The anatomical region found between the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and from the first rib to the diaphragm.
The outermost layer of the pericardium, which consists of inelastic dense irregular connective tissue, is called the
This is used to reduce friction between the layers of membranes surrounding the heart.
Anterior interventricular sulcus
This groove found on the surface of the heart marks the boundary between the right and left ventricles.
These muscular ridges are found on the anterior wall of the right atrium and extend into the auricles.
Through which structure does blood pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle?
Aortic semilunar valve
Blood leaving the left ventricle passes through which of the following structures?
In a fetus, this structure allows blood to flow directly from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.
through atrioventricular valves
Contraction of the atria of the heart leads to blood moving directly
Cardiac conduction system
This is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart.
SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers
Correctly list the sequence of structures that a cardiac potential follows in order to excite normal contraction of the heart
In comparison to skeletal muscle fibers, the contractile fibers of the heart are depolarized for _________ period of time.
The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute is called the
This term refers to the period of time during a cardiac cycle when contraction of a chamber occurs and pressure within the chamber rises.
This structure in the heart initiates action potentials that stimulate contraction of the heart at constant rate of about 100 beats per minute.
Increased potassium levels in plasma
Which of the following would lead to a decreased heart rate?
A) Increased norepinephrine release
B) Increased thyroid hormone release
C) Increased potassium levels in plasma
D) Increased calcium levels in plasma
E) Increased sympathetic stimulation
This part of the brain contains the cardiovascular center that regulates heart rate.
increased preload, decreased afterload, increased contractility
Which of the following selections lists conditions that would lead to increased stroke volume?
Which of the following electrocardiogram (EKG) waves represents atrial depolarization?
A) R wave
B) T wave
C) S wave
D) P wave
E) Q wave
E and I
In the diagram, these structures contain coronary blood vessels and a variable amount of fat.
In the diagram, which labeled structure prevents blood flow from the right ventricle back into the right atrium?
In the diagram, which labeled structure is the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery?
3 and 5
Which phases of a heartbeat shown in the diagram involve repolarization of the heart's four chambers?
Which blood vessel shown in the figure carries oxygenated blood to the lower thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity of the body?
Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a remnant of fetal circulation that is not directly involved in adult circulation?
not shown in the diagram
Which labeled blood vessel shown in the diagram is the right common carotid artery?
Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a pouch-like extension that serves to slightly increase the capacity of an atrium?
Which labeled structure in the figure receives deoxygenated blood from the blood vessel labeled A?
What labeled structure in the figure divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries to carry blood to the lungs?
Which labeled structure in the figure represents the only potential pathway for conducting action potentials from the atria to the ventricles?
Which labeled structure in the figure carries the cardiac action potential directly into the contractile fibers of the ventricular myocardium?
left or right, aorta or pulmonary trunk
Cardiac output is the volume of blood ejected from the _____ ventricle into the _____ each minute.
The difference between a person's maximum cardiac output and resting cardiac output is called the
Allowing blood to flow directly from the right atrium into the left atrium
What is the function of foramen ovale during fetal life?
ventricular pressure increases and ventricular volume remains the same
Isovolumetric contraction is the phase of the cardiac cycle in which
Heart murmurs are often heard in individuals with abnormalities in the _______ of the heart.
Which condition would lead to an increase in the afterload for the ventricles thus lowering stroke volume and cardiac output?
a higher resting cardiac output
In comparison to a sedentary individual, a well-trained athlete will usually have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
A) a higher cardiac reserve
B) a higher resting cardiac output
C) a higher stroke volume
D) hypertrophy of the heart
E) resting bradycardia
During heart transplants, the _______ nerves are severed resulting in a faster resting heart rate (approximately 100 beats per minute) after the transplant.