Only $2.99/month

Ch. 8,9, and 12 Review

Terms in this set (41)

The War of 1812 may have stimulated the growth of manufacturing, but it also produced chaos in shipping and banking, and it exposed the inadequacy of the existing transportation and financial systems. After the expiration of the first Bank's charter, state banks had begun operations. They issued vast quantities of bank notes but did not always bother to retain a large enough reserve of gold or silver to redeem the notes on demand. The notes passed from hand to hand more or less as money, but their actual value depended on the reputation of the bank that issued them. Thus there was a wide variety of notes, of widely differing value, in circulation at the same time.

Congress decided to deal with the currency problem by chartering the Second Bank of the United States. It was essentially the same institution Hamilton had founded in 1791 except that it had more capital than its predecessor. By law, the Bank was the only place that the federal government could deposit its own funds. Biddle was the president of the bank. Andrew Jackson opposed this bank too!

The efforts to renew the Bank's charter put the institution at the center of the general election of 1832, in which BUS president Nicholas Biddle and pro-Bank National Republicans led by Henry Clay clashed with the "soft-money" and "hard-money." The soft-money faction consisted mainly of state bankers and their allies who wanted more currency in circulation and believed that issuing bank notes unsupported by gold and silver was the best way to circulate more currency. The "hard-money" people believed that gold an silver were the only basis for money. They condemned all banks that issued bank notes, including the Bank of The U.S. The soft-money advocated were believers in rapid economic growth and speculation; the hard-money forces embraced older ideas of "public virtue" and looked with suspicion on expansion and speculation.

Clay, Webster, and other advisers persuaded Biddle to apply to Congress for a bill to renew the Bank's charter. Jackson of course, vetoed it.

Jackson wanted to destroy the "monster" but could not abolish it before its charter expired. Instead, he removed all govt. funds from it and transferred it all to "pet banks." Two secretaries of treasury refused to follow through before Roger Taney complied with the action. Biddle called in loans and raised interest rates, explaining that without the government deposits the Bank's resources were stretched too thin. He hoped a short recession would persuade Congress to recharter the Bank. Both parties blamed each other for the worsening financial conditions. Finally, Biddle contracted credit too far even for his own allies. Biddle at last reversed himself and began to grant credit in abundance and on reasonable terms. His unpopular tactics ended his chances of winning a recharter of the Bank.

Jackson had won a considerable political victory. But when the Bank of the US died in 1836, the country lost a valuable financial institution and was left with a fragmented and chronically unstable banking system that would plague the economy for more than a century.
The Virginia dynasty is a term sometimes used to describe the fact that four of the first five Presidents of the United States were from Virginia. The term sometimes excludes George Washington, who, though a Virginia planter, was closely aligned with the policies of the Federalist Party, and was succeeded by his Vice President, John Adams of Massachusetts. The first five presidents were, in order, George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe.

The defeat of Adams in 1800 by his Vice President, Thomas Jefferson, who had previously served as Washington's Secretary of State, marked the true beginning of the Virginia Dynasty, which is usually associated with what is now called the Democratic-Republican Party, although it was generally referred to as simply the "Republican" or "Jeffersonian" Party at the time. Jefferson served two terms before retiring, in the Washingtonian precedent, in favor of his Secretary of State, fellow Virginian James Madison, the so-called "Father of the Constitution." Although the War of 1812 greatly weakened Madison's popularity in the Northeast, especially in New England which consequently discussed secession, he was nonetheless re-elected rather easily in 1812 and was able to assist another Virginian who had remained loyal to him and the party, James Monroe, to be elected President in 1816.

By the end of Monroe's first term the Federalist Party had essentially disbanded and Monroe was re-elected in 1820 without any real opposition, receiving every electoral vote except one, which went for Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, son of John Adams. (Much later a myth arose that the dissenting elector had done so in order that George Washington would be the only president in American history to be elected unanimously.)[1]

Monroe's second term marked the end of the Virginia Dynasty. In the election of 1824, supporters of William H. Crawford portrayed him as "the rightful and legitimate successor of the Virginia Dynasty,"[2] but the Democratic-Republican Party splintered. John Quincy Adams won the disputed 1824 election over General Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, then considered to be part of the Southwest.

After having contributed four of the first five Presidents and their having held office for thirty-two of the first thirty-six years of the constitution, to date four more Virginians have served as President. They are William Henry Harrison, Virginia-born but elected as a resident of Ohio; John Tyler, who was elected Vice President in 1840 as Harrison's running mate, but wound up serving all but the first month of the latter's term after Harrison became the first President to die in office; Zachary Taylor, who made his name as a Kentucky resident; and Woodrow Wilson, who was a Virginia native but was elected President after serving as the president of Princeton University and Governor of New Jersey.
After the War of 1812, Americans felt good about themselves. That had beaten the British once again, and they were feeling strong. One of the areas of American life that began to expand was business. British companies had begun to send huge amounts of inexpensive goods to America after the war. American mill owners wanted to sell their goods to Americans rather than have them buy them from Britain, but they were having a hard time competing with the British prices. Henry Clay, a member of the United States House of Representatives, had a plan to aid American businesses.
•Support for a high tariff to protect American industries and generate revenue for the federal government
•Maintenance of high public land prices to generate federal revenue
•Preservation of the Bank of the United States to stabilize the currency and rein in risky state and local banks
•Development of a system of internal improvements (such as roads and canals) which would knit the nation together and be financed by the tariff and land sales revenues.
Steps to America System
1.) A tariff - A tariff is a tax on imported goods. It made European goods more expensive and encouraged Americans to buy cheaper products made in America. The tariff also made the country money, which would be used to improve things.
2.) A National Bank - The establishment of a national bank that would promote a single currency (money), making trade easier.
3.) Roads and Canals - Improve the transportation system in the country. Henry Clay though that many more roads and canals should be built. These roads and canals would make trade easier and faster for everyone, helping farmers and merchants get their goods to market.
Henry Clay hoped the American System would help the United States be able to become independent from Europe.
Martin Van Buren was renominated by the Democrats in 1840.The Whigs, hungering for the spoils of office, learned from their mistake in 1836 and the Whigs united behind one candidate, Ohio's William Henry Harrison. The aging hero, was known for his successes against Indians and the British at the Battles of Tippecanoe and the Thames; "Old Tippecanoe" was nominated primarily because he was issueless and enemy-less—a tested recipe for electoral success
John Tyler of Virginia was selected as vice-presidential running mate (afterthought)
A Democratic editor played directly into Whig hands; stupidly insulting the West, he lampooned Harrison as an impoverished old farmer who should be content with a pension, a log cabin, and a barrel of hard cider (poor westerner's champagne)
Harrison won by a surprising close margin in the popular vote but by an overwhelming electoral margin of 234 to 60; Van Buren was washed out of Washington (no real issues)
The election of 1840 conclusively demonstrated two major change in American politics since the Era of Good Feelings; the first was the triumph of a populist democratic styles Democracy had been something of a taint in the days of the lordly Federalists. But by the 1840s, aristocracy was the taint, and democracy was respectable; politicians were now forced to unbend and curry favor with the voting masses.
The election of 1840 was known as the "first modern election". It also was the first time popular votes are very important for electoral votes. For this reason parties used a lot of money to campaign.
Shortest presidency only 30 days, because Williamson Harrison received the pneumonia and died.
Garrison was a successful abolitionist, who strongly believed in his philosophy that the opponents of slavery should be able to place themselves in the shoes of a black man, and see things through their point of view. Garrison strongly believed in the universal of abolition of slavery. He believed that abolition should be immediate and he rejected the idea of "gradualism." Garrison's movement was strictly for the purpose of not just ending slavery but also giving African Americans full American citizenship.
Garrison founded his own newspaper called the Liberator after his resignation from the moderate Genius of Universal Emancipation. Garrison founded this paper as an antislavery newspaper in Boston. The majority of the Liberator's subscribers were free blacks, who lived dreary, meager and poverty driven lives with no education and with the worst jobs in society. Most free blacks had no idea how to survive in the "white man's" society so many of them would return to their old lives as slaves and others were kidnapped back into slavery. Garrison was also the founder of both the New England Antislavery Society and later after a convention in Philadelphia the American Antislavery Society. Most of the society was made up out of Northerners, and at the time this reform was the greatest at this point in history.
The success of the abolitionists was mainly due to its similarity to other reform movements of the time. Most reform movements were calling for unleashing of the individual human spirit, and the elimination of artificial social barriers to fulfillment. These were the goals of many enslaved men and women.
Garrisons growing radicalism led to a schism in the American Antislavery society. Garrison began to challenge not only Slavery but also the government itself. He questioned the Constitution and the Church. He called the constitution and agreement with hell. He called the churches safeguards of slavery. What prompted the division was Garrison's sudden interest in women's rights. He asked that women be fully equal. He also became and extreme pacifist and made the society neglect even defensive wars. He also opposed ALL forms of coercion like prisons and asylums. He also was a supporter of the disunion of the South because he saw it as a way to purge the nation of the sin of slavery.
The moderates and the Garrisonians came out of the American Antislavery Society. The moderate abolitionists believed that abolition of slavery should be achieved gradually while Garrisonians believed the opposite. The moderate abolitionists wanted to ease the freed blacks into society which would therefore allow them to be slowly presented to society as free citizens therefore be more easily accepted. The moderate abolitionists wanted to persuade slave owners that slavery was sinful, and they hoped to induce the northern states and the federal government to aid the cause.
The election of 1824 had 4 republican candidates running for office: Crawford, Jackson, Clay, and Adams. Crawford, of Georgia, was the former secretary of treasury and the favorite of the extreme states' rights faction of the party. Crawford however was at a slight disadvantage due to his bad health condition. John Quincy Adams was the predestined winner because he was the secretary of state. He however had little popular appeal. Henry clay was a speaker of the house, and the founder of the "American system." Jackson was a common man with no significant political record, even though he had served briefly as a member of the senate.
Jackson had the support of many of his home state political allies from Tennessee so he was able to win plurality, however he did not win the majority of popular of electoral votes. Since clay had the fewest amount of votes he was out of the running. Therefore clay had a great influence in the outcome of the vote since he was a Speaker of the House who held 37 electors on his side who would take his advice in selecting a candidate. Clay had his mind set on John Quincy Adams because he believed that since Adams was a nationalist he would support his "American System." Clay opposed Jackson because they were western political rivals, and Jackson was no supporter of Clay's legislative program. After Adam's inauguration into office he appointed Clay as his secretary of state. The Jacksonians were angry about this "corrupt bargain" they believed that the whole election was a fix. They believed that there was some sort of understanding between Clay and Adams there seemed to be no indication of anything corrupt or unusual about it, but it proved to be politically costly for both men.
The Tariff of 1828 was a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States in 1828 designed to protect industry in the northern United States. It was labeled the Tariff of Abominations by its southern critics because of the effects it had on the antebellum Southern economy. The goal of the tariff was to protect industries in the northern United States which were being driven out of business by low-priced imported goods by putting a tax on them. The South, however, was harmed firstly by having to pay higher prices on goods the region did not produce, and secondly because reducing the importation of British goods made it difficult for the British to pay for the cotton they imported from the South. The reaction in the South, particularly in South Carolina, would lead to the Nullification Crisis that began in late 1832.
The South Carolinian cotton planters were the most effected by the tariff. Their economy was stagnating because of the exhaustion of their soil, which could not compete with the fertile newly opened lands of the southwest. The south Carolinians blamed most of their problems on the tariff which they claimed had to pay for the manufactured goods they could not pay for themselves. Some South Carolinians began to consider succession.
Calhoun proposed the theory of nullification as a moderate alternative to secession. Calhoun attacked the new tariff as being unconstitutional and unfair. Calhoun did not ever believe or hope that the theory would be put to the test. He only hoped that it would pressure the federal government to reduce tariff rates. This failed however because he did not have as much influence in the Jackson administration as he thought.
In 1848 a national women's rights convention was held at Seneca Falls, New York. The unflinching feminists discussed "social, civil, and religious conditions of women". Most feminists sought to discuss such matters as political and reform concerns, and antislavery. They were Free-Soils party supporters, temperance advocates and congregational friends. Long before they could vote they circulated petitions , attended meetings, marched in parades, delivered public lectures, became active in temperance movements, and the building of asylums. Women wanted to earn the status of "right-bearers" and demanded the right to participate in market revolution. Most well-known antebellum feminists were Dorothea Dix, Sojourner Truth, and Lucy Colman. Dix was a leading advocate of the humane treatment of the insane. In 1834 women of New York organized the Female Moral Reform society which sought to redeem prostitutes from lives of sin to protect the morality of single women. Dixs' efforts influenced 28 states to construct mental hospitals.

Women could not vote and if married, they had no right to own property or retain their own earnings. They were also discriminated in the areas of education and employment, not receiving the opportunities that men possessed. This encouraged the development of educational institutions for women.
ucretia Mott: 1848, Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a women's rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York, proclaiming a Declaration of Sentiments Months earlier, along with Stanton, they successfully worked for the passage of the New York Married Women's Property Act which recognized women's right to her separate property.

- Elizabeth Cady Stanton: She along with Lucretia Mott planned a women's right convention at the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Seneca Falls which sparked the women's movement. She was also active in the fight for abolition and temperance, but was devoted to women's rights.

- Seneca Falls, 1848: Under the eye of Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, this convention adopted resolutions for women's rights. Among those adopted were a demand for women's suffrage and a diminution of sexual discrimination in education and employment.

- Emma Willard: In 1814, Willard established the Middlebury Female Seminary where she devised new innovations in female education. She also established the Troy Female Seminary in 1821. She provided instruction in math and philosophy in which women could not take earlier. She led the fight for educational equality among sexes.

- Catherine Beecher: Lyman Beecher's daughter and a militant opponent of female equality, she fought for a profession in which females could be appreciated. With this, she discovered the institution of education in which women could play an important part in. In this profession, women became the main source of teachers.

- "Cult of True Womanhood": The alternate ideal of domesticity, this slowed the advance of feminism. Because it sanctioned numerous activities in reform such as temperance and education, it provided women with worthwhile pursuits beyond the family.