According to _____, crime rates are influenced and controlled by the threat of punishment.
The principal that crime prevention can be achieved through modifying the physical environment to reduce the opportunity individuals have to commit crime is called...
Crime reduction programs which may produce a short-term positive effect, but the benefits dissipate as criminals adjust to new conditions is known as...
Sudden changes in police activity designed to lower crime rates through an increase in the communicated threat or actual certainty of punishment are known as...
Offenders reacting selectively to the characteristics of particular offenses is known as...
The view that criminals make a rational choice to commit crimes is supported by...
Rational Choice Theory
Rational Choice Theory has its roots in the classical school of criminology is supported by...
Which of the following is the best example of target hardening? 1) steering locks 2) gender-neutral phone lines 3) formal surveillance 4) graffiti cleaning
Policies that convince potential criminals to desist from criminal activities, delay their actions, or avoid a particular target are known as....
situational crime prevention
Techniques and technology used to make it more difficult to commit a crimes is known as...
Which of the following is not a crime prevention strategy used today? 1) reduce the rewards for committing crime 2) reduce guilt or shame for committing crime 3) increase the effort needed to commit crime 4) increase risks for committing crime
reduce guilt or shame for committing crime
The policy of giving individuals convicted of three violent offenses a mandatory life term without parole is known as...
If petty offenses were subject to the same punishment as more serious crimes, offenders would choose the worst crime. This is known as ...
According to _____, the severity of punishment is inversely proportional to the level of crime benefits.
The exhilarating, momentary integration of danger, risk, and skill that motivates people to try a variety of dangerous criminal and non-criminal behaviors is known as...
Which of the following is the best example of inducing guilt or shame? 1) rule setting 2) strengthening moral condemnation 3) all of the above 4) none of the above
all of the above
Personal factors which may influence people to commit crime are 1) learning criminal techniques 2) economic opportunities 3) learning and experience 4) all of the above
all of the above
T/F. Britain philosopher Jeremy Bentham helped popularize Beccaria's views in his writings on utilitarianism.
T/F. The view that crime is a matter of rational choice is held by a number of criminologists who believe that the decision to violate any law is made for a variety of personal reasons including greed, revenge, need, anger, lust, jealousy, thrill-seeking, or vanity.
T/F. Routine activities means that dealers camouflaged their activities within the bustle of their daily lives.
T/F. Stashing means that drug dealers are aware of those times of the day when it is best to sell their drugs.
T/F. Fear of the death penalty has been an effective tool in reducing homicide in recent years.
T/F. Informal sanctions are less effective at reducing crime then is fear of formal legal punishment.
T/F. To deter people from committing more serious offenses, Beccaria believed punishment should be lenient.
T/F. Edge work is the exhilarating, momentary integration of danger, risk, and skill that motivates people to try a variety of dangerous criminal and non-criminal behavior.
Disapproval, stigma, or anger directed toward an offender by significant others (parents, peers, neighbors, teachers), resulting in shame, embarrassment and loss of respect.
The phenomenon in which a crime prevention effort has an immediate impact that then dissipates as criminals adjust to new conditions.
The policy of creating enhanced prison sentences for the relatively small group of dangerous chronic offenders.
The idea that offenders evaluate their skills, motives, needs, and fears before deciding to commit crimes.
The philosophy of justice that asserts that those who violate the rights of others deserve to be punished. The severity of punishment should be commensurate with the seriousness of the crime.
The view that if the probability of arrest, conviction, and sanctioning increases crimes rates should decline.
The concentration of police resources on a particular problem area, such as street-level drug dealing, to eradicate or displace criminal activity.
Areas with greater than usual number of access streets from traffic arteries into the neighborhood.
Discouragers can be grouped into three categories; guardians who monitor targets (store security guards), handlers who monitor potential offenders (parole officers and parents), managers who monitor places (homeowners and doorway attendants).
A crime control policy suggesting that punishment be sever enough to convince convicted offenders never to repeat their criminal activity.
An effect that occurs when an effort to control one type of crime has the unexpected benefit of reducing the incidence of another.
The idea that offenders react selectively to the characteristics of particular crimes.
A method of crime prevention that stresses tactics and strategies to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in narrow settings, such as reducing burglaries in a housing project by increasing lighting and installing security alarms.
situational crime prevention
The principal of crime prevention that can be achieved through modifying the physical environment to reduce the opportunity individuals have to commit crime.
An effect that occurs when an effort to eliminate one type of crime also controls others, because it reduces the value of criminal activity by limiting access to desirable targets.
An effect of crime prevention efforts in which efforts to control crime in one are shift illegal activities to another.
The concept that a penalty for a crime may prompt commission of a marginally more severe crime because that crime receives the same magnitude of punishment as the original one.
According to the rational choice approach, law-violating behavior occurs when an offender decides to risk breaking the law after considering both personal and situational factors.
The excitement, exhilaration of successfully executing illegal activities in dangerous situations.
The idea that keeping offenders in confinement will eliminate the risk of their committing further offenses.