21 terms

Geology test 2-1

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A/An ____________________ is a sudden motion or trembling of the Earth.
Earthquake
A/An ____________________ is a sea wave generated by an underwater earthquake.
Tsunami
The boundary between the crust and the mantle is called the ____________________
____________________.
Mohorovicic disconuity
A rock that has deformed ____ under stress keeps its new shape when the stress is released.
plastically
The initial rupture point of an earthquake (below Earth's surface) is the ____.
focus
The ____ is located on Earth's surface directly above the initial rupture point of an earthquake.
Epicenter
____ waves are the fastest body waves generated by an earthquake.
P
A seismograph measures ____.
ground vibrations
____ is a continuous, slow movement of solid rock along a fault, usually not causing large earthquakes.
Fault creep
A Benioff zone is an earthquake zone at a ____ plate boundary
Subduction
Geologists learned that the outer core is liquid because ____ do not travel through the outer core.
S waves
Earthquakes occur primarily along plate boundaries because:
rock fractures at moving plate boundaries releasing energy
When solid rock deforms and returns to its original shape, it has undergone:
elastic deformation.
P, or primary, waves:
are characterized by alternate compression and expansion of rock
S, or shear, waves:
are characterized by particle movement perpendicular to direction of wave propagation.
P waves and S waves:
do not reflect and refract at boundaries.
The San Andreas Fault zone is an example of a/an:
earthquake zone at a transform plate boundary.
During fault creep:
a continuous, slow movement along a fault occurs, usually not causing large earthquakes.
The earthquakes caused when a subducting plate sinks into the mantle:
concentrate along the upper portion of the sinking plate
Earthquakes occur along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge because:
blocks of oceanic crust drop downward as the rift valley opens
No S waves pass through the center of the Earth because:
the outer core is liquid