S2 chem final

what is avogadro's number?
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Terms in this set (65)
what is the empirical formula for water?H2Owhats the empirical formula of a compound with the molecular formula of C2Cl6?CCl3what is the molecular formula of a compound whose empirical formula is CH if its formula mass is 39.0 g/molC3H3 look at work on review to understandwhat do the coefficients in a balanced equation tell us?ratio of moles of reactants and productsin a chemical reaction how does the total mass of the products compared to the total mass of the reactants?they are always equalin using balanced equations to solve mass-mass problems the mass of each reactant is first converted tomoleswhat is the term for the sum of the atomic masses of atoms in a mole of a compound?formula mass/molar massin solving for mass-mass stoichiometry problems what are the steps to follow?convert grams to moles then mole to mole and then finally moles to gramswhat is the first step in any stoichiometric problem?balance the equationwhat is the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction?the one used up firstwhat is the excess reactant in a chemical reaction?the one left overthe amount of products formed in a chemical reaction is determined by what?the amount of limiting reactantsin a balanced chemical equation how do you determine the limiting reactant?complete a mass-mass problem for each reactantthe amount of products that should be produced based on stoichiometric calculations is called what?theoretical yieldwhen wood is burned in a fireplace what reactant is the limiting reactant?woodlist the four properties of gases-have mass -fill the container -compressible pressure depends on tempraising the temperature of a gas in a fixed volume container will most likely change what?its pressurecollisions of a gas particles are calledelastic collisionthe temperature scale that has absolute zero as its zero point is thekelvin scalein a mixture of gases the total pressure of the mixture is equal tothe sum of the pressure of all gaseswhat causes the increase in pressure of a gas as its temperature increases?molecules move faster, collide with walls more frequently with more forceif the number of particles in a sample of a gas is doubled what happens to the volume?it is doubled (directly proportional)charles law states that there is a direct relationship betweenvolume and temperatureboyles law states that there is an inverse relationship betweenpressure and volumeif more gas is added to a container at constant temperature and volume its pressure willincreaseas the volume of a gas increases the pressure willdecreaselist 3 ways to increase in the pressure of a gas in a container-volume -temperature -amount of gasif the volume of a container holding a gas is reduced (at constant temp) what will happen to the pressure within the containerpressure will increasethe tendency for a gas molecules to spread out between other gas molecules is calleddiffusiona gas mixture contains helium oxygen and carbon dioxide at one atmosphere of pressure. if the partial pressure of helium if 598 mm Hg and the partial pressure of the carbon dioxide is 13 mm Hg what is the partial pressure of oxygen?760 mm Hg= 598 mm Hg + 13 mm Hg - PO2 PO2 =149 mm Hgdescribe the arrangement of particles dissolved in a solventsolvent particles surround the solute particleslist 2 substances which are miscible in eachotheralcohol and wateran alloy issolid metal solutionsolutions with water as the solvent are calledaqueous solutionsmolarity isnumber of moles of solute per liter of solutionmolality isnumber of moles of solute per kilogram of solventwhat do you need to know to express a solutions molality?amount of solute and mass of solventwhat do you need to know to express a solutions molarity?-amount of solute present in the solution -the volume of solution (L) containing the solutea solution that contains as much solute as can possibly be dissolved under existing conditions is said to besaturateddescribe a supersaturated solutioncontains a greater amount of solute than needed to form a saturated solution, the extra solute will eventually go back in the solutionlist 2 examples of non-polar solventshexane and methylene chlorideionic solids best dissolve inpolar solventsthe solubility of ___________ in a liquid is affect by pressuregashow do you prepare a supersaturated solutionheat the solution then add excess solute and let it cool slowlythe rate at which a solute can be dissolved in a liquid solvent can be increased byincreased temp and increase in surface area (crush and stir)what is produced in a neutralization reactionsalt and waterthe characteristic taste of bases is best described bybittera smooth slippery feel is associated withbasessubstances that change color when added to acids and bases areindicatorsexplain the difference between strong acids and weak acidsa strong acid will fully dissociate when placed in water, weak acids won'tthe ion product constant for pure water is equal to1x10^-14for basic solutions, the concentration of hydroxide ion OH is1x10^7the definition of pH is-log[H30+]the higher the pH of a solution the more _________ it isbasicfor a water solution to be acidic the __________>______________[H3O+] > [OH-]