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Terms in this set (288)
How to find total # of degrees in a shape
(# of sides -2)*180
add up to 180
add up to 90
What types of pulleys provide mechanical advantage?
only moveable pulleys
What do hydrometers do?
use floats to measure specific gravity. The higher the specific gravity, the higher it will float.
What is specific gravity?
the weight of a liquid compared to the weight of water.
What is a first class lever?
A lever with the fulcrum in the middle (scissors)
What is a second class lever?
A lever with the load in the middle (wheelbarrow)
What is a third class lever?
A lever with the effort in the middle (tongs)
How do you calculate MA for pistons?
Result of a large distance between the fulcrum and resistance arm.
The farther away the fulcrum is from the resistance arm, the great amount of force its required to lift the weight and the higher the resistance arm will travel.
What does a voltmeter do?
tells you the total voltage in a circuit. can even by pass a burnt out light bulb if connected to both sides
Current in series is...
Voltage in series is...
Voltage in parallel is...
Current in parallel is...
How do you calculate Voltage?
V = current(I) * resistance(R)
A circuit with a greater resistance is usually....
in series because it forces the current through all resistors
How does the moveable pulley in a 2 pull system work?
the moveable pulley moves up 1/2 the distance and spins 1/2 as many revolutions as the fixed pulley.
Finding rpm needed
# of rods on a wheel / needed contacts per minute
What happens when the length of the lever arm is increased?
Effect of string length with pendulums
The long the string, the longer it takes for one completion swing
How does weight affect swing time on pendulums?
Weight doesn't affect swing time, only string length
What determines the amount of pull on a string suspending a weight?
the amount of weight determines pull. NOT string length
What happens to the buoyancy of an inflated ball as you increase depth?
The ball becomes more buoyant
Rate of heat exchange is faster through objects that...
have a greater difference in temperature
Water flows fast through...
narrower areas than wider areas (thumb over end of a hose)
Components of a 4-stroke engine
Intake, Compression, Combustion, Exhaust
How to calculate the mechanical advantage of a wheel and axel
MA= (radius of axel to handle)/(radius of drum)
How to calculate pressure
P= Force / Area
flows continuously in the same direction
periodically reverses direction
measures current flow in a circuit
Measures both current flow and voltage
Newton's 1st law
an object in motion will stay in motion and an object that is at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force
Newton's 2nd law
Force = mass*acceleration
Newton's 3rd law
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
circulation of currents of heat driven by a difference in density. Occurs mainly in gases and liquids
exchange of heat driven by a temperature difference. Usually through contact. Occurs in solids and stationary fluids
How does salt affect specific gravity?
Salt in water increases the specific gravity (floats better)
How does salt affect freezing point?
Salt in water lowers the freezing point of water.
What happens when you heat a closed container of water?
Pressure of water vapor w/in container increases and water temperature increases
from hot objects to cold objects. (cold is the absence of heat)
Rate of heat transfer is greater when...
there is a greater difference in temperature
What happens when you compress air in a closed space?
The volume decreases. The temperature increases
What is "Red Right Returning Nun Even"?
When returning to land (going inland), the right side has red lights, numbered evenly and in increasing order. The buoys are shaped like nun hats
Boating right of way between 2 powered vessels meeting head on
both boats give way starboard
Boating right of way between 2 powered vessels crossing paths
boat to operators LEFT must give way
Boating right of way between powered vessel and sail boat
powered vessel always gives way
Boating right of way between 2 sail boats
if the wind is on the same side, the leeward (downwind) vessel is the stand on vessel
Boating right of way between 2 sailboats head on
vessel with wind on the starboard side is stand on vessel
When operating a powered vessel, what do you give way to?
Anything less maneuverable than yourself. ex: vessel not under command, vessel with restricted maneuverability, vessel engaged in commercial fishing, sailing vessels unless you are overtaking
When operating a sailing vessel, what do you give way to?
Anything less maneuverable than yourself
If an aircraft is in distress, does it have the right of way?
If two aircraft are approaching head on, who gives right of way?
both give way to the right
If you are overtaking a slower aircraft, how do you give way?
faster aircraft overtakes slower aircraft to the right and stays clear
the upper edge of a ship
a seat across a boat on which a rower may sit
forward most part of the bow
the aft side of the hull
What color is the starboard running light?
What color id the port running light?
What color is the stern running light?
When does a boat have one white light for both the stern and masthead?
if the powered vessel is less than 39.4 ft in size
What color light is used for a tow?
Yellow (color used for special circumstances)
What is the nickname for an F-14
What is the nickname for an F-18
What is the nickname for an AV-8B
nickname for a C-130
nickname for an A-6
nickname for an EA-6B
If wing area is doubled...
lift and drag will be doubled
During takeoff, a headwind will...
shorten the takeoff run and increase the angle of attack
During takeoff, a tailwind will...
increase the takeoff run and decrease the angle of climb
designed for handling the anchor chain
How many feet in a nautical mile?
What is the nautical/statute mile ratio?
Standard weight of gasoline
Standard weight of oil
Standard weight of water
Color of port side light
Color of the starboard light
What does the white light on a vessel indicate?
used to indicate in which direction the vessel is traveling
Yellow light in a vessel
used for special circumstances. ex: towing
from water level to deck level
from water level to the bottom of the boat
bow half of deck
stern half of deck
principle structural member of a ship running lengthwise along the center line from bow to stern, to which frames are attached
Term for upward angled wings on a plane
What is the purpose of dihedral wings
Advantage of variable swept wings in the swept position
reduces drag at high speed
Advantage of variable swept wings in the extended position
provides decreased ground speed during landing and increased lift at low speed
Father of the Navy
John Paul Jones
curvature of the top of the airfoil
Angle of attack
angle formed by the chord line of the wing and oncoming airflow
ratio of distance between wing tips of an airplane to its average wing width. b^2/s
High aspect ratio
long skinny wings
Low aspect ratio
short stubby wings
emergency landing maneuver for helicopters when they have lost engine power during flight
the error of a magnetic compass due to local magnetism
F-14 back seater
RIO - radar intercept officer
Blue airport lights
line the taxi way
White airport lights
line the runway
What to runway numbers represent?
the first 2 numbers of the compass heading. ex. north = runway 36
guided missile cruiser
amphibious/ landing craft
Which conflict first saw major use of helicopters?
Term for a double mast sailboat
Term for a single mast sailboat
What is the chronological order of the space program?
Mercury, Gemini, Apollo
Who was the first American in space?
Who was the first American to orbit earth ?
Who was the first man in space?
When was the first landing on the moon?
1969, Apollo 11
Who manned Apollo 11
Buzz Aldrin, Neil Armstron, Michael Collins
How many total Apollo missions took place?
What is the significance of Pioneer 10?
Was the first American spacecraft to explore outer space
Who was Ed White?
he was the first American to walk in space
What are the characteristics of a warm front?
long period of steady rain, and fog
What is the lowest level of atmosphere?
Troposphere (20K ft at poles, 60k ft and equator)
What level of atmosphere is at 120k feet?
Stratosphere (where the ozone is located)
Level of atmosphere at 300k ft
What is the upper most layer of atmosphere?
At what point to you need oxygen when flying?
What is the Bonhomme Richard
a sailing frigate in the US Navy
What is UTC
Universal coordinated time measure from the prime meridian in greenwich, England
Transponder code for hijacking
Transponder code for loss of communication
Transponder code for emergency
Transponder code for military flight or interceptor
Class A air space is...
Class B air space is...
surface to 10,000ft MSL (surrounds major airports)
Class C air space is...
Surface to 4000ft AGL (surrounding busy airports)
Class D air space is...
surface to 2500ft AGL (surrounds airports with operational control tower)
Class G air space is...
surface to 700-1200 ft AGL
Class E air space is...
The center line of the taxiway is...
a solid yellow line
The edge lines of the taxi way are...
double solid yellow lines
What do holding lines look line on the taxi way?
double solid and double dashed yellow lines across the width of the taxiway
What do holding lines look like on the runway?
red with white characters
What do the displaced threshold line look like and mean on the runway?
they are white blocks with white lines. indicate the start of the landing portion of runway
What do chevrons indicate on a runway?
only useable in the case of an emergency
What do large white X's indicate on a runway?
What color lights line the taxiway?
can have either green lights down the center line, or blue lights lining the outer edges of the taxiway
What color lights are used on a runway?
green for the threshold, sidelines are white, red for the end of the runway
What color lights are used to indicate obstructions?
What does VASI stand for?
Visual Approach Slope Indicators
How is "low" indicated with VASI?
How is "high" indicated with VASI?
white or amber light
How is "on slope" indicated with VASI?
green light or equal # of red and white lights
What does PAPI stand for?
Precision Approach Path Indicators
What is the progression through a normal traffic patter?
5 legs: upwind, crosswind, downwind, base, final approach. all flown at 1000 AGL (class G airspace)
What is the difference between altitude and density altitude
density altitude is the amount of moisture in the air (humidity)
How does density altitude affect helicopter rate of climb?
the higher the density altitude, the less rate of climb
How is lift and drag affected by air density?
increase in air density = increase in lift and drag
estimates wind speed
electronic device used in making deep-sea soundings
How many feet in a fathom?
an instrument used in celestial navigation to measure angles
an apparatus used for hoisting weights. Consists of a spool-shaped cylinder rotated manually or by machine
What are the 4 ways position can be determined?
Piloting, dead reckoning, celestial navigation, electronic navigation
What is a pier?
a dock running perpendicular to the shore line
What is a wharf?
a dock running parallel to the shore line
What is slip?
the space between adjacent piers
Characteristics of Cumulus clouds
white, fluffy, close to ground, tall.
Average altitude of Cumulus clouds
below 6000 feet
Characteristics od Stratus clouds
low, light gray, cover the sky like sheets
Average altitude of stratus clouds
Characteristics of cirrus clouds
thin, wispy, very white, usually at high altitude
Average altitude of cirrus clouds
Characteristics of high level clouds
base at about 20,000ft, ice crystals. (cirrus, cirrocumulus, cirrostratus)
Characteristics of middle level clouds
base above 6500 ft. (altocumulus, altostratus, nimbostratus)
Characteristics of low level clouds
base below 6000 ft. (stratocumulus, status, cumulus, nimbostratus)
How does a land breeze work?
land cools faster than the water in the evening. "warm air rises". The warmer air over the water rises and then sinking cool air from the land is pulled out to sea.
How does a sea breeze work?
land heats faster than the water during the day. "warm air rises" The warmer air over the land rises and the cooler air over the water is pulled inland
in the direction that the wind is blowing
In the opposite direction of the wind. "downwind"
If atmospheric temperature is higher than standard, true altitude is ... than indicated
higher than indicated altitude
If atmospheric temperature is colder(lower) than standard, true altitude is ... than indicated
lower than indicated altitude
What is MSL temperature aka standard temperature?
15 degrees C/ 59 degrees F
What is considered a "high performance" engine?
How is engine performance affected at high altitude?
engine performance/ horsepower output is decreased due to the reduced fuel-air mixture.
How does reduced engine performance affect flight?
less thrust, less lift. Takeoff distance will be increased, and climb performance is reduced.
How does humidity affect engine performance
high humidity = reduced levels of air available for combustion. (water vapor droplets displace air molecules) = an enriched mixture and reduced power
speed displayed by airspeed indicator
indicated airspeed corrected for instrument errors
Calibrated airspeed corrected for altitude and nonstandard temperature
How will your altimeter read if you fly from high to low pressure without resetting?
indicated alt. will read higher than true alt. "When going from high to low, look out below"
How will your altimeter read if you fly from low to high pressure without resetting?
true alt. will read higher than indicated alt.
alt. measured and displayed by altimeter
vertical distance above the standard datum plane
What is the standard datum plane?
the reference for flying pressure altitudes -29.92 in-Hg is set into altimeters at 18,000+ ft MSL
corrects pressure alt. for nonstandard temperature (15 C)
actual height of an object above MSL
actual height of the airplane above the earths surface that it is flying
Actual air speed is ... than indicated at high altitudes
faster. because of low air density - less drag
What are the best conditions for lift?
cold, dry, low altitude air
caused by a less than aerodynamic aircraft surface - 3 different forms
If airspeed is doubled...
parasite drag is increased 4X
a form of parasite drag that results in turbulence from a separation of airflow from the surface of the structure
a form of parasite drag the results from the meeting and interaction of difference currents of air. ex: the mixing of air from over the wind and tail surface
a form of parasite drag that results from roughness of aircraft surface
results from the circulation of airflow around the wing during lift. "drag due to lift"
Ground effect drag
happens close to the ground where the ground prevents downward deflection of the airstream coming off the top of the wing - this decreased induced drag
sum of parasite drag and induced drag
When was the navy founded?
October 13, 1775
What was the Ader Eole?
The first true airplane - was steam powered - developed by Clement Ader in 1890
What was LZ1?
the first zepplin - first flew July 2, 1900
What was significant about LZ127?
the first zeppelin to circumnavigate the globe - 21 days, 5 hours, 31 minutes
Significance of the Wright flyer
the first successfully powered and piloted aircraft - Dec. 17, 1903
What was the FW-61?
first rotorcraft built in 1936
When was the first nonstop flight flight across the Atlantic? and who piloted?
June 14, 1919 by Alcock and Brown in the Vickers Vimmy IV
What did Charles Lindbergh Jr. do?
He piloted the first "solo" nonstop flight across the Atlantic - May 20-21, 1927
What did Amelia Earhart do?
First woman to ... fly Atlantic, solo, and twice, fly an autogyro, and across the US, fly nonstop across US, Fly nonstop from mainland US to Hawaii, receive distinguished flying cross
What was the first jet to fly in combat?
the German Messerschmitt ME-262 - late 1944
What did Chuck Yeager do?
he was the first man to break the sound barrier in a Bell X-1 rocket-plane in 1947
What did Eugene Ely do?
Created the ship landing -1911 and ship takeoff in a plane - 1910
The significance of the USS Pennsylvania in 1911?
The ship that Eugene Ely first successfully landed on in a plane
When did Pearl Harbor happen?
December 7, 1941
When is D-Day?
June 6, 1944
When was the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima?
August 6, 1945
When was the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki?
August 9, 1945
UAV test section emergency procedure for a fire?
all knobs down - fuel 0, engine 0, clutch
UAV test section emergency procedure involving power power?
all knobs up
UAV test section emergency procedure involving props?
one prop neutral, one prop up - engine 0, clutch
Emergency procedure for engine malfunction
fule 100, engine 100, clutch
If you fire a cannon ball from a cannon and drop a cannonball at the same time, which will hit the ground first?
They will hit the ground first. forward momentum has no affect on the ratio of falling
What is the cowling?
the covering of an aircrafts engine for drag reduction, engine cooling, or air intake
What does 1 ship blast mean?
intention to direct course of vessel to own starboard
What does 2 ship blasts mean?
intention to direct vessels course to own port
What does 3 ship blasts mean?
indicates that the vessel's engines are going astern
What does 5 ship blasts mean?
What do prolonged ship blasts mean?
What plane was converted to a tanker during operation Iraqi Freedom?
What is a canard?
a small winglike projection attached to an aircraft forward of the main wing to provide extra stability or control, sometimes replacing the tail
What do flaps do?
the are on the inner half of the wing and control lift and drag
What is the primary purposed of a wingtip?
What causes a stall?
the separation of airflow from the wings surface
What does Zulu time refer to?
time at greenwich, England
The kitchen of the ship is called
indicate friend or foe
Are flaps part of primary flight controls?
What is the roll of the lee helmsman on an aircraft carrier?
they control the ships speed
What does it mean when an aircraft is referred to as "heavy"?
more than 250,000 lbs. of gross weight
When is a minimally safe airspeed decent used?
when having to clear obstacles during landing. (nose-high and power assisted)
When entering a climb from level flight, the weight of the aircraft results in...
What does "Bravo Zulu" mean?
Hours of morning watch
Hours of forenoon watch
Hours of afternoon watch
Hours of first dog watch
1600-1800 *only 2 hrs vs. 4 hrs
Hours of second dog watch
Hours of first night watch
Hours of middle watch or midwatch
Do you have to fly faster or slower at high altitude in order to maintain the same speed achieved at a lower altitude?
What can cause turbulence?
convective air currents, obstructions to wind flow, wind shear
How much farther in distance is a nautical mile to a statute mile?
1.5x. "statute mi.*1.5 = Nautical mi."
How to anhedral wings (downward angle) affect flight?
reduce stability, but increase maneuverability
What is a cleat?
a metal fitting that a rope can be fastened to
What does beam indicate?
Max width of a vessel
Full cantilever wings
have no bracing
have a single additional brace
Externally braced wings
What is a hatch?
an opening for a hinged door on the deck of a ship
What is a funnel?
the chimney of a ship
High density altitude does not reduce...
The magnitude of skin friction depends on...
the properties of both the solid and the gas interacting
What is the boundary layer?
a layer of low energy flow generated along the solid surface of the airplane
In what direction to wing vortices curl?
from bottom to top - high pressure to low pressure
What is induced drag directly proportional to?
angle of attack
What is jet propulsion similar to?
the release of an inflated balloon
What is the simplest jet engine?
What is the weakness of the ramjet?
had to be traveling at supersonic speeds
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ASTB - Nautical Information
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