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Spring history final questions (ch. 1-21)

Terms in this set (14)

Since the empire the Samarians, many societies have adopted the use of irrigation for commercial farming. The Samarian's concord tools with iron metallurgy and use horses for transportation. The government consisted of kings that held absolute power over their designated territories and cities.
An alphabetical system of writing was not created but instead they used a collection of dots and symbols that helped bureaucrats organize the government somewhat functionally. Since their rule, monotheistic religions have "sprouted" and changed the moral values of certain communities. A common theme of many societies from ancient Sumer to 16th century A.D. is male dominance (AKA patriarchal societies). Slave labor gradually became more popular as well. The similarities between cultures are the results of observations and necessities. Men were dominant because they were stronger and more physically capable. City states were established because people flocked to areas that held wealth of trade of farming because the region's wealth could support them. Horses were used as transportation because they were able to be used over long periods and fit the needs the people of the time had. Certain men and women have developed power in certain societies because of social classes and the basic human instinct that the strongest and most "fit" will lead and make the decisions for the community. Mankind changes by creating things according to what their heir needs and their environment such as the original idea of irrigation. The people that lived in arid or dry environments developed the solution to transport water and use it in the necessary areas. Over the course of several centuries, this idea had spread rapidly throughout the world and was in use in many different regions and is responsible for the growth and success of the majority, if not all, major empires.
By the time Europe had grown into the educated society it was in the time of Shakespeare, inventions were common but did not serve the same exact purposes as their primitive ancestors. The more humanity grows and develops the father along our technology will go and the less primitive our society becomes, the more our inventions will be based on pleasure and leisure than life and death.
Some of the reasons for the decline of the Western Roman Empire were Germanic migration,
high taxes, bubonic plague, failing economy,the rise of Christianity, and corruption. The
nomadic germans came from northern Europe invaded in mass quantities. They were able to take
over Rome because the military was spread so thin throughout the country. High taxes were
issued by the government to help pay off the debt from war and expansion. The taxes were also
raised to help sustain and create a larger army for the empire. The citizens of Rome soon fell into
poverty because they were unable to pay the taxes. The bubonic plague came through overland
land from the Silk Roads and from trade through the Mediterranean Basin. The epidemic plague
caused the population of Rome to decrease significantly. The population decrease lead to a
failing economy from lack of tax income, loss of manual labor, and lead to peasant rebellion.
The rise of Christianity lead to the decline of the Western Roman Empire by changing the culture
of Rome. Christianity took the power away from the Roman emperors by degrading their
religious and political power. Roman legions became so powerful that they would determine who
would become emperors. In a short amount of time there were many barrack emperors causing
corruption in the government.
The Han Empire was also weakened by epidemic disease. Han authorities lost the authority to
maintain order within the empire. The once centralized government broke and became separated
into different factions. Peasant rebellions arose from high taxes and increasing economic
pressures. I Ian generals usurped political authority. The Han Empire did not have any invasions
from nearby civilizations.
Demographic recovery and state-building efforts in Europe coincided with a remarkable
cultural flowering known as the Renaissance. Humanists, scholar interested in the humanities-literature, history, and moral philosophy-preferred the elegant and polished languages of the classical Greek and Roman worlds. They went around the world and discovered Roman texts
that contained books describing classical Roman art, architecture, technologies, moral codes, and facts on daily life. The life of an ancient Roman was almost identical to that of a man living
during the time of the Renaissance. The only difference being that the Romans believed in a
polytheistic religion. The humanists, though loyal to Christianity began to believe that the Roman man, women, and child was better than the people living during the Renaissance period.
Thus the idea of the "ideal man" was born. It grew in importance as more people began to latch
onto the idea that the Roman Empire was better than their world. The ideal concept affected the art the most. The Romans were very good at depicting the art realistically, whereas the modem artists were not. Some of the most famous artist of the Renaissance would be Leonardo de Vinci, Donatello, Michelangelo, and Masaccio. The works of art they created all mimicked key Roman aspects of art like realism, naturalism, nudity, motion, and man. The Roman art is widely accepted as the 'ideal man". The Romans also created ingenious architectural technologies. like the arch and domes. In Florence, Italy there are many cathedrals are topped
with domes containing coffered ceilings and columns. They often looked like the basilicas of
ancient Rome. The concept of "ideal" spread into the political aspects of the Renaissance when
the ides of the "ideal prince" emerged and many rulers tried to conform to this standard. The
prince should be generous yet smart, known for compassion rather than cruelty, feared but not enough to get him killed out of hatred, and have complete control over his army. The prince is supposed to act as Roman royalty would act. The ethical thinking of medieval Europe also transformed to the, more ideal or more Roman thoughts.
Christianity teaches that there is one divine God that consists of three that are one: God, Jesus,
and the Holy Spirit. Christians believe that devout followers of Jesus are promised forgiveness
and reconciliation. The scriptures are "God-inspired" and therefore true. Heaven and Hell do
exist and that was confirmed by Jesus. People live only once but their afterlife is judged
righteously by God if they are to be saved in Heaven or banished to Hell. Islam teaches that God
is the only God and he has no family of any kind. They believe in prophets and angels, just as
Christians do and a last day on earth, when all will be judged by God for their actions (Also
believed by Christians). Muslims believe there is Paradise or Hellfire, and that that is the afterlife, and that if your sin is minor, you may serve your punishment in Hellfire and rise up to
Paradise. Buddhism is the one where Prince Sidhartha was foretold to be a religious figure at birth but his father denied him and shielded him from the world to prevent it. One day Sidhartha left the palace and saw suffering, sickness, and old people. He left his wife and family in a search to understand these things. He fasted and ran away. He then became enlightened after meditating for idk maybe like forty days. The ultimate goal is to achieve enlightenment or nirvana by following the eight fold path, living by/understanding the four noble truths, and by letting go of your wordy desires. A cycle of lives, called reincarnation, where one may die and, after being fudged on their actions of the live they had previously lived, move up or down in rank in the caste system. If person releases their attachment to desire and self, they may attain Nirvana—a state of liberation and freedom from suffering. The period of classical decline was followed by the widespread recognition of Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. All three religions offered solace to those who had lived hard lives, wished for better conditions in their next life, or those who were lost with the gradual collapse of widespread political control. These religions were extremely popular with their emphasis on life, divine spirits, and divine guidance and help. Buddhism stayed a minority religion in China but was popular in Korea and Japan. Similar to Buddhism. Christianity provided comfort and relief in periods of political decline, but Christianity was not as tolerant of other systems of beliefs. Feeling pressured. Christian missionaries spread their religion much faster than those of Buddhist beliefs and therefore, upon spreading west (Buddhism went East from India), Christianity obtained a much wider pool of followers through missionary journeys than Buddhism did. Followers of Islam were much more forceful with their conversions and spread Islam rapidly through the postclassical world by conquering and attacking countries and cities of the Middle East. Throughout the dar al-lslam, mosques and educational institutes were established, and Muslim missionaries spread their religion along trade routes. Mahmud of Ghazni, a Muslim leader of the Turks in Afghanistan, lead attacks on Buddhist and Hindu shrines and prayer sites—this lead to the decline of Buddhism and its beliefs and values.
By the end of the 20th century, Christianity had reached continents separate from where it 4
had begun. Through crusades and missionaries, Christianity reached the Middle East. Conflict
arose between the Muslims and Christians, and the crusaders could not hold a place in the x
Middle East for more than a century . The invasions of the crusaders created a temporary alliance
between the Turks. Egyptians, and Muslims and political peace followed the presentation of their
common enemy. Buddhism did not go much farther than India after Mahmud of Ghazni began to
destroy shrines and temples. Islam continued to spread and is becoming one of the world's
largest religions to this day. The nature of the Muslims towards the descendants of the crusaders
did not change and many on the Italian peninsula found themselves skirting Islamic nations in
order to have access to the spices and silks in China. Alliances have yet to come, and the only
contact between the majority of the Middle East and other nations is either war or trade. Iran and
Iraq have been fighting since the 80's, and many nations of the Middle East do not deal
peacefully with Israel.
The Renaissance and the Middle Ages were two eras of cultural development in Western and, to some degree, Eastern Europe, that were adjacent in time. If a person from the Middle Ages were to return at the time of the Renaissance, he or she would have noticed the most major differences in art, architecture and clothing. People of the Renaissance tried to emulate the various styles of Roman architecture, art, and clothing, while the people of the Middle Ages were influenced by the various Germanic peoples inhabiting the area. Renaissance art was more secular, depicting scenes of everyday life, rather than Biblical or Christian scenes as that of Medieval art. Nonetheless, religion was still very important to Renaissance architecture and art, and examples of this are Michaelangelo's famous sculpture of David, standing at a magnificent 17 feet tall, and the various cathedrals renovated or built during the Renaissance. These cathedrals implemented the Roman concepts of the dome, and arch. Gothic cathedrals were often updated to have large, decorative domes during the Renaissance.
People of the Renaissance also focused heavily on education compared to the people of the
Middle Ages. People in the Renaissance studied the humanities. This led to a variety of
technological advancements. With the development of printing press could now write in not only
Latin or Greek, but in their vernacular also. This development was completely unheard of during
the Middle Ages, and people had to write in Latin and Greek. This also allowed for the
development of books, and now, monasteries which had written their own textbooks by hand for
a long period of time, could now copy or publish these books for other monasteries to use. This
allowed for literature and communication to flourish in the Renaissance compared to in the
Middle Ages. Leonardo da Vinci also contributed to the technological advancements of the
Renaissance, sketching and creating a pair of wings with the intention of allowing for human
flight. Though he failed, he set the basis for human flight that was not yet touched upon until the
early twentieth century by the Wright brothers.
The Catholic church was at its peak power during the Middle Ages. It was the only force uniting
the people of Western Europe. Kings in the Middle Ages were often anointed by the pope of the
time, and bishops often had large amounts of land and control given to them by the pope. Since
religion was the driving force for all people of lower classes to work, keeping in mind that their
salvation would soon come, regardless of how much they despised their current life. This
furthered the power of the church over the common people. Religion during the Renaissance was
also incredibly important. Although art during the Renaissance was more secular, Biblcal scenes,
and Christian events, such as the Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci were portrayed. The
Catholic church also held a large amount of power in government during the Renaissance, as
pope was still a very important figure, but city-states developed and grew during the
Renaissance, local kings held most authority in their local are.
During the shift between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the economy also shifts, from a
largely agriculture based one to a trade based one. People of the Renaissance reclaimed the
Mediterranean Sea, or as the Romans called it, "marc nostrum," or, "our sea," which they used
for trade. While agriculture still served as an incredibly important part of the Renaissance, due to
the urbanization of cities, it was much harder for people to farm in the cities than it was for the
people of the Middle Ages. Trade was also important during the Middle Ages, however this trade
was mostly local trade between different manors and villages.
The role of women largely stays the same during the Renaissance. Although women living on the
countryside during the Middle Ages, urban women were allowed to work in shops on the streets,
and were able to make income. Women could take over shops when they were widowed, and
many occupations were filled with women. Guilds united people of the same trade, and most
were coed, while a handful only accepted women. This remained pretty much the same during
the Renaissance, however it was much more widespread as the Renaissance was a much more
urbanized time than that of the Middle Ages.
[ Could literally go on for pages on this. Cutting it short, but there's a lot more stuff to say other than this.]
The Byzantine Empire fell when the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople. After the fall
many monarchies rose and fell in Europe. Most monarchies formed and gained power out of
conquest. One of the first monarchies was the Holy Roman Empire created by Otto I. Otto campaigned east of the Elbe River in lands populated by Slavic peoples (in what is now eastern Germany, western Poland, and the Czech Republic), and twice he ventured into Italy to quell
political disturbances, protect the church, and seek opportunities in the south. As a reward, Pope John XII proclaimed Otto emperor. The empire couldn't grow much due to conflicts with the papacy. The popes chose the emperors but tensions rose as the emperors wanted more power.The empire fell when Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Emperor Henry IV and German
princes rebelled against the emperor, sufficiently weakening his power. The Holy Roman Empire was both strengthened and weakened by the Catholic Church. As a result of conflicts with the church, the empire fell.
In France and England, princes established regional monarchies on the basis of relationships between lords and vassals, or better known as feudalism. The French monarchy grew from humble beginnings. Hugh Capet served as king of a small city-state around paris. Over a course of 300 years, Capet's descendants, known as Capetian kings, gradually added land
to their budding empire. By the early fourteenth century, the Capetian kings had gradually
centralized power and authority in France.
The English monarchy was founded by the Normans. Within Normandy the dukes built a tightly centralized state in which all authority stemmed from the dukes themselves. By the late tenth century, Norman lords had built a series of castles from which disciplined armies
dominated their territories, and in the eleventh century they emerged as prominent political and military leaders throughout Europe and beyond much of the Mediterranean basin as well.
William of Normandy conquered England and began to introduce Norman principals of government and land tenure in England. The Norman kings of England ruled over a much more tightly centralized realm than did the Capetian kings of France. Both dynasties often battled each other but managed to maintain order and provided reasonably good government.
Reginald monarchies also emerged in other parts of medieval Europe but not on the sea of France and England. Italy was a country of city-states that controlled vast amount of land
surrounding the main city. Cousins of the Normans who invaded Anglo-Saxon England invaded Italy and began to come into contact with Muslim states.
In order to compare and contrast the feudal systems of three different societies, one must first understand what feudalism is. Feudalism is a system of political, economic, and military organization, which was largely based upon the owning of land. Lords commanded large portions of land, which were then split up amongst vassals, who were then in a political, economic, and militaristic bond with their lord. They owed loyalty to the lord above them. A social class consisting of commoners, or peasants, soldiers, vassals, and lords was the key to a good feudal system. Zhou China, Japan, and Medieval Europe, each developed a feudal system,
independent of each other. These systems, though politically, economically, and militaristically similar, were very different socially.
In Europe the feudal system was most strong during the Middle Ages, and it had largely died out by the Renaissance. Peasants worked the land, while knights, defended it. Knights were highly trained soldiers who were given medium sized amounts of land from a vassal, who divided his large amounts of land given to him by a lord. Unlike the Japanese samurais, who did not receive land for their military services, the European soldiers were given some land. Japanese samurais were instead given income based upon the amount of land that their lord owned.
Peasants who worked the land were the base of the feudal system, in that they worked the land, and farms on the land. They provided work that the nobility were too "good" to do. Under Zhou Chinese feudalism, peasants were required to work days on end. with little rest. They were punished harshly for small mistakes, under the legalistic society.
The religious basis for feudalism was also quite different in the three societies. While Legalism and Confucianism pressured the poor into doing their required work in China. Buddhism and
Christianity drove the peasants to do their work in Japan and Europe respectively. Both salvation religions, they taught of a reincarnation or afterlife that would be better than their current life, if they fulfilled their social or religious duties.
The trans-Saharan trade took place in Africa and mostly was the trade between west Africa and North Africa. Camels were ideal animals for transportation because they did not need a whole lot of water because it took 70 to 90 days to get across the desert. Because of the African's frequent use of camels, they developed a special saddle that lit the shape of the camel's backs. Most people traveled by caravans. Trans- Saharan trade helped in building unified states adn empires like the kingdom of Ghana and Mali and the state of Jenne-jeno. Jenne-jeno was an early state that grew because of trade and was a big place for iron production. It inspired the foundation of other cities like Timbuktu. The kingdom of Ghana was once a city state but grew into a prosperous trading city as as the trade grew. It was the center for gold even though it didn't produce it kings got the gold from souther parts and taxed it, they also provided ivory and slaves. Because of the wealth from trade, they were able to establish a powerful army and support Muslim scholars and qadis. The kingdom of Mali came after the fall of the Ghana but was very similar to it in that it prospered even more from trade. They were also a big center for gold. The trans- Saharan trade not only brought trade and goods but also brought Islam. Both the Ghana and Mali empires were Islamic after the kings converted to Islam. However, they did not force it upon their subjects and also practiced their native religions along with Islam. This brought them recognition from Muslim states and improved their trading relationships with the Muslim merchants. The introduction of Islam however didn't affect African relationships between the sexes as much. The sharia had many restrictions for women, however the African Islamic states did not. women had casual conversations with men outside their families and were honored for bringers of life. Muslims took offense that women only dressed in loincloths and were honored for being the bringers of life. They fought in wars, influenced their families, traded, and could become administrators.
Islam in sub-Saharan Africa reflected the interests of local converts. Like in India, islam served as a way for the Africans to recognize salvation, but also the traditions of their early ancestors. Also people continued to take protective measures against evil forces, and partook in rituals designed to please the local nature deities, it also accommodated to the very lax natures between men and women in Africa. It did not impose certain dress or a strong patriarchy compared to the Islam of other lands. In fact, Islam was much more of a supplement to common African religion, than an actual religion.
Entire kingdoms, such as Ghana or Mali, both in the west converted, to Islam as it was brought
to Africa. Their conversion improved trade relationships between other members of the dar al-islam, most notably Al-Andalus and north Africa, due to their proximity to west Africa. Islam was not forced upon the subjects of the Ghanaian kingdom, however widespread conversion did take place, mostly among traders in the Arab world. Again, however, Islam served mainly as a supplement to traditional religious traditions.
Mansa Musa, the grand-nephew of Sundiata, the lion prince who founded Mali, was a major
supporter of Islam, building mosques all throughout the empire. His empire, and trading cities flourished with trade in the Islamic world, and religious schools also began to pop up in Mali.
Educated teachers of the sciences, and other popular studies in the dar al-islam flocked to Mali to
get a good job teaching at one of these schools.
Islam brought about a long term trading relationship with the Islamic world and Africa. Before
Islam came to western Africa, most trade with Africa that the Muslims had was with eastern Africa in Aksum. The Africans in the west lacked in products that the Arabs had, while the Arabs traded these objects for western African kingdom's large amounts of gold. Islam also brought about a deep political change, which gave rulers strong political alliances with the extremely powerful dar al-islam in the Middle East. This gave the rulers a new source of legitimacy for their rule.
This new contact with the Islamic world provides an important and good turn of events in African society. Without the Muslim merchants coming into African trading cities, such as Timbuktu, the Africans would not have been able to expand their economy as well as they did. Their large amounts of gold were traded for throughout the Islamic world, and the Africans received a large profit, as they did not feel they had a need for so much gold. As the African economy expands, education also becomes increasingly important due to the presence of Islam. Under Mansa Musa, educated scholars came to Mali and taught children and African Muslims on theology and sciences.
The economic bases for the Ghana and Mali empires was definitely trade. They taxed trade going through the routes and they were big centers of gold, ivory and slaves. As the rulers of these kingdoms converted to Islam, it brought them recognition from Muslim States which improved their trading relationships with Muslim merchants. Because of this wealth from trade, the kings were able to support large powerful armies, qadis, and Muslim scholars. Mansa Musa, the grand nephew of Sunidata, the founder of the Mali empire, was probably one of the most zealous African Muslim kings. He went on the hajj to visit Mecca where he drew great inspiration from. He built mosques, sent promising students to study with Muslim teachers in north Africa, and brought over Muslim
scholars. Both kingdoms were a monarchy with a king. Older religious patters affected the development of the kingdoms because even as rulers and people converted to Islam, they still maintained their native religions. They believed in gods having to do with nature and participated in rituals that involved animal sacrifice. African social classes consisted of the ruling elite, military nobles, administrators, wealthy merchants, artisans, commoners, peasants, and slaves. This clearly defined social order in these kingdoms, however smaller states were ruled by the kin-based societies and age groups. However, the relationship between male and female still dominated African life in the kingdoms. Although men were the public authority, women had more opportunities than other societies. They were honored for being deliverers of live. Some had great influence over their families and rose to power. They could trade in markets and sometimes fought with men in war. Ibn Battuta, a Muslim traveler, was insulted because of the way women acted in Africa.
Chinggis Khan made sure that soldiers' loyalties were to their government, not their tribes, and broke up the tribes, forcing men of fighting age to join new military units with no tribal affiliation. High military and political leaders were chosen not off of birth tight, but of their talents or loyalty to him. After C'hinggis khan's death, the Mongol forces grew along with contributing allied forces. Their equestrian skills were impressive, and they were able to launch surprise attacks on their enemies, deal damage, and get away in record time. The Mongol horsemen were among the most mobile forces of the premodern world. The Mongols understood the psychological advantages to warfare and used them to their advantage. If their enemies surrendered peacefully, they were allowed to live and contributed as slave laborers or artisans and craft workers, some even contributed with their militaristic skills. When their enemy resisted, Mongols destroyed them ruthlessly, sparing only a few to use as near human shields the next fight.
The Mongols' first plan was to raid China, just north of them. After a string of very successful raids that gradually became more frequent and intense, the Mongols developed a campaign of conquest. After killing the leader of the Persian forces (who had turned out to be quite a hand-full), the Mongols were ordered to destroy the towns, cities, villages, and delicate irrigation systems of the Persian empire. Chinggis Khan had not established a centralized rule and, after his death, his administrators were assigned to local regions and they took resources the Mongols would use for themselves and not the conquered region. Over time, Mongol leaders in the Persian regions made important concessions to local interests, even developing Persian cultural traditions. The Mongols were successful because they did not smother those they conquered, but allowed them to live under the law freely (for the most part), even participating in the construction of local mosques, temples, and shrines. They tolerated all cultural and religious traditions in China, including Daoism. Confucianism, Buddhism, and Christianity. To boost their economy , Mongol rulers ensured the safety of goods and merchants traveling along trade routes that were now secure. Trade increased dramatically, such as lands distant from one another (China and Europe) were able to trade for the first time! Diplomatic missions were common, the Mongols wishing to keep in contact with neighboring powers as well as the khans sending messages to one another throughout the empire. Missionaries traveling amongst the merchants helped spread Islam and Catholicism, and the mingling of societies and cultures within the Mongol empire was promoted. The Mongols levied taxes according to the population density in regions and took artisans and craft workers that they captured and relocated them to areas that they were needed.
The Mongols played it smart, not ticking people off and taking things, but letting resources and wealth come collectively over time. They weren't socialist and didn't squeeze the baby Jesus out of their subjects, but lead with a CONTROLLING BUT KIND, THOUGHTFUL HAND. That about sums it up.
Also for their government organization, they had "khans" who ruled over their designated
territories but there was always tension between them. None of them really acted on it, but no
one was really up close and honey-sweet with each other either, ya know what I'm sayin?
Lastly the Mongols didn't hold their "rule" (Thought very temporary) in Russia because it
was cold and full of forests that they really didn't need. They extracted "tribute" (prizes) from
Russian cities and agricultural provinces but they did NOT OCCUPY RUSSIA<----THAT IS
KEY. Also the Mongols in Russia were from the Golden Horde.
The Aztec Empire was formed by an alliance that formed in the 15tj century. The Mexicans arrived in central Mexico about the middle of the thirteenth century. They had a reputation for making trouble by kidnapping women from nearby communities and seizing land already cultivated by others. On several occasions their neighbors became tired of their disorderly behavior and forced them to move. For a century, they migrated around central Mexico, jostling and fighting with other peoples and sometimes surviving only by eating fly eggs and snakes. They were able to eventually form the Aztec empire and founded a capital city on an island that allowed for military superiority in case of an invasion, supplied food and water, and allowed for the development of the chinampas style of agriculture. The city was called Tenochtitlan. The Mexican society had a strict hierarchical system, in which the military elite received the most praise; much like the Spartans of classical Greece. Women held high honors as they were the mothers of the warriors. Women were also very prominent in the marketplace. The Mexicans were polytheistic and believes in ritual bloodletting. The bulk of the Mexican society was farmers. Artisans who could create things for the elite enjoyed considerable prestige in the Mexican society.
The Inca Empire settled in the region of Lake Titicaca around mid-13th century. The Inca ruler Pachacuti led military campaigns into the neighboring regions. The Inca Empire at its high point stretched 2500 miles from modern Quito to Santiago. The Inca ruled as military and administrative elite. In the absence of any script or system of writing, Inca bureaucrats and administrators relied on a mnemonic aid known as "Quipo" to keep track of their responsibilities. Cuzco served as the administrative, religious, and ceremonial center of the Inca Empire. The Inca empire was connected by roads that went from Cuzco to the smallest farming village. The Inca society didn't generate large classes of merchant and skilled artisans. Long distance trade fell under the supervision of the central government. The Inca state prohibited individuals to become individual merchants. The main classed in Inca society were the rulers, the aristocrats, the priests, and the peasant cultivators. The Incas were polytheistic and had moral ideas. They also had life after death and the concept of sin.