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Year 9 Science Body Systems Revision
Terms in this set (83)
Aerobic Cellular Respiration
A form of cellular respiration that requires Oxygen. Word equation: Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water (+Energy/ATP). The chemical equation is: C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O [+36-38 ATP].
Small air-containing compartments of the lungs where the bronchioles terminate and from which respiratory gases are exchanged with the capillaries.
Adenosine triphosphate or ATP is a molecule that is the primary energy source used by cells to power the processes essential for life.
Adrenaline is a hormone and neurotransmitter. It increases heart rate, contracts blood vessels, dilates air passages and participates in the fight-or-flight response.
The building blocks of proteins.
The vessels in the body that supply oxygenated blood to the tissues. They carry blood away from the heart and are much more muscular than other blood vessels as the blood is under greater pressure in arteries than other vessels
The long strands of neurons which transmit electrical impulses to the axon terminals. Axons are covered in an insulating material called myelin which is composed of fatty substances and looks white to the naked eye (hence the term white matter).
The structure at the end of an axon that produces and releases chemicals (neurotransmitters) to transmit the neuron's message across the synapse to another neuron.
The organ that collects and stores urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination.
The fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins of a vertebrate animal carrying nourishment and oxygen to and bringing away waste products from all parts of the body.
Any tubular vessels conveying blood through the body (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
There are many systems in the human body including the respiratory, circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine and excretory systems.
The control center of the central nervous system of an animal located in the skull which is responsible for perception, thinking, attention, memory, emotion, and action.
The relatively primitive brain structure that starts where our spinal cord enters our head. Comprising the medulla oblongata and pons. Neurons within the brain stem control basic functions such as heart rate and breathing.
The tiny branches of air tubes within the lungs which are the continuation of bronchi and connect to the alveoli (air sacs).
Any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules. They provide a large surface area for the exchange of materials and have very thin walls.
Any of a large group of compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose. They contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and typically can be broken down to release energy in an animals body.
The command center of a neuron, which contains all of the molecular parts that keep the cell alive.
A large oganelle of a cell that contains the genetic material, in form of DNA molecules organised into structures called chromosomes.
Central nervous system (CNS)
The part of the nervous system which consists of the brain and spinal cord. Sensory impulses are transmitted to the CNS and motor impulses travel away from the CNS. The CNS also supervises and coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system.
The part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity.
The principal part of the brain in vertebrates, located in the front area of the skull and consisting of two hemispheres, left and right. It is responsible for complex sensory and neural functions and the initiation of voluntary activity in the body.
The process of breaking down food by enzymes.
The Circulatory System is composed of the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins. It serves to transport blood throughout the body.
A broad band of nerve fibres joining the two hemispheres of the brain.
A short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses or messages are transmitted to the cell body.
The thin muscle below the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen. It is the principle muscle used in respiration, it is also important in coughing, vomiting, excretion, and other expulsive functions. Spasms of the diaphragm produce hiccups.
The process of breaking down food by mechanical and chemical (enzymatic) action in the mouth, stomach and intestines into substances that can be used by the body.
A system of organs in which the major function is to convert food into simpler, absorbable nutrients to keep the body functioning and healthy.
The act or process of discharging undigested material (feces) from an organism. It should not be confused with excretion, which is getting rid of waste formed from the chemical reactions of the body, such as the wastes found in urine.
Another control system in our bodies along with the nervous system. The endocrine system uses chemical messengers called hormones that travel through the blood stream to deliver messages to target organs or cells. Hormones are released by endocrine glands.
An enzyme is a molecule found in living things that speeds up a chemical reaction. In digestion, enzymes assist the breakdown of large food molecules into smaller molecules via chemical digestion.
The excretory system is a biological system that removes excess, unnecessary or dangerous materials from an organism, so as to help maintain homeostasis within the organism and prevent damage to the body. It is responsible for the elimination of the waste products of metabolism. Excretion should not be confused with egestion, which is the process of discharging undigested material from an organism.
Waste product from an animal's digestive tract expelled through the anus.
These senses include: vision, hearing, taste and smell, touch.
Photoreceptors collect light information in the eye.
Sound waves detected by mechanoreceptors in the ear.
Taste and Smell
Chemoreceptors detect the different chemicals in food and the air.
Thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, pain receptors are used to detect heat/cold, touch and pain.
An iron-containing respiratory protein of vertebrate red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body.
The four-chambered muscular organ of vertebrates that moves blood through the body by repeated, rhythmic contractions.
The heart pumps blood around the following circuit: Body -> Vena Cava -> Right atrium -> Right ventrical -> Pulmonary artery -> Lungs -> Pulmonary vein -> Left atrium -> Left ventricle -> Aorta -> Body.
The body's ability to maintain a stable / balanced internal environment. Many factors are maintained at stable levels, for example, temperature and blood glucose.
A messenger chemical released by an endocrine gland in one part of an organism that affects cells in other parts of the organism.
A region of the brain below the thalamus that coordinates both the activity of the pituitary, controlling body temperature, thirst, hunger and other homeostatic systems.
Interneurons send information between sensory neurons and motor neurons. Most interneurons are located in the central nervous system.
The kidneys are organs shaped like two large beans, and they act as a filter. The kidney function is to filter the blood and eliminate waste in the form of urine vie the ureter.
The long, tube-like organ that is connected to the small intestine at one end and the anus at the other.
A group of structures (including the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the amygdala) of the brain that are concerned especially with emotion and motivation.
Lipids constitute a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats and waxes. The main biological functions of lipids includes energy storage and acting as the structural components of cell membranes.
The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located within the chest which remove carbon dioxide from and bring oxygen to the blood
A substance required in relatively large amounts by living organisms.
The sum of all chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
A chemical element or substance required in trace amounts for the normal growth and development of living organisms.
Motor (or efferent) neurons sens information AWAY from the CNS to muscles or glands.
Myelin is an electrically insulating material that forms a layer, the myelin sheath, around the axon of a neuron. It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system.
Negative feedback system
A negative feedback system is a type of stimulus-response model (STIMULUS -> Receptor -> Control Centre -> Effector -> RESPONSE) that helps maintain homeostasis. For example: Hot day, body gets hot, brain detects heat and sends heat and sends message to muscles, muscles take off jumper, body cools back down.
Microscopic structures in the kidneys that filter blood and form urine.
The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialised cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body. It can be broken into two parts. The CNS, composed of the brain and spinal cord, and the PNS which encompasses the rest of the neurons in the body.
A neuron (also known as a nerve cell) is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information by electrical and chemical signalling. Chemical signalling occurs via synapses, specialised connections with other cells. Dendrites collect the message, which then passes along the axon and is passed on from axon terminals. The axon is insulated by myelin sheath.
A chemical substance that is released at the end of a neuron by the arrival of a nerve impulse. By diffusing across the synapse a neurotransmitter causes the transfer of the impulse to another neuron, a muscle, or some other structure.
A thin muscular-walled tube that runs from mouth to stomach. It allows food to be transported to the stomach by peristalsis.
The bones of the middle ear. They are called the malleus (or hammer), incus (or anvil) and stapes (or stirrup).
Peripheral nervous system
The part of the nervous system that is outside the central nervous system.
The means in which food is propelled down the oesophagus in a series of muscular contractions. This same process is used by the intestines to propel digested food and waste.
The process of breaking down food by mechanical action of teeth or muscles.
The main endocrine gland; it is a small structure in the head and is called the master gland because it produces hormones that control other glands and many body functions including growth.
Any of a class of nitrogen containing compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids. They are an essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of body tissues such as muscle or hair.
A very quick, unconscious and automatic response to stimuli.
The nerve pathway involved in a reflex action including a sensory neuron, an interneuron and a motor neuron with a synapse between each.
Controls breathing, which is the process of inhaling and exhaling gases from and intro the external environment - a function of the lungs. Air travels down the pharynx, trachea, bronchi , bronchioles to the alveoli. Oxygen is carried around the body by haemoglobin.
Watery liquid secreted into the mouth by glands, providing lubrication for chewing and swallowing, and aiding digestion chemically.
Afferent neurons send information from sensory receptors (skin, eyes, nose, tongue, ears) TOWARD the CNS.
A neurotransmitter and hormone found in vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. In humans it is involved in the control of appetite, sleep, mood, behaviour, and depression.
The part of the intestine that runs between the stomach and the large intestine. Composed of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum collectively.
Information from one neuron flows to another neuron across a synapse. Small molecules called neurotransmitters cross the synapse to pass on the message.
The ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
The main hormone produced by the thyroid gland, acting to increase metabolic rate and so regulating growth and development.
A colourless crystalline compound that is the main nitrogen containing breakdown product of protein metabolism in mammals. It is a waste product excreted in urine.
The tube by which urine passes from the kidney to the bladder where it is held until it is excreted.
The narrowing of the blood cells resulting in the contraction of the muscular wall of vessels.
Refers to the widening of blood vessels.
Any of the tubes forming part of the blood circulation system of the body carrying oxygen-depleted blood TOWARD the heart. Blood is under less pressure in veins than arteries and veins are more elastic. Veins also have one-way valves to prevent blood flowing in the wrong direction.
White blood cells
Leukocytes are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials.
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流星花园 - 第十一集