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37 terms

Psychology

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consciousness
a person's awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given momemtn, which is used to organize behavior
waking consciousness
state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensation are cler, organized, and the person feels alert
altered state of consciousness
state i which ther eis a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness
microsleeps
brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds
sleep deprivation
any significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritability
adaptive theory of sleep
the view or theory that the unique sleep patters of diffent animals evovled over time to help promote survival and environmental adaptation; also called the evolutionary theory of sleep
restorative theory of sleep
theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage
Rapid Eye Movement (REM)
stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream
non-REM sleep
any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM
hypothalamus role in sleep
Suprachiasmatic nucleus instructs the pineal gland to release melatonin.
altered states of consciousness
sleep, daydreaming, meditation, hypnosis
psychoactive drugs
drugs that alter thinking, perception, memory
3 classifications of psychoactive druga
stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogens, p. 167 table
sleep disorders
Nightmares, REM B ehavior Disorder, sleepwalking (somnambulism), night terrors, insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy
dream theories
activation-synthesis hypothesis, activation-information-mode model (AIM)
learning
any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about b y experience or practice
classical conditioning
learning to make an involuntary (reflex) response to a stimulus other than th eoriginal, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a naturally occuring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response
unconditioned response (UCR)
an involuntary (reflex) response to a naturally ocurring or unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning
learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses (reward, punishment)
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
shaping
reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior
iconic memory
visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second
echoic memory
the brief memory of something a person has just heard
declaractive memory
type of long-term memory containing information that is conscious and known
procedural memory
(nondeclarative); type of long-term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses. These memories are not conscious but are implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior.
memory
active system that receives information from the senses, puts that information into a usable form and organizes it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage
working memory
active system that processes the information in short-term memory
encoding
the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain's storage systems.
retrieval
getting information that is in storage into a form that acan be used
decay theory
loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used
mnemonic
a strategy or trick for aiding memory
flashbulb memories
detailed memory for events surrounding a dramatic event that is vivid and remembered with confidence (9/11, the day JFK was shot)
Elizabeth Loftus
cognition and memory; studied repressed memories and false memories; showed how easily memories could be changed and falsely created by techniques such as leading questions and illustrating the inaccuracy in eyewitness testimony
Pavlov
Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849-1936), Learning; Concepts: Classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned response; Study Basics: Began by measuring the salivary reaction of dogs. Ended with a new understanding of associational learning and the conditioned reflex.
Skinner
United States psychologist and a leading proponent of behaviorism (1904-1990)
Bandura
Social Learning Theory - emphasizes modeling or observational learning as a powerful source of development and behavior modification