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LS7C - The Human Genome Practice Questions
Terms in this set (13)
Which one of the following pairs of people has the exact same genome?
A. None of the other answer options is correct.
B. father and son
C. mother and daughter
D. identical twins
E. fraternal twins
Select the answer option that lists the levels of genetic information in order from smallest to largest.
A. DNA strand; chromosome; gene; genome
B. DNA strand; gene; genome; chromosome
C. genome; gene; chromosome; DNA strand
D. gene; chromosome; DNA strand; genome
E. gene; DNA strand; chromosome; genome
Repeated DNA sequences represent a special challenge in genome sequence assembly. Which of the following would be harder to assemble correctly, assuming the number of copies of the repeat can be determined?
A. sequences containing repeats longer than the DNA fragments to assemble
B. sequences containing repeats shorter than the DNA fragments to assemble
How can researchers distinguish exons from introns in a segment of DNA?
A. Only exons contain three-base sequences that can code for amino acids.
B. Exons have a characteristic sequence.
C. Primers won't bind to introns.
D. The sequence of exons complements mRNA molecules in the cell.
Imagine a genomic researcher who is analyzing the genome of different types of cats. She finds that a particular sequence in the North American Bobcat genome is exactly identical to a sequence found in the common house cat, while most other sequences in those two genomes differ at many nucleotides. (The most recent common ancestor between bobcats and house cats is estimated to be about 6.8 million years, plenty of time for mutation to generate DNA sequence variation.)
Which of the following could explain the identical sequence in these otherwise differing genomes? (Select all that apply.)
A. The sequence encodes a protein critical for the production of fur color.
B. The sequence encodes a gene that is critical for life and cannot be easily mutated while retaining function.
C. The sequence is from an intron of a gene that encodes a muscle protein.
D. The sequence is contained in a retrovirus that has infected both species.
When an open reading frame (ORF) is identified, it may not actually correspond to the amino acid sequence of any polypeptide in the cell. Why not? (Select all that apply.)
A. The amino acid sequence may not match any known sequence.
B. It may contain one or more stop codons in the middle.
C. The ORF could be due to chance.
D. The DNA may not be transcribed into RNA.
Which of the following properties of transposable elements allows them to contribute to the C-value paradox?
A. Their copy number can increase from one generation to the next.
B. Their replication is controlled by genes found on the transposable element itself.
C. Copies of transposable elements can appear on multiple chromosomes.
D. All of these choices are correct.
What accounts for the diversity of cell types and functions in humans relative to simpler animals, despite not having significantly more genes than simpler animals? (Select all that apply.)
A. Many human genes can encode multiple proteins.
B. Complexity arises from differential gene expression.
C. Humans gain more genes through horizontal gene transfer.
D. Complexity arises from different combinations of proteins.
A, B, D
The complexity of an organism is proportional to the number of genes in its genome.
A chromosomal segment that breaks off and attaches to another chromosome is what type of mutation?
C. reciprocal translocation
In what situation can a harmful deletion in a chromosome persist in a population?
A. if the homologous chromosome lacks the deletion
B. if it is homozygous
C. if the deletion is not in the centromere, so it is not fatal.
D. if a transposon replaces the deleted region
When nonhomologous chromosomes exchange parts, a(n) _____ has occurred.
A. reciprocal translocation
B. base exclusion
D. closed reading frame
In organisms with large genomes, inversions are more likely to be tolerated if the breakpoints occur in:
A. open reading frames.
B. coding DNA.
C. noncoding DNA.
D. closed reading frames.
E. reciprocal translocations.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
LS7C - The Human Microbiome
LS7C - The Human Genome
LS7C - The Immune System
LS7C - Cell Communication Practice Questions
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