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86 terms

BIO 169 Ch 20

Anatomy and Physiology
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Mediastinum
The anatomical region found between the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and from the first rib to the diaphragm.
pericardium
The membrane that surrounds and protects the heart is called the
to the left of the midline
The apex of the heart is normally pointed
fibrous pericardium
The outermost layer of the pericardium, which consists of inelastic dense irregular connective tissue, is called the
Pericardial fluid
This is used to reduce friction between the layers of membranes surrounding the heart.
Epicardium
This layer of the heart wall consists of mesothelium and connective tissue.
Myocardium
Which layer of the heart wall consists of cardiac muscle tissue?
Auricle
This pouch-like structure increases the total filling capacity of the atrium.
Anterior interventricular sulcus
This groove found on the surface of the heart marks the boundary between the right and left ventricles.
Pectinate muscles
These muscular ridges are found on the anterior wall of the right atrium and extend into the auricles.
Tricuspid valve
Through which structure does blood pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle?
Dense connective tissue
What type of tissue comprises the valves of the heart?
Aortic semilunar valve
Blood leaving the left ventricle passes through which of the following structures?
Ductus arteriosus
In a fetus, this structure allows blood to flow directly from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.
into arteries.
Contraction of the ventricles of the heart leads to blood moving directly
through atrioventricular valves
Contraction of the atria of the heart leads to blood moving directly
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Which valve prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle?
Aortic stenosis
Which is a disorder in which the aortic semilunar valve is narrowed?
Right atrium and right ventricle
Which chambers of the heart contain deoxygenated blood?
Coronary artery
Which blood vessel is used to distribute oxygenated blood to the myocardium?
gap junctions
Cardiac muscle fibers are electrically connected to neighboring fibers by
Cardiac muscle
Which type of muscle contains the largest number of mitochondria per cell?
Cardiac conduction system
This is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart.
SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers
Correctly list the sequence of structures that a cardiac potential follows in order to excite normal contraction of the heart
a longer
In comparison to skeletal muscle fibers, the contractile fibers of the heart are depolarized for _________ period of time.
cardiac output
The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute is called the
systole
This term refers to the period of time during a cardiac cycle when contraction of a chamber occurs and pressure within the chamber rises.
ventricular systole
During which period does the largest volume of blood enter the arteries?
Semilunar valves closing
The second heart sound (dupp) closely follows which event?
Sinoatrial node
This structure in the heart initiates action potentials that stimulate contraction of the heart at constant rate of about 100 beats per minute.
Vagus nerve
Stimulation of this nerve reduces heart rate.
Increased potassium levels in plasma
Which of the following would lead to a decreased heart rate?
A) Increased norepinephrine release
B) Increased thyroid hormone release
C) Increased potassium levels in plasma
D) Increased calcium levels in plasma
E) Increased sympathetic stimulation
Medulla oblongata
This part of the brain contains the cardiovascular center that regulates heart rate.
T wave
Which wave in an electrocardiogram represents repolarization of the ventricles?
increased preload, decreased afterload, increased contractility
Which of the following selections lists conditions that would lead to increased stroke volume?
P wave
Which of the following electrocardiogram (EKG) waves represents atrial depolarization?
A) R wave
B) T wave
C) S wave
D) P wave
E) Q wave
I
This portion of the heart wall is responsible for the pumping action.
F
This is comprised of a thin layer of endothelium overlying a thin layer of connective tissue.
B
Which layer of the pericardium consists of dense irregular connective tissue?
G
In the diagram, where are the trabeculae carneae?
E
In the diagram, where is the coronary sulcus?
G
In the diagram, where is the left auricle of the left atrium?
B
In the diagram, where is the ascending aorta?
E and I
In the diagram, these structures contain coronary blood vessels and a variable amount of fat.
B
In the diagram, which labeled structure prevents blood flow from the right ventricle back into the right atrium?
A
In the diagram, which labeled structure is the pulmonary semilunar valve?
B and D
In the diagram, which labeled structures are atrioventricular valves?
E
In the diagram, which labeled structure is the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery?
B
In the diagram, which labeled structure is the marginal branch of the right coronary artery?
D
In the diagram, which labeled structure is the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery?
3 and 5
Which phases of a heartbeat shown in the diagram involve repolarization of the heart's four chambers?
A
Which of the labeled diagrams shows coarctation of the aorta?
C
Which of the labeled diagrams shows an atrial septal defect?
C
Which of the labeled steps in the diagram represent formation of the primitive heart tube?
B
Which of the labeled steps in the diagram represent formation of the endocardial tubes?
F
Which blood vessel shown in the figure carries oxygenated blood to the lower thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity of the body?
D
Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a remnant of fetal circulation that is not directly involved in adult circulation?
E
Which labeled blood vessel in the diagram is an artery carrying deoxygenated blood?
A
Which labeled blood vessel shown in the diagram is the left common carotid artery?
not shown in the diagram
Which labeled blood vessel shown in the diagram is the right common carotid artery?
B
Which blood vessel shown in the diagram is the left subclavian artery?
G
Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a pouch-like extension that serves to slightly increase the capacity of an atrium?
D
What labeled structure in the figure is the ligamentum arteriosum?
D
Which labeled structure in the figure receives deoxygenated blood from the blood vessel labeled A?
E
What labeled structure in the figure divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries to carry blood to the lungs?
C
Which labeled blood vessel carries oxygenated blood from the right lung back to the heart?
F
What labeled structure in the figure is the descending aorta?
G
What labeled structure in the figure increases the blood volume capacity of an atrium?
left subclavian artery
Which structure in the figure is labeled B?
arch of aorta
Which structure in the figure is labeled C?
left common carotid artery
Which structure in the figure is labeled A?
A
Which labeled structure in the figure acts as the natural pacemaker of the heart?
B
Which labeled structure in the figure is the AV node?
C
Which labeled structure in the figure represents the only potential pathway for conducting action potentials from the atria to the ventricles?
E
Which labeled structure in the figure carries the cardiac action potential directly into the contractile fibers of the ventricular myocardium?
left or right, aorta or pulmonary trunk
Cardiac output is the volume of blood ejected from the _____ ventricle into the _____ each minute.
cardiac reserve
The difference between a person's maximum cardiac output and resting cardiac output is called the
Allowing blood to flow directly from the right atrium into the left atrium
What is the function of foramen ovale during fetal life?
ventricular pressure increases and ventricular volume remains the same
Isovolumetric contraction is the phase of the cardiac cycle in which
left ventricle
Which chamber of the heart is surrounded by the thickest layer of myocardium?
auscultation
The process of listening to heart sounds using a stethoscope is referred to as
valves
Heart murmurs are often heard in individuals with abnormalities in the _______ of the heart.
hypertension
Which condition would lead to an increase in the afterload for the ventricles thus lowering stroke volume and cardiac output?
a higher resting cardiac output
In comparison to a sedentary individual, a well-trained athlete will usually have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
A) a higher cardiac reserve
B) a higher resting cardiac output
C) a higher stroke volume
D) hypertrophy of the heart
E) resting bradycardia
vagus
During heart transplants, the _______ nerves are severed resulting in a faster resting heart rate (approximately 100 beats per minute) after the transplant.
cardiomyoplasty
A corrective cardiac procedure in which a large piece of a patient's own latissimus dorsi muscle is wrapped around the heart and stimulated by an implanted pacemaker to assist the pumping action of a damaged heart.