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biology exam 3
Terms in this set (82)
Photosynthesis generates O2 and _______ _________, which are used in cellular respiration
Is the breakdown of organic molecules exergoinc or indergonic?
_______ ___________ consumes organic molecules and O2 and yields ATP
a partial degradation of sugars that occurs without O2
Name sources of fuel for cell respiration
glucose (main contributer), carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
------- + 6 O2 ->6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ______ (ATP + heat)
Glucose breakdown yields ____ ______ change of -686 kcal per mole glucose
a substance loses electrons, or is oxidized (addition of oxygen)
a substance gains electrons, or is reduced (the amount of positive charge is reduced)
Chemical reactions that transfer electrons between reactants are called oxidation-reduction reactions, or
released energy is ultimately used to synthesize ___
the electron donor
the electron acceptor
During cellular respiration is glucose oxidized or reduced?
During cellular respiration is oxygen oxidized or reduced?
loss of electron, gain of oxygen, loss of hydrogen
gain of electron, loss of oxygen, gain of hydrogen
Hydrogen loss occurs via _____________
Oxygen loss occurs via ________
Electrons from organic compounds are usually first transferred to ----, a coenzyme
Does NAD+ accept or decline electrons?
NADH passes the electrons to the ________ ________ _____
electron transport chain
What pulls electrons down the chain in an energy-yielding tumble?`
What is the energy yielded from the electron transport chain used for?
To regenerate ATP.
organic compounds made from vitamins they act as hydrogen (or electron) acceptors; they carry the hydrogen atoms in the reactions of cellular respiration
Name two important coenzymes
Three stages of Cellular Respiration
Glycolysis, citric acid cycle (krebs), and oxidative phosphorylation
break down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate
Citric Acid Cycle
completes the breakdown of glucose
accounts for most of the ATP synthesis
Glycolysis occurs in the _________
What type of phosphorylation is used in glycolysis?
The process that generates most of the ATP (90%)
How many ATP molecules is created from one glucose?
Does glycolysis need oxygen to function?
The two major phases in gylcolysis
Energy investment phase and energy payoff phase
Cell must use some ATP, will be repaid in next step
Energy investment phase
Energy payoff phase
ATP is produced via substrate-level phosphorylation
How many ATP molecues are made in glycolysis?
What is the net gain of ATP in glycolysis?
What else is produced in glycolysis and how many?
2 NADH and 2 pyruvate
Before the citric acid cycle can begin, pyruvate must be converted to ______ ___, which links glycolysis to the citric acid cycle
In the presence of O2, pyruvate enters the _____________ (in eukaryotic cells) where the oxidation of glucose is _________
What does the citric acid cycle produce each turn?
1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2
How many steps are in glycolysis?
How many steps are in Krebs?
The acetyl group of acetyl CoA joins Krebs by combining with ____________, forming citrate
The ____ and _____ produced by Krebs relay electrons extracted from food to the electron transport chain
These two electron carriers donate electrons to the electron transport chain, which powers ATP synthesis via _________ ______________
Where is the electron transport located?
The cristae of the mitochobdria
Most of the electron transport chain's components are ________, which exist in multiprotein complexes
Electrons drop in ____ ______ as they go down the electron transport chain and are finally passed to O2, forming H2O
The carriers in electron transport chain alternate _______ and ________ states as they accept and donate electrons
The electron transport chain generates no ___ directly
In the ETC electrons are passed through a number of proteins including ___________ to O2
Electrons are transferred from ____ or _____ to the electron transport chain
What is an energy-coupling mechanism?
the use of energy in a H+ gradient to drive cellular work is an example of what?
Electron transfer in the electron transport chain causes proteins to pump H+ from the mitochondrial ______ to the intermembrane _____
H+ then moves back across the membrane, passing through the proton, ___ ________
What does ATP synthase use to drive the phosphoryltaion of ATP?
the exergonic flow of H+
What is the H+ gradient referred to as?
glucose------->____--------->electron transport chain----->______-_____ _____------>ATP
NADH; proton-motive force
About ___ of the energy in a glucose molecule is transferred to ATP during cellular_respiration, making about 32 ATP
Most cellular respiration requires __ to_produce ATP
Glycolysis couples with fermentation or_anaerobic respiration to produce ___
____________ uses substrate-level phosphorylation instead of an electron_transport chain to generate ATP
_________-___________ uses an electron transport chain with a final electron acceptor_other than O2
Fermentation produces _ ATP per glucose_molecule
________ anaerobes carry out fermentation or anaerobic respiration and cannot survive in the_presence of O2
Yeast and many bacteria are __________-anaerobes
Fatty acids are broken down by ____-oxidation_and yield acetyl CoA
Not all ____ is destined to make ATP
Phosphofructokinase is an __________ enzyme
Glucose converted to glycogen when ATP synthesis exceeds demand and can no longer_be stored
Glycogen breakdown into glucose in response_to low blood glucose
Making glucose from non-carbohydrate-sources
sustain themselves;are the producers of the biosphere, producing organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic molecules;Almost all plants are photoautotrophs, using the energy of sunlight to make organic molecules
Are unable to make their own food;Are the consumers - feed on producers or other consumers;May also feed on dead organisms - decomposers
Where is the major location of photosynthesis?
Chloroplasts are found mainly in cells of the __________, the interior tissue of the leaf
CO2 enter and O2 exits through what?
Recommended textbook explanations
Modern Biology: Student Edition
Janet L. Hopson, Postlethwait
Biology Study Guide
Johnson, Peter H. Raven
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
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