33 terms

social studies unit 6

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what was Lincoln's original goal at beginning of the war?
to save the union
with 7 states seceded, what did the South decide to do ?
they decided to take Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina (a major union fort in the south!)
who technically won the battle of fort Sumter?
the confederates (even though there were no casualties and it was over within 34 hours)
what did Lincoln do in response to the battle of fort Sumter?
he called upon 75k soldiers to serve for the union for 90 days (causing Virginia and three other states to secede)
what was significant about border states?
Lincoln allowed slavery in them
who were the copperheads
they were northern democrats who wanted peace with the south. they did not support succession and protested the draft that Lincoln had issued, but anyone who went against it could be put into jail. they were given the name because they are easily concealed like a snake.
southern advantages?
better military leaders: Robert E. Lee as head general and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
what was Andersonville?
a southern prisoner of war camp in Georgia with no shade or shelter that caused around 12k deaths
what happened in Chancellorsville?
it was a confederate victory with Joseph Hooker leading the union. in this battle, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson was accidentally shot by one of his own men. Hooker was fired after this battle.
what happened in the battle of Gettysburg?
it was a union victory where Robert E. Lee tried to attack union lines but he instead was met with 7k deaths. this is considered a turning point in the war for the north.
what were women's roles in the war?
women had to basically take the place of men during the war:
-ran farms and businesses
- took nursing classes and helped on the battle field
- raised money for supplies to send to military camps
Lincoln passed the first _______ ____ that lasted until the war was over. what did this allow?
a. income tax
b. government growth
what were greenbacks?
inflationary money that was made of paper with green ink and used to finance the war
what does "war of attrition" mean?
it means that whichever side has the most resources will win (in the civil war, it was the union)
where was the confederate capital?
Richmond, Virginia
where was the union capital?
Washington, DC
(100 miles from confederate capital)
what were the three parts of the Anaconda Plan?
1. blockade the south so trade with Britain is cut off
2. divide the confederacy at the Mississippi
3. take the confederate capital (Richmond, Virginia)
civil war tactics?
- trading volleys (having one side shoot at once and then the other)
- charge and counter charge (both sides advance at full speed and engage in close combat)
- both sides drafted their soldiers
- whoever ceased fighting first lost the battle
- the winner usually had more casualties
- losers could retreat a few miles without fear of attack
which southern victory showed how unprepared both sides were for battle?
the battle of Bull Run in Manassas, Virginia
what was northern home life like during the war?
-increased taxes and tariffs
-women and immigrants provided help to labor shortages
-the north flourished industrially
what southern home life like during the war?
- many men didn't return home or returned handicapped
- high taxes (Jefferson Davis, the president of the time, got a lot of criticism)
- lack of food hurt Southern morale and health
- many soldiers would desert and go home to their families to help them with the struggles of home life
what was a new weapon of the time?
breech loaded guns
what were ironclads?
wooden frames with metal plates
what did David Farragut do?
he sailed a Union fleet up the Mississippi River and took New Orleans from South. he nearly achieved part of the Anaconda Plan by dividing the confederacy at the Mississippi - but the confederate still needed control of the lower Mississippi
what was southern industry like?
the south had supplies, just a very bad transportation system of thus supply and a crappy economy
what happened in merrimac v.s. monitor?
ironclad ships off the coast of Virginia get into a fight and it was a draw, but the whole situation showed the effectiveness of ironclads for the North. The south used blockade runners to get past union navy ships.
what were draft riots?
draft riots were rallies against the draft in the North that took place in NYC. it is ironic because 92% of the union were volunteers.
what was bounty jumping?
enlisting in the army, getting paid, and then leaving
what was conscription?
conscription was caused by the some seeing the horrors of the war and dropping out and paying someone else to take their spot. it made it seem like 'the rich man's war was being fought by the poor'
how were 180,000 black troops treated differently in the union army?
- they were originally just used for labor
- they had less pay
- they were separated from the white troops
(some Cherokee Indians fought for the south)
What was the Emancipation Proclamation?
it said that southern slaves were now freed, but it didn't really free any slaves. it was really a political move to keep Britain out of the war by attaching morals to the fight.
what did the radical republicans do?
lead by Thaddeus Stevens, the radical republicans convinced Lincoln to make the war all about ending slavery and wanted harsh punishment for the confederate states.
what happened in the battle of antietam?
26,000 were killed and it is a very important northern victory that makes Lincoln abolish slavery. the union general cuts the confederate railroad and George McClellan didn't chase the south after they retreat and is later fired for it.