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Articulations in depth
Unit 9 in "Bible" Eagle gate college Grant
Terms in this set (38)
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
Articulation formed at the point where the mandibular condyle of the lower jaw articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone.
A loose articular capsule surrounds the joint and promotes extensive range of motion. Poorly stabilized.
Only moveable joint between skull bones
Articular disc-thick pad of fibrocartilage seperating the articulating bones and extending horizontally to divide the synovial cavity into two seperate chambers.
Temporomandibular joint movements
Depression/Elevation of the lower jaw as a hinge joint.
Protraction/Retraction of the lower jaw as a gliding joint.
side to side lateral movements to grind food as gliding joint.
Gliding joint between the acromion of the scapula and the lateral end of the clavical.
Fibrocartilage articular disc lies in the joint cavity between these two bones.
Several ligaments provide great stability.
Glenohumeral (shoulder) joint
Ball and socket joint formed by the articulation of the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula.
Permits the greatest range of motion of any joint in the body, and so it is also the most unstable joint in the body and the one most frequently dislocated.
Most frequestly dislocated joint in body
Glenohumeral (shoulder) joint
glenoid labrum (fibrocartilaginous)
Encircles and covers the surface of the glenoid cavity.
This glenoid labrum deepens the concavity of the glenoid cavity to help stabilize the head of the humerus in the glenohumeral joint.
Shoulder joint is protected from
Above by an arch formed by the coracoid and acromion processes of the scapula, and by the clavicle.
A loose articular capsule attaches to
The surgical neck of the humerus
Most of the glenohumeral joint's strength is due to
the "rotator cuff" ("musculotendinous cuff") muscles surrounding it
Work as a group to hold the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity.
The rotator cuff muscles (infraspinatus, subscapularis, supraspinatus, and teres minor)
The tendons of these muscles encircle the joint (except for the inferior portion) and fuse with the joint capsule.
Because the inferior portion of the joint lacks rotator cuff muscles, this area is weak and is the most likely site of injury.
Glenohumeral (shoulder) joint
The glenohumeral joint has Several major ligaments that strengthen the joint only minimally.
1)The "coracohumeral ligament" is a thickening of the superior part of the joint capsule and it runs from the coracoid process to the humeral head.
2)The "glenohumeral ligaments" are three thickenings of the anterior portion of the articular capsule that may or may not be present and provide only minimal support.
3)The "transverse humeral ligament" is a narrow sheet that extends between the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus.
Several bursa associated with the glenohumeral joint help
decrease friction where both tendons and large muscles extend across the joint capsule.
The sternoclavicular joint is
The articulation between the clavicle (collar bone) and the manubrium of the sternum.
An articular disc partitions the sternoclavicular joint into two parts and creates two separate synovial joint cavities.
Wide range of movements: elevation, depression, and circumduction.
Support and stability are provided by the fibers of the articular capsule and by reinforcing ligaments.
Dislocation of joint is possible, when a person falls on outstretched hand the clavicle fractures before the joint dislocates
Acromioclavicular joint ligaments
The fibrous joint capsule is strengthened by the "acromioclavicular ligament".
The "coracoclavicular ligament" binds the clavicle to the coracoid process of the scapula.
Coxal (hip) joint,
This ball-and-socket joint is the articulation between the head of the femur and the concave acetabulum of the os coxae.
Stronger and more stable (but less mobile) The coxal joint supports the weight of the body.
There is fibrocartilage
which runs along the rim of the acetabulum and rings the head of the femur as it articulates with the acetabulum
The hip joint is capable of:
The coxal joint is secured by:
A strong fibrous joint (articular) capsule
A number of powerful muscles
branches of the deep femoral artery, that supply almost all of the blood to the head and neck of the femur.
The ligamentous fibers of the articular capsule, reflect around the neck of the femur and provide additional stability to the capsule.
originates along the acetabulum and attaches at the center of the head of the femur.
This ligament does not provide much strength to the joint but it contains a small artery that supplies blood to the head of the femur
The knee joint is
The largest and most complex diarthosis of the body.
It is primarily a hinge joint, but when the knee is flexed, it is also capable of slight rotation and lateral gliding movements.
It is also one of the more commonly injured joints in the body.
Structurally, the knee is composed of two separate articulations
The "tibiofemoral joint" is between the condyles of the femur and the condyles of the tibia.
The "patellofemoral joint" is between the patella and the patellar surface of the anterior distal femur.
The knee joint has
an articular capsule that encloses on the medial, lateral, and posterior regions of the knee joint.
The joint capsule does not cover the anterior surface of the knee joint; rather, the quadriceps femoris muscle tendon passes over the anterior surface.
Is a sesamoid bone, is embedded within the femoris tendon, and the "patellar ligament" extends inferiorly to the patella and attaches on the anterior surface of the tibia (at tibial tuberosity).
There is no single unified capsule in the knee, nor is there a common synovial cavity.
On the medial and lateral sides there are strong collateral ligaments that help stabilize the knee
The "lateral (fibular) collateral ligament" (LCL) reinforces the lateral surface of the knee joint.
-This ligament runs from the femur to the fibula and prevents the lower leg from moving too far medially relative to the thigh.
The "medial (tibial) collateral ligament" (MCL) reinforces the medial surface of the knee joint.
-This ligament runs from the femur to the tibia and prevents the lower leg from moving to far laterally relative to the thigh.
An alternative term to hyperabduction of the lower leg is "valgus deviation"
Which means the part distal to the joint is abnormally angulated away from the midline of the body.
An alternate term to hyperadduction of the lower leg is "varus deviation"
Which means the part distal to the joint is abnormally angulated towards the midline of the body.
"medial meniscus" and the "lateral meniscus
Deep to the articular capsule and within the joint itself is a pair of C-shaped fibrocartilage pads located on the condyles of the tibia.
These fibrocartilage pads help stabilize the joint medially and laterally and act as cushions between the articular surfaces.
two cruciate ligaments
(Latin for "cross-shaped")
Deep to the articular capsule of the knee joint which limit the anterior and posterior movement of the femur on the tibia.
These ligaments cross each other in the form of an "X"
The "anterior cruciate ligament" (ACL)
Runs from the posterior femur to the anterior side of the tibia.
-When the knee is extended, the ACL is pulled tight (taut) and prevents hyperextension.
-The ACL prevents the tibia from moving too far anteriorly of the femur
The "posterior cruciate ligament" (PCL)
Runs from the anterioinferior femur to the posterior side of the tibia.
-The PCL becomes taut on flexion, and so it prevents hyperflexion of the knee joint.
-The PCL also prevents the tibia from moving too far posteriorly of the femur.
"Locking" the knee
Bipedal locomotion is the ability to "lock" the knees in the extended position and stand erect without tiring the leg muscles.
At full extension, the tibia rotates laterally so as to tighten the ACL and squeeze the meniscus between the tibia and femur. This mechanism permits a person to stand for prolonged periods.
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