This generally means the ways in which a country seeks to progress economically and to also improve the quality of life for its inhabitants.
Places, areas or territories can be studied and identified at a variety of geographic levels, from local areas to the national or state level.
A description of the way in which people are spread out across Earth's surface.
The number of people living within a specified area.
A diagrammatic expression of the extent to which a distribution is unequal.
This can be used to show the global distribution of areas where there is a high density of population.
A climate whose precipitation is less than 250 mm annually.
The removal of salt water and other minerals from seawater.
Countries with GNI per capita $1,005 or less
Countries with GNI per capita $1,006 and $3,955
Countries with GNI per capita $3,956 and $12,235
Countries with GNI per capita $12,236 or more
Example of a LIC
Example of a LMIC
Example of a LMIC
Example of a HIC
Gross domestic product (GDP)
A measure of the total value of the output of final goods and services inside a nation's borders.
Unofficial forms of employment that are not easily made subject to government regulation or taxation. Sometimes called 'the black economy'.
Purchasing power parity
A measure of average wealth that takes into account the cost of a typical 'basket of goods' in a country.
Flows of people, investment and resources directed from peripheral to core regions.
The uneven spatial distribution of national population and wealth between two or more regions of a state or country, resulting from flows of migrants, trade and investment.
The movement of people from place to place inside the borders of a country.
An increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
Barriers to a migrant such as a political border or physical feature (deserts, mountains and rivers).
An ethnic group that has occupied the place where it lives and calls home for hundreds or thousands of years without interruption.
The make-up of a population in terms of age, gender, occupation, ethnicity or any other selected criterion.
A type of bar chart used to show the proportion of males and females belonging to different cohorts (age groups) for a place or country.
A period when the productivity of global agriculture increased greatly as a result of new technologies including fertilizers and selectively bred high-yield crops.
The fertility rate required to maintain a population at its current size.
A person who has been forced to leave his or her country in order to escape war, persecution or natural disaster.
Internally displaced people (IDPs)
People who have found shelter in another part of their country after being forced to flee their homes.
The intensification or extensification of arid, desert-like conditions.
An armed non-official or informal military force raised by members of civil society.
Name of a militia group.
Boko Haram (Nigeria)
The demographic dividend (DD)
A short-term demographic benefit that is 'cashed in' by a country when it moves from stage 2 to stage 3 of the DTM.
Case study of a country with a potential for a demographic dividend.
These countries have been grouped together because of their large populations, favourable demographics and emerging economies. (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Turkey).
In economics, this grouping acronym refers to the countries of Brazil, Russia, India and China (sometimes South Africa), which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.
This stands for Group of Eight and is made up of leaders from Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the UK and the United States of America.
More economically developed country
Less economically developed country
a newly industrialized/industrializing country
A visual depiction of the North-South divide between their economies, based on GDP per capita, proposed by Willy Brandt in the 1980s.