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a person's awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given momemtn, which is used to organize behavior
state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensation are cler, organized, and the person feels alert
altered state of consciousness
state i which ther eis a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness
any significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritability
adaptive theory of sleep
the view or theory that the unique sleep patters of diffent animals evovled over time to help promote survival and environmental adaptation; also called the evolutionary theory of sleep
restorative theory of sleep
theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage
Rapid Eye Movement (REM)
stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream
3 classifications of psychoactive druga
stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogens, p. 167 table
Nightmares, REM B ehavior Disorder, sleepwalking (somnambulism), night terrors, insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy
learning to make an involuntary (reflex) response to a stimulus other than th eoriginal, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a naturally occuring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response
unconditioned response (UCR)
an involuntary (reflex) response to a naturally ocurring or unconditioned stimulus
learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses (reward, punishment)
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
(nondeclarative); type of long-term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses. These memories are not conscious but are implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior.
active system that receives information from the senses, puts that information into a usable form and organizes it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage
the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain's storage systems.
detailed memory for events surrounding a dramatic event that is vivid and remembered with confidence (9/11, the day JFK was shot)
cognition and memory; studied repressed memories and false memories; showed how easily memories could be changed and falsely created by techniques such as leading questions and illustrating the inaccuracy in eyewitness testimony
Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849-1936), Learning; Concepts: Classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned response; Study Basics: Began by measuring the salivary reaction of dogs. Ended with a new understanding of associational learning and the conditioned reflex.
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