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Chapter 4

STUDY
PLAY
People whose behavior directly influences crime prevention are known as...
Crime discouragers
Parole officers and parents are the best examples of...
Handlers
According to _____, crime rates are influenced and controlled by the threat of punishment.
General Deterrence
The principal that crime prevention can be achieved through modifying the physical environment to reduce the opportunity individuals have to commit crime is called...
Defensible space
Crime reduction programs which may produce a short-term positive effect, but the benefits dissipate as criminals adjust to new conditions is known as...
Extinction
The belief that criminals choose to commit crimes is supported by...
Choice Theory
Sudden changes in police activity designed to lower crime rates through an increase in the communicated threat or actual certainty of punishment are known as...
crackdowns
Offenders reacting selectively to the characteristics of particular offenses is known as...
Offense specific
The view that criminals make a rational choice to commit crimes is supported by...
Rational Choice Theory
Rational Choice Theory has its roots in the classical school of criminology is supported by...
Cesare Beccaria
Which of the following is the best example of target hardening? 1) steering locks 2) gender-neutral phone lines 3) formal surveillance 4) graffiti cleaning
steering locks
Policies that convince potential criminals to desist from criminal activities, delay their actions, or avoid a particular target are known as....
situational crime prevention
Techniques and technology used to make it more difficult to commit a crimes is known as...
target hardening
Which of the following is not a crime prevention strategy used today? 1) reduce the rewards for committing crime 2) reduce guilt or shame for committing crime 3) increase the effort needed to commit crime 4) increase risks for committing crime
reduce guilt or shame for committing crime
The policy of giving individuals convicted of three violent offenses a mandatory life term without parole is known as...
three strikes
If petty offenses were subject to the same punishment as more serious crimes, offenders would choose the worst crime. This is known as ...
marginal deterrence
According to _____, the severity of punishment is inversely proportional to the level of crime benefits.
Deterrence Theory
The exhilarating, momentary integration of danger, risk, and skill that motivates people to try a variety of dangerous criminal and non-criminal behaviors is known as...
edge work
Which of the following is the best example of inducing guilt or shame? 1) rule setting 2) strengthening moral condemnation 3) all of the above 4) none of the above
all of the above
Personal factors which may influence people to commit crime are 1) learning criminal techniques 2) economic opportunities 3) learning and experience 4) all of the above
all of the above
T/F. Today more than 2 million Americans are incarcerated
True
T/F. Britain philosopher Jeremy Bentham helped popularize Beccaria's views in his writings on utilitarianism.
True
T/F. The view that crime is a matter of rational choice is held by a number of criminologists who believe that the decision to violate any law is made for a variety of personal reasons including greed, revenge, need, anger, lust, jealousy, thrill-seeking, or vanity.
True
T/F. Routine activities means that dealers camouflaged their activities within the bustle of their daily lives.
True
T/F. Most burglars commit crimes in impermeable neighborhoods.
False
T/F. Stashing means that drug dealers are aware of those times of the day when it is best to sell their drugs.
False
T/F. Fear of the death penalty has been an effective tool in reducing homicide in recent years.
False
T/F. Selling hours means learning how to hide drugs on their person, in the street or home.
False
T/F. Informal sanctions are less effective at reducing crime then is fear of formal legal punishment.
False
T/F. To deter people from committing more serious offenses, Beccaria believed punishment should be lenient.
False
T/F. Edge work is the exhilarating, momentary integration of danger, risk, and skill that motivates people to try a variety of dangerous criminal and non-criminal behavior.
True
Disapproval, stigma, or anger directed toward an offender by significant others (parents, peers, neighbors, teachers), resulting in shame, embarrassment and loss of respect.
informal sanctions
The phenomenon in which a crime prevention effort has an immediate impact that then dissipates as criminals adjust to new conditions.
Extinction
The policy of creating enhanced prison sentences for the relatively small group of dangerous chronic offenders.
selective incapacitation
The idea that offenders evaluate their skills, motives, needs, and fears before deciding to commit crimes.
Offender-specific crime
The philosophy of justice that asserts that those who violate the rights of others deserve to be punished. The severity of punishment should be commensurate with the seriousness of the crime.
just desert
The view that if the probability of arrest, conviction, and sanctioning increases crimes rates should decline.
Deterrence theory
The concentration of police resources on a particular problem area, such as street-level drug dealing, to eradicate or displace criminal activity.
Crackdown
Areas with greater than usual number of access streets from traffic arteries into the neighborhood.
permeable neighborhood
Discouragers can be grouped into three categories; guardians who monitor targets (store security guards), handlers who monitor potential offenders (parole officers and parents), managers who monitor places (homeowners and doorway attendants).
crime discouragers
A crime control policy suggesting that punishment be sever enough to convince convicted offenders never to repeat their criminal activity.
specific deterrence
An effect that occurs when an effort to control one type of crime has the unexpected benefit of reducing the incidence of another.
diffusion
The idea that offenders react selectively to the characteristics of particular crimes.
offense-specific crime
A method of crime prevention that stresses tactics and strategies to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in narrow settings, such as reducing burglaries in a housing project by increasing lighting and installing security alarms.
situational crime prevention
A personal trait of the individual as distinct from a "crime, which is an event".
criminality
The principal of crime prevention that can be achieved through modifying the physical environment to reduce the opportunity individuals have to commit crime.
defensible space
An effect that occurs when an effort to eliminate one type of crime also controls others, because it reduces the value of criminal activity by limiting access to desirable targets.
discouragement
An effect of crime prevention efforts in which efforts to control crime in one are shift illegal activities to another.
crime displacement
The concept that a penalty for a crime may prompt commission of a marginally more severe crime because that crime receives the same magnitude of punishment as the original one.
marginal deterrence
A crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties.
general deterrence
Professional shoplifter who steals with the intention of reselling stolen merchandise.
booster
According to the rational choice approach, law-violating behavior occurs when an offender decides to risk breaking the law after considering both personal and situational factors.
reasoning criminal
The excitement, exhilaration of successfully executing illegal activities in dangerous situations.
edge work
The idea that keeping offenders in confinement will eliminate the risk of their committing further offenses.
incapacitation effect
The view that crime is a function of a decision-making process in which the potential offender weighs the potential costs and benefits of an illegal act.
rational choice