15 terms

Roman (Republican and Wall Painting) Definitions

Art History
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Temple of Portunus, 120-75 BCE, Tufa and Travertine, Forum Boarium
- combination of Etruscan and Greek: a craze for Greek art
- would've been overlaid in stucco, imitate Greek ideal
- Ionic temple, pseudo-colonnade with central cella
- form of porch: large frieze
Temple of Hercules Olivarius, 120-100 BCE, Marble, Forum Boarium
- round, surrounded by Corinthian colonnade
- tholos: Etruscan form, Roman merge it with Greek order
- central cella is covered, seperate unit
- concrete cella, more malleable, can produce much more (innovation)
Funerary relief with portraits of the Gessii,
ca. 30 BC, Marble
- roman portraiture: individual, more representation
- concept of citizen: vote, practicing member of society
- ideal: with age comes wisdom
Head of a Roman patrician,
ca. 75-50 BC, Marble
- every single line and wrinkle has been sculpted, hyper-realistic
-wisdom: illustrates values of republican society
Portrait of a Roman general, from the sanctuary of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy,
ca. 75-50 BC, Marble
- incongruous portraits: old face and youthful body
- roman ideal of power (government) mixed with ideal Greek Classical statuary
- awkward drapery (would've been nude in classical Greece), morph to meet society's standards
First Style wall painting, Samnite House, late 2nd century BC
- masonry style, imitate costly marble using stucco and paint, solidity of wall
House of Livia, Second Style Decoration of Room D, Fresco, 36-28 BCE, Palatine Hill
- seeks to dissolve, allusion to the world beyond
- expand space, perspective
- observation of nature
Second Style Architectural Scene, 40-30 BCE, Fresco, Boscoreale
- not necessarily naturalistic
- attempt to show recession of space, stacking of forms
Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor, ca. 50-40 BC
- mature second style
- allusion of recession, perfect perspective (one point, single vanishing point)
- direct connection of Classical Greek and High renaissance
- clear geometry, observation of nature inherent to design
Room of the Masks with Seconds Style Decoration, from the House of Augustus, Fresco, 36-28 BCE, Palatine Hill
- mature second style
Third Style Wall Painting, 10 BCE, Fresco, Villa of Agrippa Postumus,
- reasserts wall's surface
- division of space and scene in center
- noted for use of fanciful architectural features
Villa Agrippa Postumus,
ca. 10 BC
- third style
Fourth Style Painting of Ixion Room, House of the Vetii, Pompeii, Fresco, 50-75 CE
- fourth style
- development of 3rd, summarization of all styles
Punishment of Ixion, Fourth Style Decoration of Ixion Room from House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Fresco, 50-75 CE
Portrait of Husband and Wife, Pompeii, Italy, 70-79 AD, wall painting
- Roman to early empire: clear observation: single light source
- relate to sarcophagus of Etruscan couple, look more alive
- portraiture inevitably becomes idealized, couple united in life
- caught in a moment, engaged with the viewer