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a person's awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given momemtn, which is used to organize behavior

waking consciousness

state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensation are cler, organized, and the person feels alert

altered state of consciousness

state i which ther eis a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness


brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds

sleep deprivation

any significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritability

adaptive theory of sleep

the view or theory that the unique sleep patters of diffent animals evovled over time to help promote survival and environmental adaptation; also called the evolutionary theory of sleep

restorative theory of sleep

theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage

Rapid Eye Movement (REM)

stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream

non-REM sleep

any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM

hypothalamus role in sleep

Suprachiasmatic nucleus instructs the pineal gland to release melatonin.

altered states of consciousness

sleep, daydreaming, meditation, hypnosis

psychoactive drugs

drugs that alter thinking, perception, memory

3 classifications of psychoactive druga

stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogens, p. 167 table

sleep disorders

Nightmares, REM B ehavior Disorder, sleepwalking (somnambulism), night terrors, insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy

dream theories

activation-synthesis hypothesis, activation-information-mode model (AIM)


any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about b y experience or practice

classical conditioning

learning to make an involuntary (reflex) response to a stimulus other than th eoriginal, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex

unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

a naturally occuring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response

unconditioned response (UCR)

an involuntary (reflex) response to a naturally ocurring or unconditioned stimulus

operant conditioning

learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses (reward, punishment)

social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished


reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior

iconic memory

visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second

echoic memory

the brief memory of something a person has just heard

declaractive memory

type of long-term memory containing information that is conscious and known

procedural memory

(nondeclarative); type of long-term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses. These memories are not conscious but are implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior.


active system that receives information from the senses, puts that information into a usable form and organizes it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage

working memory

active system that processes the information in short-term memory


the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain's storage systems.


getting information that is in storage into a form that acan be used

decay theory

loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used


a strategy or trick for aiding memory

flashbulb memories

detailed memory for events surrounding a dramatic event that is vivid and remembered with confidence (9/11, the day JFK was shot)

Elizabeth Loftus

cognition and memory; studied repressed memories and false memories; showed how easily memories could be changed and falsely created by techniques such as leading questions and illustrating the inaccuracy in eyewitness testimony


Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849-1936), Learning; Concepts: Classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned response; Study Basics: Began by measuring the salivary reaction of dogs. Ended with a new understanding of associational learning and the conditioned reflex.


United States psychologist and a leading proponent of behaviorism (1904-1990)


Social Learning Theory - emphasizes modeling or observational learning as a powerful source of development and behavior modification

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