Chapter 2 - Atoms & the Periodic Table

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Terms in this set (...)

Element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical reaction
What are elements identified by?
a one- or two letter symbol
Elements
are arranged in the periodic table
What does the position of an element in the periodic table tell us ?
its chemical properties
What are the first 20 elements?
Hydrogen. Neon
Helium. Sodium
Lithium. Magnesium
Beryllium. Aluminium
Boron. Silicon
Carbon. Phosphorus
Nitrogen. Sulfur
Oxygen. Chlorine
Fluorine. Argon
Potassium
Calcium
What is the symbol for Hydrogen?
H
What is the symbol for Helium?
He
What is the symbol for Lithium?
Li
What is the symbol for Beryllium?
Be
What is the symbol for Boron?
B
What is the symbol for Carbon?
C
What is the symbol for Nitrogen?
N
What is the symbol for Oxygen?
O
What is the symbol for Fluorine?
F
What is the symbol for Neon?
Ne
What is the symbol for Sodium?
Na
What is the symbol for Magnesium?
Mg
What is the symbol for Aluminium?
Al
What is the symbol for Silicon?
Si
What is the symbol for Phosphorus?
P
What is the symbol for Sulfur?
S
What is the symbol for Chlorine?
Cl
What is the symbol for Argon?
Ar
What is the symbol for Potassium?
K
What is the symbol for Calcium?
Ca
Where do most of the name of elements come from?
Planets, Mythological figures, Minerals, Colors, Geographic locations, & Famous people
Which elements are Metalloids?
Boron- B, Silicon- Si, Arsenic-As, Tellurium-Te, Antimony- Sb, Germanium- Ge, & Polonium - Po
Which elements are non metal?
Hydrogen - H, Helium-He, Carbon- C, Nitrogen- N, Oxygen- O, Fluorine - F, Neon - Ne, Phosphorus - P, Sulfur - S, Chlorine - Cl, Argon - Ar, Selenium - Se, Bromine - Br, Krypton- Kr, Iodine - I, Xenon - Xe, & Radon- Rn
Which elements of the metals located?
To the left of the table; usually exist as shiny solids, are good conductors of heat and electricity. Are solids at room temperature, except for mercury (Hg), which is a liquid.
Where are the nonmetals located?
to the right of the table, usually do not have a shiny appearance. Are usually poor conductors of heat and electricity. Can be solids (sulfur, carbon), liquids (bromine), or gases (nitrogen, oxygen) at room temperature
Where are the metalloids located?
To the right of the table In the squiggly lines
Which four nonmetals comprise 96% job the mass of the human body and are called building block elements?
O,C,H &K. Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen,& Potassium
Which elements are considered trace elements?
Arsenic- As, Boron -B, Chromium - Cr, Selenium - Se, Nickel- Ni, Molybdenum - Mo, Maganese - Mn, Cobalt - Co, Copper- Cu, Fluorine - F, Iodine - I, Silicon- Si, Zinc- Zn
Which elements are considered major minerals?
Potassium- K, Sodium- Na, Chlorine- Cl, Magnesium- Mg, Sulfur- S, Calcium- Ca, & Phosphorus- P
Which elements are present in body fluids?
Potassium (K), Sodium (S), & Chlorine (Cl)
Which elements are present in proteins found in muscle?
Magnesium (Mg), & Sulfur (S)
Which elements are present in teeth & bones?
Calcium (Ca) & Phosphorus (P)
Compounds
a pure substance formed by chemically combining two or more elements together
What does a chemical consist of?
element symbols to show the identity of the elements forming a compound. Subscripts to show the ratio of atoms in the compound
Give an example of a compound
H2O- 2 H (hydrogen) atoms & 1 O (Oxygen) atom
C3H8- 3 C (Carbon) atoms & 8 H (Hydrogen) atoms
Which element is a nonmetal?
a. K
b. Co
c. Br
d. Al
e. Hg
Br
What is the color code for Carbon(C)?
black
What is the color code for Hydrogen (H)
white
What is the color code for Oxygen (O)?
red
What is the color code for Nitrogen (N)?
blue
What is the color code for Fluorine (F)?
yellow-brown
What is the color code for Chlorine (Cl)?
green
What is the color code for Bromine (Br)?
dark red
What is the color code for Iodine (I)
purple
What is the color code for Sulfur(S)?
yellow
What is the color code for Phosphorus (P)
orange
Which element is a metalloid?
a. B
b. C
c. Ar
d. Al
e. Mn
a. B
Where are the protons and neutrons located?
in the nucleus
Nucleus
dense core of the atom, most of the mass of the atom resides here.
Where are electrons located?
Electron cloud
Electron cloud
Comprises most of the atom's volume
What is all matter composed of?
the same basic building blocks called atoms
What are atoms composed of?
3 subatomic particles
What does 1 amu =?
1.66054 x 10^-27 kg.
What is the particle symbol for Electron?
e or e'
What is the particle symbol for protons?
p or p+
What is the particle symbol for Neutron?
n or n^0
What is the charge for Electron (e or e')?
-1
What is the charge for a proton (p or p+)?
+1
What is the charge for a Neutron (n or n^0)
0
What is the heaviest substance?
protons & neutrons inside an atom
What does every atom have?
a mass and atomic #
Atom
What is the smaller of an element?
Atom
what does every element have?
Protons
have a positive (+) charge
Electrons
have a negative (-) charge
Neutrons
have no charge
Like charges and unlike charges do?
like charges repel and unlike charges attract
+. +
<---- ---->
Positive charges repel
+- -+
-----><---- ----> <-----
unlike charges attract
- -
<----- ------>
Negative charges repel
Nuclide
an atom characterized by a definite atomic number and mass number
Nucleon
is a particle found inside the nucleus
A(mass#) X(atom symbol)
Z(atomic #)
...
If you have equal protons (p+) & electrons (e') what will the charge be?
neutral
What will happen to the atom if the electron is less than the proton?
it will equal a positive charged atom
e'. >. p+ = ? electron more than a proton.
negative charge atom
Where are the electrons found?
outside the nucleus
Where are the protons and neutron found?
inside the nucleus
A (mass number) X(atom symbol) ^I(charge)
Z(atomic number)
...
How do you calculate ^37 Cl
17
p+=17
e' = 17
n^0 = 37-17=20
How do you calculate ^58 Fe
26
p+= 26
e' = 26
n^0= 58-26=32
Which of the following subatomic particles is found outside the nucleus?
a. Proton
b.Electrons
c. Neutons
b. Electrons
Why are atoms neutral?
because of the # of protons equals # of electrons
__________ is the whole# value on the element in theperiodic table. What does it represent?
Z. It represents the positions of the element in the periodic table
What does A represent ?
the # of particles in the nucleus of an atom. It is always a whole number & you cannot get it from the periodic table.
Calculating protons, electrons, & neutrons in an Atom
Z= # or protons
# of electrons = Z +or - charge
A - Z = # of neutrons
What is the mass # of the isotope with the symbol ^37 Cl
17
a. 17
b. 18
c. 35.45
d. 37
d. 37
If there is no charge then it will be....?
Z # of electrons
What is the atomic number of the isotope with the symbol ^37 Cl?
17
a. 17
b. 18
c. 35.45
d. 37
a. 17
An atom of lead (Pb) has a mass number of 207
Calculate and figure out the how many protons ate in the nucleus, how many neutrons are in the nucleus, and how many electron are in the atom.
^207 Pb p'= 82
82. e' = 82
n^0 = 207 - 82 = 125
Where is the atomic number located at on the periodic table?
above (on top) the element
Where is the mass number located on the periodic table?
below the element
What is the atomic number, protons, and electrons for Nitrogen (N)?
Atomic #- 7
Protons - 7
Electrons - 7
(we do not have the mass # so we cannot find the proton or neutrons)
What is the atomic# , protons, & electrons for Zinc (Zn)?
Atomic # - 30
Protons - 30
Electrons - 30
(we do not have the mass # so we cannot find the proton or neutrons)
What is the atomic #, protons, and electrons for Sulfur (S)?
Atomic # - 16
Protons - 16
Electrons - 16
(we do not have the mass # so we cannot find the proton or neutrons)
Isotopes
atoms of the same element with the same # of p+ & e' but different # of n^0s (same atomic # but different mass #)
example: ^1 H
1
^2 H
1
^3 H
1
Calculate ^35 Cl
17
p' = 17
e' = 17
n^0 = 35-17=18
Calculate ^3 Cl
17
p' = 17
e' = 17
n^0 = 3+17 = 20
Where are groups & periods located?
on the periodic table
What happens to the elements on the periodic table for groups & periods?
arranged according to similar properties
What are Groups?
vertical columns of elements with similar properties (18 groups)
What are the Representative elements?
groups 1,2,13-18
What are periods?
horizontal rows of elements (7 periods)
What is group 1 called?
Alkalil metal
What is group 2 called?
Alkalil Earth metal
What are groups 3-12 called?
transition elements
What is 14 called?
a group
What is group 17 called?
Halogen
What is group 18 called?
Noble gas
What is the bottom part of period 6 called?
Lanthanides
What is period 7 called?
Actinides or trans- uranium series
What is the first row on the periodic table called?
period 1
What is the second row on the periodic table called?
period 2
What is the third row on the periodic table called?
period 3
What is the fourth row on the periodic table called?
period 4
What is the fifth row on the periodic table called?
period 5
What is the sixth row on the periodic table called?
period 6
What is the seventh row on the periodic table called?
period 7
What type of charge does group 1 contain?
+1
What type of charge does group 2 contain?
+2
What type of charge does group 3-12 contain?
no charge
What type of charge does group 13 contain?
+3
What type of charge does group 14 contain?
+4 or -4 (nonmetals have a - charge)
What type of charge does group 15 contain?
-3
What type of charge does group 16 contain?
-2
What type of charge does group 17 contain?
-1
What type of charge does group 18 contain?
0
______________ is different from most other elements in that it has three elemental forms
Carbon
What are the 3 different forms of carbon?
Diamond
Graphite
Buckminsterfullerene
Diamond
3- dimensional network of C atoms
Graphite
contains parallel sheets of C atoms
Buckminsterfullerene
contains a sphere with 60 C atoms
Identify the element described by the following
Group 7A, Period 4
a. Br
b. Cl
c. Mn
c. Mn
Identify the element described by the following:
Group 2A, Period 3
a. beryllium
b. boron
c. magnesium
c. magnesium
Which are the 4 major elements in the human body?
Hydrogen (H), Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N), & Oxygen (O)
Which 7 elements are the Macrominerals?
Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Sulfur (S), & Chlorine (Cl)
Which 11 elements are the Microminerals (trace elements)?
Vanadium (V), Chromium (Cr), Maganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Silicon (Si), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se), & Iodine (I)
What is the chemistry of an element determined by?
the number of electrons in an atom
_______________ do not move freely in space; rather they occupy specific energy levels.
Electrons
Energy levels or shells
the regions occupied by electrons
What are the shells numbered?
1,2,3, etc.
Where are the electrons in the lower numbered shells?
closer from the nucleus and are lower in energy
Where are the electrons in the higher numbered shells?
further from the nucleus and higher in energy
Similarities
Bookcase

1. 1st shelf is lowest energy; 2nd shelf is the 2nd highest energy and so on.
2. Arranging books, it takes less energy to fill 1st shelf, and then 2nd shelf & so on.
3. It is not possible to put books between the levels.
Similarities
Bookcase

1. level has lowest energy; 2nd level has the 2nd highest energy & so on.
2. Electrons is the 1st level have the lowest energy, followed by the 2nd level & so on.
3. Electrons in energy levels are specific (meaning they are quantized)
Differences
Bookcase

1. Shelves have a similar difference between levels
2. Shelves hol equal # of books of the same size.
Differences
Atom

1. Lower energy levels are further apart, higher energy levels are close together.
2. Lower energy levels hold fewer electrons
What happens with larger numbers (n)?
they are farther from the nucleus, have a larger volume, & therefore, can hold more electrons
Shell (n)
4
3
2
1
(increasing energy ^ )
'
'
'
Number of electrons in a shell
4 - 32
3 - 18
2 - 8
1 - 2
(increasing number of electrons ^ )
'
'
'
Shells
divided into subcells, identified by the letters s, p,d, & f
Subshells
consist of orbitals
Orbital
a region of space where the probability of finding an electron is high
how many electrons can an orbital hold?
each orbital can hold 2 electrons
sub shell
s
p
d
f
Number of orbitals
'
'
'
decreasing energy (downward)
s - 1
p - 3
d - 5
f - 7
Shell - 1
What is the orbitals?
Orbitals - 1s. Number of electrons-2. Max of electrons-2
Shell - 2
What is the orbitals?
Orbital - 2s. Number of electrons-2 ;max e'-8
3x2=6
2p 2p 2p
Shell - 3
What is the orbitals?
Orbital - 3s. Number of electrons-2 ; max18
3x2=6
5x2=10
3p 3p 3p
3d 3d 3d 3d 3d.
What are the 2 structure shapes of an orbital?
sphere & dumbbell
Sphere
s orbital
dumbbell
p orbital
Electron configuration
describes how the electrons are arranged in an atom's orbitals.
What is the lowest energy arrangement called?
ground state
What are the 2 rules to determine the ground state electronic configuration of an atom
rule 1 - electrons are placed in the lowest orbitals beginning with the 1s orbital
rule 2 - each orbital holds a maximum of 2 electrons
Part of rule 1
An orbital closer to the nucleus is __________
lower in energy
orbital energies __________ in the following orders : s,p,d,f.
increase
These guidelines result in the following order of energies:
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p.
Write an electron arrangement for C
C 1s^2, 2s^2, 2p^2
6
For representative elements in groups 1A-8A, the chemical properties due to the?
due to the number of valence electrons
Valence electrons
the number of electrons in the outermost energy level
Group number
gives the number of valence electrons for the representative elements
What does the chemical property of an element depend on?
the most loosely held electrons, which are found in the valence shell.
Valence shell
the outermost shell ( the highest value of n)
Valence electrons
electrons in the valence shell
An example of value shell for Be
1s^2 2s ^2; n=2
An example of valence electrons for Be
1s^2 2s^2 ; 2
Atomic Radius
The size of atoms increases down a column, as the valence e' are farther from the nucleus.

The size of atoms decreases a row, as the number of protons in the nucleus increases.

The increasing # of protons pulls the e' closer to the nucleus, making the atoms smaller
---------->. (decrease across) '
'
' (increase downward)
First Ionization Energy
The energy needed to remove an electron from a neutral atom.

Energies decrease down a column as the valence e' get farther away from the positively charged nucleus.

Energies increase across a row as the number of protons in the nucleus increases.
------> (increase across)
decrease downward
periods are the __________
shells
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