51 terms

States of Consciousness

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sleep walking disorder
a sleep disorder that involves rising, walking, and carrying out activities while sleeping.
mental imagery
a technique in which involves imagine preforming physical movements, such as shooting a basketball. The notion is that the imagining will improve subsequent actual performance, but the evidence does not support that.
activation- synthesis theory
a theory suggesting that dreams result from the random stimulation of memories stored in the cortex, primarily in the temporal lobe.
circadian rhythm
the daily cycle of sleep and wakefulness
methadone
a drug that blocks the pleasure produced by heroin and eliminates heroin withdrawal symptoms.
amphetamine psychosis
a disorder caused by amphetamines, the symptoms of which include confusion, hallucinations, and delusions
self-medication
the notion that drugs are taken to adjust levels of arousal so individuals will be more comfortable and effective.
consciousness
the awareness of what is going on around you.
cross- tolerance
the fact that when tolerance for a drug develops, the individual may also develop tolerance for other drugs of the same type.
D.A.R.E
a program for children that is designed to reduce drug use by teaching the children about drugs and the problems they can cause.
behaviorists
psychologists who focus on behaviors and the external factors that influence behaviors rather than on thought process.
depressants
drugs that reduce physiological arousal by reducing neurological activity in the brain.
zyban
a drug that produces pleasure by stimulating the release of dopamine in the pleasure center, and therefore can be sued as a substitute for cigaretts.
hypnotics
drugs used to treat insomnia which work by reducing neurological arousal.
Franz Mesmer
a physician whose treatment of disease was based on suggestion.
night mare disorder
a sleep disorder that involves frequent awakening because of frightening dreams.
mantra
a nonsense word or phrase that is repeated as part of meditation. the use of the mara appears to block thoughts that might distract or disrupt the individuals relaxation.
REM sleep
sleep during which there a rapid eye movements. occurs in most stage 1 sleep and is often associated with dreaming.
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder in which the individual is seized by irresistible sleep.
raphe system
a cluster of neurons which inhibits the reticular activating system from carrying arousal to the cortex.
EEG
a record of electrical activity in the braiin
transcendental meditation
a popular form of meditation, the advocates of which believe results in a higher state of consciousness.
PGO system
a tract beginning in the pons, going through the geniculate in the thalamus, and leading to the occipital and other lobes in the brain. Activation from this system is responsible for rapid eye movements and possibly dreams.
dependence
the condition in which an individual must take drugs to avoid withdrawal symptoms
psychoactive drugs
drugs that change mood, level of consciousness, and arousal.
hypnosis
a procedure in which suggestions are used to change sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feeling, and behaviors.
meditation
a procedure that usually involves sitting quietly and possible silently repeating a mantra. Some people believe it results in a higher state of consciousness.
hypnotic age regression
the notion that hypnosis can be used to take individuals back to earlier times in their lives.
insomnia
a sleep disorder in which individuals do not get enough good sleep.
narcotics
drugs that dull or numb sensory experiences, usually because they reduce neurological activity in the medulla of the brain step.
antabuse
a drug that causes severe nausea if alcohol is consumed after the drug is taken, and therefore it is used to treat alcoholism.
withdrawl
the physiological symptoms that occur when an individual stops taking a drug or reduces the level being taken.
hallucinogens
drugs that distort sensory experiences. they are similar in structure to neurotransmitters so they artificially stimulate activity in areas of the brain.
sleep cycle
the progress from stage 1 sleep (light sleep) to stage 4 sleep (deep sleep) and then back to stage 1 sleep. a number of cycles occur each night.
mesmerism
an early term for hypnosis
half- life
the amount of time required for half of a drug dose to be eliminated from the body. drug effects are greatly reduced after the half life.
pleasure center
an area in the middle of the limbic system (mesolimbic area) which when activated produces pleasure.
hypersomnia
a sleep disorder which involves excessive sleepiness.
reticular activating system
tracks that carry electrical stimulation between the brain stem and the cortex
hypnotizability
the ease with which an individual can be hypnotized. usually measured by assessing the degree to which an individual will respond to suggestions.
rebound effect
the fact that when an individual stops taking a hypnotic drug, there may be a period in which the insomnia is worse than before the drug was taken
drug abuse
problems that result from using drugs, such as missing school or work.
naltrexone
a drug that reduces the pleasure produced by psychoactive drugs such as alcohol and nicotine.
stimulants
drugs that increase physiological arousal by increasing neurological activity in the brain.
dose-dependent effects
the fact that different levels of drugs can result in different effects.
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder in which the individuals sleep is interrupted because breathing is interrupted
drug- dependence
problems associated with using drugs, such as needing higher levels of the drug, wishing to stop using the drug, and losing time getting, taking and recovering from the drug.
alcoholics anonymous
a treatment for alcoholism in which individuals admit they have a problem and seep help from a high power (G-d) and others who have gone through the same problems.
tolerance
the fact that after many doses, a given dose of a drug may have less of an effect than it did originally.
night terror disorder
a sleep disorder that involves frequent awakening with a high state of fear which is not due to a frightening dream.
opiates
drugs (narcotics) that are derived from the opium poppy.