143 terms

acute angle

an angle with a measure less than 90 degrees

add

to combine, to put together two or more quantities

addend

any number being added

additive comparison

problems that ask how much more or less one amount is than another

algorithm

a step-by-step method for computing

angle

two rays that share an endpoint

angle measure

The measure of the size of an angle. It tells how far one

side is turned from the other side. A one degree angle turns through 1/360 of a full circle.

side is turned from the other side. A one degree angle turns through 1/360 of a full circle.

arc

Part of a circle between any two of its points

area

The measure, in square units, of the inside of a plane figure

area model

A model of multiplication that shows each place value product

array

An arrangement of objects in equal rows

Associative Property of Addition

Changing the grouping of three or more addends does not change the sum

Associative Property of Multiplication

Changing the grouping of three or more factors does not change the product

attribute

A characteristic of an object, such as color, shape, size, etc

benchmark fractions

Fractions that are commonly used for estimation

capacity

Capacity refers to the amount of liquid a container can hold

centimeter

A metric unit of length equal to 0.01 of a meter

circle

A plane figure with all points the same distance from a fixed point called

a center

a center

classify

To sort into categories or to arrange into groups by attributes

common denominator

For two or more fractions, a common denominator is a common multiple of the denominators

Commutative Property of Addition

Changing the order of the addends does not change the sum

Commutative Property of Multiplication

Changing the order of the factors does not

change the product

change the product

compare

To decide if one number is greater than, less than, or equal to

comparison bars

Used to represent larger and smaller amounts in a comparison situation. Can be used to represent all four operations. Different lengths of bars are drawn to represent each number

compose

To put together components or basic elements

composite number

A number greater than 0 that has more than two different

factors

factors

congruent

Having exactly the same size and shape

cup

A customary unit of capacity. 1 cup = 8 fluid ounces

customary system

A system of measurement used in the U.S. The system includes

units for measuring length, capacity, and weight

units for measuring length, capacity, and weight

data

A collection of information gathered for a purpose. Data may be in the form of either words or numbers

decimal

A number with one or more digits to the right of a decimal point

decimal fraction

A fractional number with a denominator of 10 or a power of 10. Usually written with a decimal point

decimal notation

A number containing a decimal point

decimal point

A dot (.) separating the whole number from the fraction in decimal notation

decompose

To separate into components or basic elements

degree (angle measure)

A unit for measuring angles. Based on dividing one complete circle into 360 equal parts

denominator

The quantity below the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are in the whole

protractor

A tool used to measure and draw angles.

quart (qt)

A customary unit of capacity. 1 ______ = 2 pints or 1 _____ = 4 cups

quotient

The answer to a division problem.

range

The difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of data.

ray

A part of a line that has one endpoint and goes on forever in one direction.

reasonableness

An answer that is based on good number sense.

related facts

________ addition and subtraction facts or _______ multiplication and division facts. Also called fact family.

remainder

The amount left over when one number is divided by another.

right angle

An angle that measures exactly 90º.

right triangle

A triangle that has one 90º angle.

round a whole number

To find the nearest ten, hundred, thousand, (and so on).

second (sec)

One sixtieth of a minute. There are 60 _______ in a minute.

sequence

A set of numbers arranged in a special order or pattern.

simplest form

When a fraction is expressed with the fewest possible pieces, it is in ______ ______. (Also called lowest terms.)

simplify

To express a fraction in simplest form.

square unit

A unit, such as square centimeter or square inch, used to measure area.

standard form

A common or usual way of writing a number using digits.

subtract

An operation that gives the difference between two numbers.

sum

The answer to an addition problem.

tenth

One of the equal parts when a whole is divided into 10 equal parts.

time interval

A duration of a segment of time.

two-dimensional

Having length and width. Having area, but not volume. Also called a plane figure.

unit fraction

A fraction that has 1 as its numerator.

unlike denominators

_________ that are not equal.

variable

A letter or symbol that represents a number.

vertex (vertices)

The point at which two line segments, lines, or rays meet to form an angle.

volume (liquid)

The number of cubic units it takes to fill a figure.

weight

The measure of how heavy something is.

whole numbers

____ ______ are zero and the counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and so on.

word form

A way of using words to write a number.

yard (yd)

A customary unit of length. 1 _____ = 3 feet or 36 inches.

Zero Property of Multiplication

The product of any number and zero is zero.

like denominators

_________ in two or more fractions that

are the same.

are the same.

line

A set of connected points continuing without end

in both directions.

in both directions.

line of symmetry

A line that divides a figure into two congruent halves

that are mirror images of each other.

that are mirror images of each other.

line plot

A diagram showing frequency of data on a number line.

line segment

A part of a line with two endpoints.

line symmetric figures

Figures that can be folded in half and its two parts match

exactly.

exactly.

liter (L)

The basic unit of capacity in the metric system.

1 ____ = 1,000 milliliters

1 ____ = 1,000 milliliters

lowest terms

When a fraction is expressed with the fewest possible pieces, it is in _____ ____. (Also called simplest form.)

mass

The amount of matter in an object.

meter (m)

A standard unit of length in the metric system

metric system

A system of measurement based on tens. The basic unit of

capacity is the liter. The basic unit of length is the meter. The basic unit of mass is the gram.

capacity is the liter. The basic unit of length is the meter. The basic unit of mass is the gram.

mile

A customary unit of length.

1 ____ = 5,280 feet

1 ____ = 5,280 feet

milliliter (mL)

A metric unit of capacity.

1,000 _______ = 1 liter

1,000 _______ = 1 liter

millimeter (mm)

A metric unit of length.

1,000 __________ = 1 meter

1,000 __________ = 1 meter

minute (min)

One sixtieth of an hour or 60 seconds.

mixed number

A number that has a whole number (not 0) and a fraction.

multiple

A product of a given whole number and any other whole number.

multiplicative comparison

Compare by asking or telling how many times more one

amount is as another. For example, 4 times greater than.

amount is as another. For example, 4 times greater than.

multiply

The operation of repeated addition of the same number.

number line

A diagram that represents numbers as points on a line.

numerator

The number written above the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are described in the fraction.

obtuse angle

An angle with a measure greater than 90º but less than 180º.

Order of Operations

A set of rules that tells the order in which to compute.

ounce (oz)

A customary unit of weight equal to one sixteenth of a pound. 16 _________ = 1 pound

parallel lines

Lines that are always the same distance apart. They do not intersect.

parentheses

Used in mathematics as grouping symbols for operations.

pattern

A repeating or growing sequence or design. An ordered set of numbers or shapes arranged according to a rule.

perimeter

The distance around the outside of a figure.

period

In a large number, periods are groups of 3 digits separated by commas or by spaces.

perpendicular lines

Two intersecting lines that form right angles.

pint (pt)

A customary unit of capacity. 1 ______ = 2 cups

place value

The value of the place of a digit in a number.

plane figure

A two-dimensional figure.

point

The exact location in space represented by a dot.

pound (lb)

A customary unit of weight. 1 _______ = 16 ounces.

prime number

A whole number greater than 0 that has exactly two different factors, 1 and itself.

product

The answer to a multiplication problem.

digit

Any of the symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.

difference

The amount that remains after one quantity is subtracted

from another

from another

Distributive Property

When one of the factors of a product is a sum, multiplying

each addend before adding does not change the product.

each addend before adding does not change the product.

divide

To separate into equal groups and find the number in each group or the number of groups.

dividend

A number that is divided by another number.

divisor

The number by which another number is divided.

endpoint

A point at either end of a line segment, or a point at one end of a ray.

equal

Having the same value.

equation

A mathematical sentence with an equals sign. The amount on one side of the equals sign has the same value as the amount on the other side.

equivalent fractions

Fractions that have the same value.

estimate

To find a number close to an exact amount, an

estimate tells about how much or about how many.

estimate tells about how much or about how many.

evaluate

To find the value of a mathematical expression.

expanded form

A way to write numbers that shows the place value of each digit.

expression

A mathematical phrase without an equal sign.

fact family

A group of related facts that use the same numbers.

Also called related facts

Also called related facts

factor

The whole numbers that are multiplied to get a product.

factor pairs

A set of two whole numbers when multiplied, will result in a

given product

given product

foot (ft)

A customary unit of length. 1 ____ = 12 inches

formula

A rule that is written as an equation.

fraction

A way to describe a part of a whole or a part of a group by

using equal parts.

using equal parts.

function table

A table that lists pairs of numbers that follow a rule.

gallon (gal)

A customary unit of capacity. 1 ____ = 4 quarts

gram (g)

The standard unit of mass in the metric system.

1,000 ______ = 1 kilogram

1,000 ______ = 1 kilogram

greater than

________ ____ is used to compare two numbers when the first number is larger than the second number.

hour (hr)

A unit of time. 1 ____ = 60 minutes. 24 _____ = 1 day

hundredth

One of the equal parts when a whole is divided into 100

equal parts.

equal parts.

hundredths

In the decimal numeration system, __________ is the name

of the next place to the right of tenths.

of the next place to the right of tenths.

Identity Property of Addition

If you add zero to a number, the sum is the same as that

number.

number.

Identity Property of Multiplication

If you multiply a number by one, the product is the same

as that number.

as that number.

improper fraction

A term for a fraction whose numerator is greater than or

equal to its denominator.

equal to its denominator.

inch (in)

A customary unit of length.

12 _______ = 1 foot

12 _______ = 1 foot

intersecting lines

Lines that cross at one point.

inverse operations

Operations that undo each other.

kilogram (kg)

A metric unit of mass equal to 1000 grams.

kilometer (km)

A metric unit of length equal to 1000 meters.

length

How long something is. The distance from one

point to another.

point to another.

less than

____ ____ is used to compare two numbers when the first number is smaller than the second number.