68 terms

2-dimensional (2-D)

having area but not volume

3-dimensional (3-D)

having length, width, and thickness

Accurate

as correct as possible for the situation

acute angle

an angle with a measure less than 90 degrees

acute triangle

a triangle with three acute angles

algebra

the branch of mathematics that uses letters and other symbols to stand for quantities that are unknown or vary

algebraic expression

an expression that contains a variable

algorithm

a set of a step by step instructions for doing something, such as solving a problem

angle

a figure that is formed by 2 rays or line segments with a common end point

approximate

close to exact

area

the amount of surface inside a 2-dimensional shape

area model

a model for multiplication problems in which the length and width of a rectangle represent the factors, and the area of the rectangle represents the product

array

an arrangement of objects in a regular pattern, usually in rows and columns

axis of coordinate grid

either of the two number lines that intersect to form a coordinate grid

bar graph

a graph that uses horizontal or vertical bars to represent data

base

the side of a polygon or face of a polyhedron from which the height is measured

base (in exponential notation)

the number that is raised to a power.

capacity

the amount a container can hold

category

a group members are defined by a shared attribute

circle

a 2-dimensional, closed, curved path whose points are all the same distance from a center point

common denominator

for two or more fractions, a number that is a multiple of both or all denominators

congruent figures

figures that have the same shape and the same size

conjecture

a statement that is thought to be true based on information or mathematical thinking

coordinate

one of two numbers in an ordered pair. The number pair is used to locate a point on a coordinate grid

cube

a polyhedron with six square faces, eight vertices, and 12 edges

cubic unit

a unit used in measuring volume

cup

a U.S. customary unit of volume or capacity equal to eight fluid ounces or 1/2 pint

data

information that is gathered by counting, measuring, questioning, or observing

decimal

a number written in standard, base-10 notation that contains a decimal point, such as 2.54

decimal point

a dot used to separate the ones and tenths in decimals

degree

a unit of measure for angles based on dividing a circle into 360 equal parts

denominator

the number below the line in a fraction

difference

the result of subtracting one number from another

digit

one of the number symbols 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9 in the standard, base-ten system

dividend

the number in division that is being divided.

divisor

in division, the number that divides another number.

edge

any side of a polyhedron's faces

equation

a number sentence that contains an equal sign

equilateral polygon

a polygon in which all sides are the same length

equilateral triangle

a triangle with all three sides equal in length

equivalent

equal in value but possibly in different form

equivalent fractions

fractions that name the same number.

equivalent names

different ways to name the same number

equivalent problem

a division problem solved by writing an equivalent expression

estimate

an answer close to an exact answer

evaluate a numerical expression

to carry out the operations in a numerical expression to find a single value for the expression

even number

a counting number that can be divided by 2 with no remainder

expanded form

a way of writing a number as the sum of the values of each digit

exponent

a number used in exponential notation to tell how many times the base is used as a factor

exponential notation

a way to show repeated multiplication by the same factor

expression

a group mathematical symbols that represents a number --or can represent a number if values are assigned to any variables in the expression.

face

a flat surface on a 3-dimensional shape

factor

whenever two or more numbers are multiplied to give a product, each of the numbers that is multiplied is called a factor

factor pair

two factors of a counting number whose product is the number. a number may have more than on factor pair.

formula

a general rule for finding the value of something. Often written using letters, called variables, which stands for quantities involved

fraction

a number in the form a/b. Can be used to name part of a whole or part of a collection.

grouping symbols

symbols such as parenthesis ( ), brackets [ ], and braces { }, that tell the order of operations in an expression are to be done

height

the length of the shortest line segment connecting a vertex of a shape to the line containing the base opposite it

hierarchy of shapes

a way to organize shapes into categories and subcategories. All attributes for a category are attributes of each of its sub categories.

horizontal

in a left to right orientation lined up with the horizon

inequality

a number sentence with <, >, less than or equal to, greater than or equal to, or not equal to

interior of a figure

the inside of a closed figure

intersect

to meet or cross

isosceles triangle

a triangle with at least two side of the same length

kilogram

a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 grams

kite

a quadrilateral with two pairs of adjacent, equal-length sides.

least common denominator (LCD)

the least common multiple of the denominators of every fraction in a given collection

length

the distance between two points along a path