lampooned Harrison as an impoverished old farmer who should be content with a pension, a log cabin, and a barrel of hard cider (poor westerner's champagne)
Harrison won by a surprising close margin in the popular vote but by an overwhelming electoral margin of 234 to 60; Van Buren was washed out of Washington (no real issues)
The election of 1840 conclusively demonstrated two major change in American politics since the Era of Good Feelings; the first was the triumph of a populist democratic styles Democracy had been something of a taint in the days of the lordly Federalists. But by the 1840s, aristocracy was the taint, and democracy was respectable; politicians were now forced to unbend and curry favor with the voting masses.
The election of 1840 was known as the "first modern election". It also was the first time popular votes are very important for electoral votes. For this reason parties used a lot of money to campaign.
Shortest presidency only 30 days, because Williamson Harrison received the pneumonia and died.
The election of 1824 had 4 republican candidates running for office: Crawford, Jackson, Clay, and Adams. Crawford, of Georgia, was the former secretary of treasury and the favorite of the extreme states' rights faction of the party. Crawford however was at a slight disadvantage due to his bad health condition. John Quincy Adams was the predestined winner because he was the secretary of state. He however had little popular appeal. Henry clay was a speaker of the house, and the founder of the "American system." Jackson was a common man with no significant political record, even though he had served briefly as a member of the senate.
Jackson had the support of many of his home state political allies from Tennessee so he was able to win plurality, however he did not win the majority of popular of electoral votes. Since clay had the fewest amount of votes he was out of the running. Therefore clay had a great influence in the outcome of the vote since he was a Speaker of the House who held 37 electors on his side who would take his advice in selecting a candidate. Clay had his mind set on John Quincy Adams because he believed that since Adams was a nationalist he would support his "American System." Clay opposed Jackson because they were western political rivals, and Jackson was no supporter of Clay's legislative program. After Adam's inauguration into office he appointed Clay as his secretary of state. The Jacksonians were angry about this "corrupt bargain" they believed that the whole election was a fix. They believed that there was some sort of understanding between Clay and Adams there seemed to be no indication of anything corrupt or unusual about it, but it proved to be politically costly for both men.
The Penny Press was an important advancement in the printing of newspapers. Before the Penny Press, newspapers were strictly for the upper classes. The newspapers mainly published business news, and others worked as propaganda. Newspapers were way too expensive for the common man to purchase, but thanks to the new technological advancements such as the steam powered cylinder printing press, new machines for making paper, and railroads and canals for distributing issues to a larger market, made it possible to publish newspapers inexpensively, therefore creating a new market for the publishers of newspapers in the middle class.
Factors that contributed to the creation of the penny press were new rising popular literacy rates due to the spread of public education, which created an even bigger reading public, the spread of an urban market economy, which created the industrial working class and a modern middle class by drawing workers into large cities where they became an important market for the newspapers. Democracy and the rising numbers of white male voters helped create an appetite for journalism that spoke for the people not just the upper class.
The penny press became especially important in the 1840 campaign because it carried news of candidates to a large audience of workers and tradespeople.
In 1848 a national women's rights convention was held at Seneca Falls, New York. The unflinching feminists discussed "social, civil, and religious conditions of women". Most feminists sought to discuss such matters as political and reform concerns, and antislavery. They were Free-Soils party supporters, temperance advocates and congregational friends. Long before they could vote they circulated petitions , attended meetings, marched in parades, delivered public lectures, became active in temperance movements, and the building of asylums. Women wanted to earn the status of "right-bearers" and demanded the right to participate in market revolution. Most well-known antebellum feminists were Dorothea Dix, Sojourner Truth, and Lucy Colman. Dix was a leading advocate of the humane treatment of the insane. In 1834 women of New York organized the Female Moral Reform society which sought to redeem prostitutes from lives of sin to protect the morality of single women. Dixs' efforts influenced 28 states to construct mental hospitals.
Women could not vote and if married, they had no right to own property or retain their own earnings. They were also discriminated in the areas of education and employment, not receiving the opportunities that men possessed. This encouraged the development of educational institutions for women.
ucretia Mott: 1848, Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a women's rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York, proclaiming a Declaration of Sentiments Months earlier, along with Stanton, they successfully worked for the passage of the New York Married Women's Property Act which recognized women's right to her separate property.
- Elizabeth Cady Stanton: She along with Lucretia Mott planned a women's right convention at the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Seneca Falls which sparked the women's movement. She was also active in the fight for abolition and temperance, but was devoted to women's rights.
- Seneca Falls, 1848: Under the eye of Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, this convention adopted resolutions for women's rights. Among those adopted were a demand for women's suffrage and a diminution of sexual discrimination in education and employment.
- Emma Willard: In 1814, Willard established the Middlebury Female Seminary where she devised new innovations in female education. She also established the Troy Female Seminary in 1821. She provided instruction in math and philosophy in which women could not take earlier. She led the fight for educational equality among sexes.
- Catherine Beecher: Lyman Beecher's daughter and a militant opponent of female equality, she fought for a profession in which females could be appreciated. With this, she discovered the institution of education in which women could play an important part in. In this profession, women became the main source of teachers.
- "Cult of True Womanhood": The alternate ideal of domesticity, this slowed the advance of feminism. Because it sanctioned numerous activities in reform such as temperance and education, it provided women with worthwhile pursuits beyond the family.
Thoreau was an author, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, historian, and leading transcendentalist. He wrote the book Walden and the essay, Resistance to Civil Government. His essay was an argument for disobedience to an unjust state. Walden: Life In The Woods epitomized the quest for isolation from society's corruptions. He believe that he should reduce his bodily wants so as to gain time to pursue truth through study and meditation. His works later encouraged and inspired Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr., and other civil rights leaders. A penal institution is where people are confined for punishment and to protect the public. Dorothea Dix described such institutions as being "confined in this Commonwealth in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens! Chained, beaten with rods, lashed into obedience". After the war of 1812 reformers from Boston ad New York began to remove the children ad place them into Juvenile Detention centers. Horrible disasters occurred in the Auburn Prison during the year of 1821, many of the 80 men after being locked down in solitary, committed suicide or had experienced severe mental breakdowns. Francis Lieberman, Samuel Gridley Howe and Dix wanted prison libraries, basic literacy, reduction of whipping and beating, commutation of sentences, and the separation of women, children, and the sick. By 1835 America was considered to have 2 of the "best" prisons in the world in Pennsylvania.