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iGCSE Chemistry: alcohols & carboxylic acids (incl alkanes, alkenes) - core

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(Triple only) Of which homologous series is -OH the functional group?
Alcohols
(Triple only) What is the functional group of alcohols?
-OH
(Triple only) Draw the structural and displayed formulae for methanol
(Triple only) Ethanol is a flammable liquid. Suggest how it could be heated safely
Use a water bath
(Triple only) Draw the displayed formula for ethanol, C₂H₅OH
(Triple only) State the conditions needed for the manufacture of ethanol by the fermentation of sugars.
Temp: 30°C, Catalyst: zymase (enzyme found in yeast), Anaerobic conditions, i.e no oxygen
(Triple only) State the conditions needed for the manufacture of ethanol using ethene and steam.
Temp: 300°C, Pressure: 60 atm and Catalyst: Phosphoric acid, H₃PO₄
(Triple only) State the name of the reaction used to manufacture ethanol using ethene and steam.
Hydration
(Triple only) State the name of the reaction used to manufacture ethanol from sugars.
Fermentation
(Triple only) State the raw materials needed for manufacture of ethanol by the fermentation of sugars.
Sugar cane
(Triple only) State the raw materials needed for the manufacture of ethanol using ethene and steam.
Crude oil and water
(Triple only) What are the advantages/disadvantages of using the fermentation of glucose to manufacture ethanol.
Advantages: Uses renewable resources, e.g sugar cane. Uses low temp and pressure therefore low energy input. Disadvantages: Uses batch process which is inefficient. Slow rate of reaction. Impure product.
(Triple only) What are the advantages/disadvantages of using the hydration of ethene to manufacture ethanol.
Advantages: Uses continuous process which is efficient. Fast rate of reaction. Pure product. Disadvantages: Uses finite resources, e.g crude oil cane. Uses high temp and pressure therefore high energy input.
(Triple only) When fermentation is used to produce ethanol, what is the temperature? Why is this temperature used?
30°C (much hotter would denature the enzymes in the yeast)
(Triple only) Which reactants are used to produce ethanol in a industry?
ethene and steam
(Triple only) Write the chemical equation for manufacture of ethanol by passing ethene and steam.
C₂H₄ +H₂0 → C₂H₅0H
(Triple only) Write the chemical equation for manufacture of ethanol by the fermentation of sugars.
C₆H₁₂O₆ → 2C₂H₅OH + 2CO₂
(Triple only) In the production of ethanol by fermentation, why is the process done at an optimal temperature of 30⁰C?
At 30⁰C the yeast is warm enough to perform anaerobic respiration, but below the temperature at which the zymase enzyme would denature
(Triple only) In the production of ethanol by fermentation, why is the process done in the absence of air?
If air were present, the ethanol would oxidise and form ethanoic acid
(Triple only) Of which homologous series is -COOH the functional group?
Carboxylic acids
(Triple only) What is the functional group of a carboxylic acid?
-COOH
(Triple only) Give the name, structural formula and displayed formulae of the straight-chained carboxylic acid with 2 carbons
(Triple only) Give the name, structural formula and displayed formulae of the straight-chained carboxylic acid with 3 carbons
(Triple only) magnesium + ethanoic acid →
magnesium + ethanoic acid → magnesium ethanoate + hydrogen
(Triple only) sodium carbonate + ethanoic acid →
sodium carbonate + ethanoic acid → sodium ethanoate + carbon dioxide + water
(Triple only) What observation is made when an aqueous solution of a carboxylic acid reacts with a metal carbonate? What product is responsible for this observation?
Bubbles of carbon dioxide
(Triple only) What observation is made when an aqueous solution of a carboxylic acid reacts with a metal? What product is responsible for this observation?
Bubbles of hydrogen
(Triple only) Vinegar is an aqueous solution which always includes which compound?
Ethanoic acid
(Triple only) What common food-stuff contains a high proportion of ethanoic acid?
Vinegar
(Triple only) Of which homologous series is -COO- the functional group?
Esters
(Triple only) What is the functional group of an ester?
-COO-
(Triple only) What 2 reactants are used to produce ethyl ethanoate?
Ethanol and ethanoic acid
(Triple only) Which ester is produced when ethanol and ethanoic acid react in the presence of an acid catalyst?
Ethyl ethanoate
(Triple only) Draw the displayed formula for ethyl ethanoate
(Triple only) Write the structural formula for ethyl ethanoate
CH₃COOCH₂CH₃
(Triple only) Name the ester produced by the reaction of butanol and ethanoic acid. Show the structural and displayed formulae.
(Triple only) Name the ester produced by the reaction of ethanol and methanoic acid. Show the structural and displayed formulae.
(Triple only) Name 2 uses of esters
Food flavourings and in perfumes
(Triple only) What 2 properties makes esters useful in food flavourings and in perfumes?
Esters are volatile with distinctive smells
(Triple only) A few drops of what should be added to ethanoic acid and ethanol to produce ethyl ethanoate?
Concentrated sulfuric acid
(Triple only) What is the process of forming an ester called?
Esterification
(Triple only) What type of reaction is esterification (the making of an ester)?
Condensation reaction
Explain the term hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon is a molecule containing only hydrogen and carbon
Show the empirical formulae, molecular formulae, general formulae, structural formulae and displayed formulae of ethane
Explain the term functional group
A functional group is an atom or a group of atoms that determine the chemical properties of a compound
Explain the term homologous series
A homologous series is a family of compounds with 1) the same general formula 2) similar chemical properties 3) trends in their physical properties
What are isomers?
Molecules with the same molecular formula but with a different structure
Draw the displayed formula for 2,3-dimethyl hexane
Write all the possible different structural and displayed formulae of C₄H₁₀
What is a substitution reaction?
A reaction where an atom or group of atoms is replaced by a different atom or group of atoms
What is an addition reaction?
A reaction where an atom or group of atoms is added to a molecule without taking anything away
What is combustion?
Combustion is burning a substance, and is a reaction with oxygen
What is crude oil?
A mixture of hydrocarbons
State the general formula of alkanes
CnH2n+2
State the names and molecular formulae of the first 5 alkanes
methane (CH₄), ethane (C₂H₆), propane (C₃H₈), butane (C₄H₁₀), pentane (C₅H₁₂)
Explain the term saturated
A molecule containing only single bonds
Draw the displayed formulae for ethane
Draw the displayed formulae for propane
What is the molecular formula for butane?
C₄H₁₀
What is the molecular formula for methane?
CH₄
State the conditions for the reaction of methane with bromine to form bromomethane
UV light
What are the two products of the reaction between methane and bromine? (2)
Bromomethane (CH₃Br) and hydrogen bromide (HBr)
What else is needed for methane to react with bromine?
UV light
What is the name given to the type of reaction that occurs when ethane reacts with bromine under UV light
Substitution
Would methane normally react with bromine?
No (because it is saturated)
Write the chemical equation for the reaction between methane and bromine
CH₄ + Br₂ → CH₃Br +HBr
Write the word equation for the reaction between methane and bromine
methane + bromine → bromomethane + hydrogen bromide
Of which homologous series is >C=C< (a carbon-to-carbon double bond) the functional group?
Alkenes
What is the functional group of an alkene?
>C=C< (a carbon-to-carbon double bond)
State the general formula for alkenes
CnH2n
Explain the term unsaturated
A molecule containing a carbon-carbon double bond
Why are alkenes classified as unsaturated hydrocarbons?
They contain a double bond
Draw the displayed formulae for butene
Draw the displayed formulae for ethene
Draw the displayed formulae for the two straight chain isomers of butene. Name these two isomers
State the names and molecular formulae of the first 3 alkenes
ethene (C₂H₄), propene (C₃H₆), butene (C₄H₈)
State the colour change in the reaction of an alkene with bromine water
Orange to colourless
State the colour change when an alkane is mixed with bromine water
No change
What is produced when an alkene reacts with bromine?
A dibromoalkane
What two things can be added together to produce a dibromoalkane?
An alkene and bromine
What type of reaction takes place when bromine reacts with an alkene?
Addition
Bromine is added to a sample of an alkane and also to a sample of an alkene. Describe the result of each.
With the alkane, no change (stays brown). With the alkene, changes from brown to colourless
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