34 terms

AP BIO FINAL EXAM: Viruses, Immune System, & Endocrine System


Terms in this set (...)

host range of viruses
The limited number of host species that a particular virus can infect. Host specificity result from evolution of recognition systems by the virus, involving "lock-and-key" fit between viral surface proteins and specific receptor molecules on the outside of cells. Generally specific to only certain tissues in multicellular eukaryotes.
lytic cycle
A phage replicative cycle that culminates in death of the host cell. Refers to last stage of infection during which bacterium lyses and releases phages that were produced within the cell, each of which can then infect a healthy cell, and a few successive lytic cycles can destroy an entire bacterial population in just a few hours.
lysogenic cycle
Allows replication of phage genome without destroying the host.
tobacco mosaic virus
Plant virus. Has RNA genome and a helical capsid.
vertical transmission of plant viruses
Major route of plant viral disease spread. Plant inherits viral infection from parent. Can occur in asexual or sexual reproduction.
horizontal transmission of plant viruses
Major route of plant viral disease spread. Plant is infected from an external source of the virus. Virus must penetrate plant's epidermis, so plant is more susceptible if it has been damaged by wind, injury, or herbivores.
reverse transcriptase
virus transmission (& examples)
immune system
an animal's body system of defenses against agents that cause disease
- First line of defense prevents pathogens from gaining entrance to the body (ie: skin, shell); however, sealing entire body surface is impossible due to gas exchange, nutrition, reproduction require openings to environment
innate immunity
a form of defense common to all animals that is active immediately upon exposure to pathogens and that is the same whether or not the pathogen has been encountered previously; includes barrier defenses
passive immunity
active immunity
adaptive immunity
a vertebrate-specific defense that is mediated by B lymphocytes (B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells) and that exhibits specificity, memory, and self-nonself recognition; also acquired immunity
natural killer cells
cells that circulate through the body & detect abnormal arrays of surface protein characteristics of virus and cancer cells; release chemicals that lead to cell death to inhibit its division
inflammatory signaling molecule, stores in granules (vesicles) of mast cells found in connective tissue; triggers nearby blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable
mast cells
inflammatory response
the changes brought about by signaling molecules released upon injury or infection → pain and swelling
any substance that elicits a response from a B cell or T cell ; recognition occurs when a B cell or T cell binds to an antigen through a protein
humoral response
defense in the blood and lymph (once called body humors, fluids); antibodies help neutralize or eliminate toxins and pathogens in the blood and lymph
B cells
type of white blood cell (lymphocyte); originates from stem cells in bone marrow
T cells
type of white blood cell (lymphocyte); located in the thymus (organ in the thoracic cavity above the heart)

- Helper T cell triggers both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses; signals from helper T cells initiate production of antibodies that neutralize pathogens and activate T cells that kill infected cells
primary immune response
production of effector cells from a clone of lymphocytes during the first exposure to an antigen
secondary immune response
production of effector cells from a clone of lymphocytes during the second exposure to an antigen; faster and of greater magnitude; relies on reservoir of T and B memory cells generated following initial exposure to an antigen
endocrine system
consists of glands that control many of the body's activities by producing hormones
endocrine glands
exocrine glands
glands that have ducts through which their secretions are carried to a body surface
homeostasis & balance in the body
- "steady state"
- maintenance of internal balance
- humans maintain a body temperature of 37 degrees Celsius, blood pH of 7.4, blood glucose concnetration with range of 70-110 mg per 100mL of blood
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