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US History, 2nd Semester Final
Terms in this set (90)
Reasons why the United States would want to expand
natural materials, new markets, to prove your country was the best, to protect interests, to help the less fortunate
What is Imperialism
a stronger nation expanding into weaker ones
Spanish American War underlying causes
wanting Cuba and the Philippines to put naval bases on them, U.S. interest in sugar, Cuban independence, U.S. expansion
Why was the Panama Canal created?
the route to the Atlantic ocean was too long, the U.S. Navy needed a shorter route in case of war emergencies. So the canal was created to shorten the trip and make trade easier.
How was the land for the Panama Canal obtained?
he French had the idea originally but ran out of money and resources, so they sold it to the U.S. The U.S. attempts to work out a deal with Colombia, but the negotiations fail. This angers Roosevelt so he secretly supports the Panamanian Revolution. Panama gains their independence and the U.S. gains the land for the Panama Canal for $25 million.
Spanish American War trigger
Spain accepts all demands for a peaceful end but denies to let Cuba have independence.
Spanish American War secondary causes
explosion of the USS Maine, the De Lōme letter, Yellow journalism
Roosevelt denied that the U.S. wanted more territory, instead, they just wanted to see how neighboring countries were doing. However, they would intervene if a conflict arose. The U.S. was in Latin America often, and this angered the people from there. Congress was also mad because it strengthened the Presidents power, but weakened Congress's
rejection of "liberty for all", Constitution must follow the flag, threatened democratic foundation, racism (Anglo-Saxons were better), too expensive, labor competition
Imperialism's appeal to Americans
preserving American spirit, celebration of tradition, need for more market, strategic military bases.
Great Britain, France, Russia, and Serbia
Central Powers (WWI)
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
the role of technology (WWI)
caused more deaths, and caused trench warfare. The better the technology the longer the war.
Role of the U.S. at the beginning of the war (WWI)
The U.S. was on the side of neutrality because of trade and Wilson did not want to risk losing investments.
Factors that brought the U.S. into the war (WWI)
German U-Boat campaign (Sussex pledge), and the Zimmerman Note (Germany wrote a letter to Mexico asking them to start a war with the U.S. to keep us busy)
Justification for the U.S. entering the war (WWI)
The world must be safe for democracy, and we must fight to end all wars.
Treaty of Versailles
32 nations attended, except Germany/Austria-Hungary (blamed for the war) and Russia (communist)
3 Major conditions of the Treaty of Versailles
9 new nations are created by destroying the empires of the central powers (Lithuania, Poland, Latvia), Germany was blamed for the war (lose land, could not produce or trade military arms, could not have an army larger than 100,000 men, war damages of 33 billion), *Wilson's League of Nations
Underlying causes to the stock market crash
Unstable Economy- lacked a firm base, national wealth was unevenly spread, the industry produced more then it could sell.
Over Speculation- people relied heavily on stocks and put all their money into them
Government Policies- Federal Reserve cut interest rates to boost economic growth, then in 1929, worried about over speculation, the reserve cut money to stop lending.
Black Tuesday (Trigger)
On October 29, 1929, tons of people raced to get their money out of the stock market, a record 16.4 million shares were sold
Impact on workers, and farmers
Businesses had no money, so they had to close and fire workers. Small businesses suffered because people could no longer afford to spend money there. Farm prices were already low, but the depression caused them to be extremely low
Great Depression Impact on the World
countries depended on the U.S. for imported goods and loans. Hoover raised the tariff, making it hard for European countries to sell goods.
Shanty towns made of garbage that the homeless would live in, and named them Hoovervilles in spite of the president.
The Dust Bowl
In the Midwest, there was a severe drought happening due to farming practices. Farmers removed the rich topsoil from the land causing it to become very dry.
Stories of Survival (Great Depression)
Wilson had to quit high school and live on 1 dollar a week after paying rent. He would do work for his neighbors, and his family wasted nothing. He worked odd jobs for the rest of his life.
Bonus Army accident
The Bonus Army was a group of veterans who wanted immediate payment of their pensioned promised to them in 1945. However, they were in need of the money and man of them were going to die soon. Hoover asked the army to get rid of them, and it was done so violently and people got hurt.
Presidential election of 1932
A contest about the philosophy of the role of the federal government. FDR wins by a landslide, but now people are asking how the "New Deal" will get them out of the depression.
Hoover's strategies to end the depression
"Rugged Individualism"- The people would find a way out without the help of the government.
Bold Confidence- tried to assure people that things were okay "Prosperity is right around the corner"
Tried to get businesses to maintain wages and high prices, they wanted to do this but secretly began lowering them.
Called on private charities, and local/state government for help.
Hoover believed that direct federal relief would create a nation of dependence on the national government
Roosevelt's first 100 days
FDR pushed program after program through Congress to provide relief, create jobs, and stimulate economic recovery.
The New Deal
FDR's plan to get the U.S. out of the depression, and it became known as relief, reform, and recovery agencies designed to help Americans.
The bank holiday
FDR ordered all the banks to close for four days to inspect their financial health.
Lasting achievements of the New Deal
Government is expected to intervene when there is a problem, Labor Unions got stronger, Public works projects.
FDR would give updates on the country using the radio, and families would listen to these by the fire.
FDR's critics and why
Too Much: Al Smith- too much to limit free enterprise, and too similar to socialist gov
Not Enough: Dr. Townsend- not enough for elderly(social security)
Father Charles Coughlin- criticized FDR for being too influenced by the banks
Huey Long- share the wealth, income over 1 million should be given to people (every American got a home and annual income)
These acts were put in place to prevent the US from involvement in international affairs. The acts banned the US from providing weapons or loans to nations at war. While they allowed trade with nations at war that were non-military items, but they had to pay cash and deliver the items.
This act lent out war materials (guns, and transportation vehicles, etc.) to countries so they did not have to pay for them. Since Great Britain was almost broke, but they needed materials, FDR came up with this act. If GB had to stop fighting, then the US would have to enter the war. So this act allowed them to stay out of the war.
Why Pearl Harbor?
They attacked here because the US kept most of their battleships, and planes at this location.
Why did the US remain neutral at the beginning of WWII?
The great depression, and the aftermath of WWI was still affecting the United States
How did the US mobilize for WWII?
There was a draft to boost the US army from 2 to 10 billion. FDR forced industries to produce war equipment. To keep up with the production of war materials, FDR needed employees, and with the men gone, women stepped in.
How did the US prepare the economy for war?
Taxes were raised, people bought war bonds
First Atomic Bomb (Hiroshima)
August 6th, 1945
Second Atomic Bomb (Nagasaki)
August 9th, 1945
The project to create a nuclear weapon because they wanted to match whatever Germany was doing.
Victory in Europe- May 8th, 1945
U.S Pacific Military Strategy
Harry S. Truman
Vice President of FDR, makes the decisions to drop the atomic bombs.
the mass extermination of the Jewish race
Invasion of Normandy France lead by Dwight D. Eisenhower. Important beach fronts, Omaha and Utah. June 6th, 1944. (Turning Point)
War in Europe (US vs Germany)
The United States put their emphasis on Germany rather than Japan. They first went through northern Africa and Italy and then through France.
Allied strategy to defeat Hitler (Operation Fortitude)
This was a campaign of deception to make the Germans think the invasion was going to be at Pas de Calais. The allies created all different types of fake equipment to trick the Germans. Lead by General Patton.
U.S. vs Japan
US wanted to get back at Japan for Pearl Harbor, they used a strategy called island hopping.
US post war goals (cold war)
bring democracy and economic opportunity to the converted nations in Europe, stop the spread of communism
A symbolic boundary where Europe was divided by one part was free and the other was controlled by the soviets (communist)
American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. United States would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat of communist control
Marshall Plan/Berlin Airlift/NATO
attack on one nation is an attack on all. 13 billion dollars of aid to rebuild western Europe. Supplied german people with resources after the war
Korea became divided, North Koreans were communist, and South Koreans were pro-American government. War broke out and Korea was divided at the 38th parallel.
House Un-American Activities Committee, was created to investigate disloyalty
limited the number of people immigrating to the US from countries established in 1924, it discriminated against people form Asia and Eastern Europe.
a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States and the Soviet Union
When all the soldiers got back form WWII, the amount of children born raised 20%
Post WWII Mood
The US was having its second economic boom, people were spending money on new technology, and families began to move into suburbs.
Truman and Eisenhower
presidents post WWII, created the highway system
With families moving to the suburbs, there needed to be a way to get to the cities. The highways allowed people to travel quickly from the city to their homes.
Rock n' Roll
A new type of music that parents hated because they thought it would make them bad kids. Elvis Presley was very popular among teenagers.
Brown vs Board of Education
States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Little Rock 9
The governor put the national guard in front of little rock high school to keep out any African Americans who were suppose to attend school that year. Eisenhower stepped in and used federal power to protect the students attending school.
Rosa Parks- Montgomery Boycott
Rosa parks refused to give her seat up on the bus for a white passenger. African Americans began boycotting the bus until they were unsegregated.
Bus stations were suppose to be desegregated, but they weren't, so civil right activists began riding the bus from north to south, recoding how the stops were still segregated. Anti-civil rights people would then wait at the stops for activists and they would attack them.
Project C- Birmingham 1963
in the city of Birmingham, hundreds of teenagers got together (because they could not be put in jail) to protest segregation in their city. Bull Connor ordered police officers to spray the children with fire hoses and attack them with dogs.
March on Washington 1963
Largest civil rights movement ever, very successful and not violent. This is the place where Martin Luther King gave his "I have a Dream" speech.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the civil rights act of 1964 outlawing segregation in public places and employment
hundreds of young volunteers register black voters across the Mississippi.
Voting rights act of 1965
Congress outlaws literacy tests, poll taxes and other obstacles for African Americans to register to vote.
Malcolm X and Black Power
Believed that violence should be used in civil rights protests because the non-violence method was taking too long,
November 22, 1963
Great Society- LBJ
ambitious series of policy initiatives, legislation and programs spearheaded by President Lyndon B. Johnson with the main goals of ending poverty, reducing crime, abolishing inequality and improving the environment.
Continuing the Cold War
Bay of Pigs Invasion- humiliating defeat for US
Cuban Missile Crisis- Soviets put a nuclear missile on Cuba pointing right at the US
Berlin Crisis- Soviets ordered the the US leave Berlin
Bay of Pigs Invasion
An attempt to over throw Cuban leader, Fidel Castro, it was a humiliating defeat for the US
Cuban Missile Crisis
Soviet Union put a nuclear missile on Cuba pointing at the United States. They ended up taking it down and moving their ships because the US pledged not to invade Cuba, and the US took down its missiles in Berlin.
Soviets put up a wall around Berlin to keep everyone in and under communist control.
National Organization for Woman, they protested equality in the work place, politics, and everyday life. They would throw their bras and high heels into trashcans.
Hippies- Counter Culture Characteristics
People would protest against the "norms" by doing drugs, living in cars, not having jobs, not taking showers, etc.
if Vietnam becomes communist, the rest of Asia would fall to communism
Tet Offensive- Turning Point
North Vietnam trying to take capital Saigon, While the US was successful in holding them back, the media coverage showed a lot of terror and it weakened the at home support. Even though North Vietnam lost, it was a political victory for them.
Consequences of the war at home (Vietnam War)
Americans saw how bloody the war was, and wanted the war to end, however; the US actually had less losses than Vietnam. But many people did not pay close attention to the war, so soldiers did not have the support that North Vietnam did.
Results of Vietnam War
Even though the US backed out of the war, they continued to support south Vietnam by providing them supplies and financial aid.
Several Republicans broke into the Democrat National Committee's watergate headquarters and stole documents and bugged phones to try and get information that would help the Republicans gain seats. Nixon tried to cover it up, and that is why hew as almost impeached.
Overall effect of Watergate
people lost trust in their president, even up to this day.
New Conservatism/New Right
Traditional Christian values and cutting of big government
Trickle down economics, helping the wealthy will trickle down to middle class and eventually the poor. By cutting taxes for the wealthy, they could big bigger economies, create jobs for middle class, and put more money into the economy, eventually helping everyone.
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