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G4 CCSS Math Vocabulary
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Gravity
Terms in this set (143)
acute angle
an angle with a measure less than 90 degrees
add
to combine, to put together two or more quantities
addend
any number being added
additive comparison
problems that ask how much more or less one amount is than another
algorithm
a step-by-step method for computing
angle
two rays that share an endpoint
angle measure
The measure of the size of an angle. It tells how far one
side is turned from the other side. A one degree angle turns through 1/360 of a full circle.
arc
Part of a circle between any two of its points
area
The measure, in square units, of the inside of a plane figure
area model
A model of multiplication that shows each place value product
array
An arrangement of objects in equal rows
Associative Property of Addition
Changing the grouping of three or more addends does not change the sum
Associative Property of Multiplication
Changing the grouping of three or more factors does not change the product
attribute
A characteristic of an object, such as color, shape, size, etc
benchmark fractions
Fractions that are commonly used for estimation
capacity
Capacity refers to the amount of liquid a container can hold
centimeter
A metric unit of length equal to 0.01 of a meter
circle
A plane figure with all points the same distance from a fixed point called
a center
classify
To sort into categories or to arrange into groups by attributes
common denominator
For two or more fractions, a common denominator is a common multiple of the denominators
Commutative Property of Addition
Changing the order of the addends does not change the sum
Commutative Property of Multiplication
Changing the order of the factors does not
change the product
compare
To decide if one number is greater than, less than, or equal to
comparison bars
Used to represent larger and smaller amounts in a comparison situation. Can be used to represent all four operations. Different lengths of bars are drawn to represent each number
compose
To put together components or basic elements
composite number
A number greater than 0 that has more than two different
factors
congruent
Having exactly the same size and shape
cup
A customary unit of capacity. 1 cup = 8 fluid ounces
customary system
A system of measurement used in the U.S. The system includes
units for measuring length, capacity, and weight
data
A collection of information gathered for a purpose. Data may be in the form of either words or numbers
decimal
A number with one or more digits to the right of a decimal point
decimal fraction
A fractional number with a denominator of 10 or a power of 10. Usually written with a decimal point
decimal notation
A number containing a decimal point
decimal point
A dot (.) separating the whole number from the fraction in decimal notation
decompose
To separate into components or basic elements
degree (angle measure)
A unit for measuring angles. Based on dividing one complete circle into 360 equal parts
denominator
The quantity below the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are in the whole
protractor
A tool used to measure and draw angles.
quart (qt)
A customary unit of capacity. 1 ______ = 2 pints or 1 _____ = 4 cups
quotient
The answer to a division problem.
range
The difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of data.
ray
A part of a line that has one endpoint and goes on forever in one direction.
reasonableness
An answer that is based on good number sense.
related facts
________ addition and subtraction facts or _______ multiplication and division facts. Also called fact family.
remainder
The amount left over when one number is divided by another.
right angle
An angle that measures exactly 90º.
right triangle
A triangle that has one 90º angle.
round a whole number
To find the nearest ten, hundred, thousand, (and so on).
second (sec)
One sixtieth of a minute. There are 60 _______ in a minute.
sequence
A set of numbers arranged in a special order or pattern.
simplest form
When a fraction is expressed with the fewest possible pieces, it is in ______ ______. (Also called lowest terms.)
simplify
To express a fraction in simplest form.
square unit
A unit, such as square centimeter or square inch, used to measure area.
standard form
A common or usual way of writing a number using digits.
subtract
An operation that gives the difference between two numbers.
sum
The answer to an addition problem.
tenth
One of the equal parts when a whole is divided into 10 equal parts.
time interval
A duration of a segment of time.
two-dimensional
Having length and width. Having area, but not volume. Also called a plane figure.
unit fraction
A fraction that has 1 as its numerator.
unlike denominators
_________ that are not equal.
variable
A letter or symbol that represents a number.
vertex (vertices)
The point at which two line segments, lines, or rays meet to form an angle.
volume (liquid)
The number of cubic units it takes to fill a figure.
weight
The measure of how heavy something is.
whole numbers
____ ______ are zero and the counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and so on.
word form
A way of using words to write a number.
yard (yd)
A customary unit of length. 1 _____ = 3 feet or 36 inches.
Zero Property of Multiplication
The product of any number and zero is zero.
like denominators
_________ in two or more fractions that
are the same.
line
A set of connected points continuing without end
in both directions.
line of symmetry
A line that divides a figure into two congruent halves
that are mirror images of each other.
line plot
A diagram showing frequency of data on a number line.
line segment
A part of a line with two endpoints.
line symmetric figures
Figures that can be folded in half and its two parts match
exactly.
liter (L)
The basic unit of capacity in the metric system.
1 ____ = 1,000 milliliters
lowest terms
When a fraction is expressed with the fewest possible pieces, it is in _____ ____. (Also called simplest form.)
mass
The amount of matter in an object.
meter (m)
A standard unit of length in the metric system
metric system
A system of measurement based on tens. The basic unit of
capacity is the liter. The basic unit of length is the meter. The basic unit of mass is the gram.
mile
A customary unit of length.
1 ____ = 5,280 feet
milliliter (mL)
A metric unit of capacity.
1,000 _______ = 1 liter
millimeter (mm)
A metric unit of length.
1,000 __________ = 1 meter
minute (min)
One sixtieth of an hour or 60 seconds.
mixed number
A number that has a whole number (not 0) and a fraction.
multiple
A product of a given whole number and any other whole number.
multiplicative comparison
Compare by asking or telling how many times more one
amount is as another. For example, 4 times greater than.
multiply
The operation of repeated addition of the same number.
number line
A diagram that represents numbers as points on a line.
numerator
The number written above the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are described in the fraction.
obtuse angle
An angle with a measure greater than 90º but less than 180º.
Order of Operations
A set of rules that tells the order in which to compute.
ounce (oz)
A customary unit of weight equal to one sixteenth of a pound. 16 _________ = 1 pound
parallel lines
Lines that are always the same distance apart. They do not intersect.
parentheses
Used in mathematics as grouping symbols for operations.
pattern
A repeating or growing sequence or design. An ordered set of numbers or shapes arranged according to a rule.
perimeter
The distance around the outside of a figure.
period
In a large number, periods are groups of 3 digits separated by commas or by spaces.
perpendicular lines
Two intersecting lines that form right angles.
pint (pt)
A customary unit of capacity. 1 ______ = 2 cups
place value
The value of the place of a digit in a number.
plane figure
A two-dimensional figure.
point
The exact location in space represented by a dot.
pound (lb)
A customary unit of weight. 1 _______ = 16 ounces.
prime number
A whole number greater than 0 that has exactly two different factors, 1 and itself.
product
The answer to a multiplication problem.
digit
Any of the symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.
difference
The amount that remains after one quantity is subtracted
from another
Distributive Property
When one of the factors of a product is a sum, multiplying
each addend before adding does not change the product.
divide
To separate into equal groups and find the number in each group or the number of groups.
dividend
A number that is divided by another number.
divisor
The number by which another number is divided.
endpoint
A point at either end of a line segment, or a point at one end of a ray.
equal
Having the same value.
equation
A mathematical sentence with an equals sign. The amount on one side of the equals sign has the same value as the amount on the other side.
equivalent fractions
Fractions that have the same value.
estimate
To find a number close to an exact amount, an
estimate tells about how much or about how many.
evaluate
To find the value of a mathematical expression.
expanded form
A way to write numbers that shows the place value of each digit.
expression
A mathematical phrase without an equal sign.
fact family
A group of related facts that use the same numbers.
Also called related facts
factor
The whole numbers that are multiplied to get a product.
factor pairs
A set of two whole numbers when multiplied, will result in a
given product
foot (ft)
A customary unit of length. 1 ____ = 12 inches
formula
A rule that is written as an equation.
fraction
A way to describe a part of a whole or a part of a group by
using equal parts.
function table
A table that lists pairs of numbers that follow a rule.
gallon (gal)
A customary unit of capacity. 1 ____ = 4 quarts
gram (g)
The standard unit of mass in the metric system.
1,000 ______ = 1 kilogram
greater than
________ ____ is used to compare two numbers when the first number is larger than the second number.
hour (hr)
A unit of time. 1 ____ = 60 minutes. 24 _____ = 1 day
hundredth
One of the equal parts when a whole is divided into 100
equal parts.
hundredths
In the decimal numeration system, __________ is the name
of the next place to the right of tenths.
Identity Property of Addition
If you add zero to a number, the sum is the same as that
number.
Identity Property of Multiplication
If you multiply a number by one, the product is the same
as that number.
improper fraction
A term for a fraction whose numerator is greater than or
equal to its denominator.
inch (in)
A customary unit of length.
12 _______ = 1 foot
intersecting lines
Lines that cross at one point.
inverse operations
Operations that undo each other.
kilogram (kg)
A metric unit of mass equal to 1000 grams.
kilometer (km)
A metric unit of length equal to 1000 meters.
length
How long something is. The distance from one
point to another.
less than
____ ____ is used to compare two numbers when the first number is smaller than the second number.
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