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Chapter 16 Toward a New Worldview
Major Breakthroughs of the Scientific Revolution, Important Changes in Scientific Thinking, The Enlightenment, Enlightened Absolutism
Terms in this set (79)
An early modern term for the study of the nature of the universe, its purpose, and how it functioned; it encompassed what we would call "science" today.
Greek philosopher of the fourth century B.C.E. whom early 1500s natural philosophy was based on
a motionless earth was fixed at the center of the universe and was encompassed by ten separate concentric crystal spheres that revolved around it; in the first eight spheres the moon, the sun, and the five known planets were embedded and the other two spheres represented the stars and beyond that was the throne of God. Angels kept the spheres moving in perfect circles. It could not account for the apparent backward motion of the planets. Spheres consisted of a perfect, incorruptible "quintessence".
replaced the Aristotelian Universe. Planets moved in small circles called epicycles, each of which moved in a larger circle, called a deferent. It required complex calculations, but provided a surprisingly accurate model for predicting planetary motion
made up of four imperfect, changeable elements. "Light" elements (air and fire) naturally moved upward, while "heavy" elements (water and earth) naturally moved downward. These rules could be broken by the intervention of an outside force. A uniform force moved an object at a constant speed and the object would stop as soon as that force was removed.
Why did Aristotelian teachings give way to the Scientific Revolution?
(1) development of the medieval university (2) expansion of Islamic lands/ fall of Constantinople/ re-entering of Greek texts to western world (3) new professorships- mathematics, astronomy, and optics (4) the Renaissance patronage of science/ use of geometric perspective (5) developments in technology and increased demand for printed material- telescope, barometer, thermometer, pendulum clock, microscope, and air pump (6) practices of astrology, magic, and alchemy- belief in occult qualities
Polish cleric, felt Ptolemy's cumbersome and occasionally inaccurate rules detracted from the majesty of a perfect creator. Believed the sun, rather than the earth, was the center of the universe, the stars and the planets (including earth) revolved around a fixed sun. Published "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" 1543, the year of his death.
The implications of the Copernican hypothesis
(1) Put the stars at rest, destroying the main reason for believing in the crystal spheres (2) suggested a universe of staggering size (3) disrupted the traditional hierarchy of the disciplines by using mathematics instead of philosophy (4) characterized the earth as just another planet, destroying the basic idea of Aristotelian physics- where were Heaven and the throne of God?
reactions to Copernicus
a few Protestant scholars became avid Copernicans, while others accepted some elements of his criticism of Ptolemy but rejected the notion that the earth moved (contradiction the Bible). Did not attract attention of Catholics before 1600
Other doubts about traditional astronomy
1572- new star (distant exploding star), heavens were not unchanging
1577- new comet cut across the supposedly impenetrable crystal spheres
Born into a Danish noble family, established himself as Europe's leading astronomer with detailed observations. Aided by generous grants from the king of Denmark, built a sophisticated observatory. Upon king's death acquired new patron- Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II to create Rudolphine Tables. His sudden death and limited understanding of mathematics prevented him from making sense out of his mass of data collected by observations of the naked eye. He believed that all the planets except the earth revolved around the sun and that then moved around the earth.
Brahe's young assistant. From a minor German noble family, had permanently damaged hands and eyesight. A brilliant mathematician- believed the universe was based on mathematical relationships and musical harmony of the heavenly bodies. Abandoned Ptolemy's Universe developed three new laws of planetary motion (1) elliptical orbits (3) planets do not move at a uniform speed- faster when closer to sun, slower when far away from sun - first two laws published in "The New Astronomy", in 1619 introduced third law (3) the time a planet takes to complete an orbit is precisely related to its distance from the sun. He proved mathematically the precise relations of a sun-centered system, unifying natural philosophy and mathematics. Also pioneered the field of optics- explained refraction of light. As an unorthodox brand of Lutheranism he was rejected by both Protestants and Catholics.
poor Florentine nobleman. Greatest achievement was the elaboration and consolidation of the experimental method. He measured the movement of rolling ball across a surface- proved a uniform force (gravity) produced a uniform acceleration. Formulated the law of inertia. Discovered the first four moons of Jupiter. Wrote "The Sidereal Messenger". Saw a new hope with Pope Urban VIII to publicly reveal his beliefs- published "Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World" widely read, papal Inquisition placed Galileo on trial for heresy and he was forced to renounce his "errors"
the proper way to explore the workings of the universe was through repeatable, controlled experiments, rather than speculations. Pioneered by Galileo.
law of inertia
motion, not rest, is the natural state of an object, and an object continues in motion forever unless stopped by some external force. Formulated by Galileo
Church hostility to radical ideas
1616- Holy Office bans works of Copernicus and his supporters
born into English gentry, enrolled in Cambridge. United experimental and theoretical-mathematical sides of modern science. Devout Christian who privately rejected the Trinity. Fascinated by alchemy. Discovered the law of universal gravitation and the concepts of centripetal force and acceleration but did not publish his findings. Studied optics. Then turned back to physics and published "Philosophicae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). Laid out the three laws of motion
law of universal gravitation
Newton's law that all objects are attracted to one another and that the force of attraction is proportional to the objects' quantity of matter and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
English politician and writer, great propagandist for the new experimental method. Rejected speculative reasoning, argued new knowledge had to be pursued through empirical research. He formalized the empirical method into a general theory of inductive reasoning known as empiricism. Lord chancellor under James I, his work led to the widespread adoption of "experimental philosophy". His followers created the Royal Society which met weekly to conduct experiments and discuss the latest scientific findings
French philosopher and multi-talented genius. As a soldier in the Thirty Years' War had a life-changing vision in which there was a perfect correspondence between geometry and algebra and geometrical spatial figures could be expressed as algebraic equations. Thought matter was made up of identical "corpuscules" that collided together endlessly. Total "quantity of motion" in the universe was constant. Believed a vacuum was impossible, every action has an equal reaction. It is necessary to doubt, then use deductive reasoning from self-evident truths ("first principles") to ascertain scientific laws. Reduced all substances to "matter" and "mind"- physical and spiritual. Believed God had endowed man with reason for a purpose and that rational speculation could provide a path to the truths of creation. His ideas were highly influential in France and the Netherlands, but less in England where experimental philosophy prevailed.
Descartes's view that all reality could ultimately be reduced to mind and matter.
ancient Greek physician, whose explanation of the body carried the same authority as Aristotle's view of the universe. The body consisted of four humors: blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. Illness was an imbalance of the humors
Swiss physician, early proponent of the experimental method in medicine and pioneered the use of chemicals and drugs to address chemical, not humoral imbalances.
Flemish physician, studied anatomy by dissecting human bodies- often executed criminals. Published "On the Structure of the Human Body"- 200 precise drawings which revolutionized the understanding of human anatomy.
English royal physician who discovered the circulation of blood through arteries and was the first to explain that the heart worked like a pump and to explain the function of its muscles and valves
helped found modern science of chemistry, following Paracelsus's lead discovered the basic elements of nature were composed of infinitely small atoms. First to create vacuum (proving Descartes wrong) and discovered Boyle's law- pressure of a gas varies inversely with volume
ancient Greek philosopher who wrote an encyclopedic treatise on botany. Rediscovered in the 1450s
physician of King Philip II of Spain
spent 7 years in New Spain in the 1560s recording thousands of plant species and interviewing local healers about their medicinal properties
craze for collecting natural history specimens
extended from aristocratic lords to middle-class amateurs. Many public museums began with the donation of a large private collection
international scientific community
new social group linked together by common interests and shared values and journals and scientific societies. Science became competitive. Became closely tied to the state and its agendas (a development strongly advocated by Francis Bacon in England). Academies of science created under state sponsorship across Europe. Science developed a critical attitude towards established authority. Many craftsmen involved making instruments and conducting precise experiments.
Things that did not change in the Scientific Revolution
traditional inequalities of the sexes- new universities and other institutions of science did not accept women. Although there were some noteworthy exceptions- many women worked in Italy as a maker of wax anatomical models and as botanical and zoological illustrators, included in informal scientific communities such as salons
traditional spiritual beliefs- Christian Europe still strongly attached to their beliefs, yet many educated elite accepted the new ideas
Maria Sibyella Merian
botanical and zoological illustrator
Margaret Cavendish, Anne Conway, and Mary Astell
women who contributed to debates about Descartes's mind-bond dualism along with princess Elizabeth of Bohemia
The influential intellectual and cultural movement of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries that introduced a new worldview based on the use of reason, the scientific method, and progress. (1) methods of natural science could and should be used to examine and understand all aspects of life- everything should be subject to rationalism (2) scientific method was capable of discovering the laws of human society as well as those of nature (3) progress- human beings can create better societies and better people
shift from Renaissance concepts of sin and salvation to possibility of intellectual progress- truth and morality in relative, rather than absolute terms. Fueled by the increased contact with the rest of the world- travel literature taught Europeans about different beliefs and customs. Wondered if ideological conformity in religious matters was necessary. Skepticism about if absolute religious truth existed. Atmosphere of doubt
A secular, critical way of thinking in which nothing was to be accepted on faith, and everything was to be subjected to reason
a Huguenot who took refuge from the French government in the Dutch Republic. He examined the religious beliefs and persecutions of the past in "Historical and Critical Dictionary"- human beliefs had been widely varied and often mistaken he concluded that nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt- skepticism.
Dutch Jewish philosopher, borrowed Descartes emphasis on rationalism and his methods on deductive reasoning but rejected mind-body dualism. He believed in monism- the mind and body are united as one substance and that God and nature were the same thing. Thought actions were determined by outside circumstances, not free will. He was excommunicated for his controversial religious ideas but heralded by the Enlightenment as a model of personal virtue and courageous intellectual autonomy.
Gottfried von Leibniz
German mathematician and philosopher who invented calculus independent of Newton, refuted Cartesian dualism and Spinoza's monism. Adopted the idea of infinite number of substances or "monads" from which all matter is composed. Wrote "Theodicy" declaring ours must be "the best of all possible worlds"- this idea was later criticized by Voltaire in "Candide or Optimism"
a physician and member of the Royal Society, wrote "Essay Concerning Human Understanding"- all ideas derived from experience, the human mind is a blank tablet(tabula rasa) on which the environment writes the individual's understanding and beliefs. Human understanding determined by education and social institutions. Contributed to the idea of sensationalism- all human thoughts are produced as a result of sensory impressions.
A group of French intellectuals who proclaimed that they were bringing the light of knowledge to their fellow humans in the Age of Enlightenment. Their work encouraged the spirit of inquiry and debate. Dedicated and organized- a group effort created the the Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts
edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Aimed to teach people how to think critically and objectively about all matters- wanted to "change the general way of thinking". It contained 72,000 articles by leading scientists, writers, skilled workers, and progressive priests. Science and industrial arts exalted and religion and immortality questioned. Intolerance, legal injustice, and out-of-date social institutions were openly criticized. It was widely read and extremely influential.
Why did France become a hub of the Enlightenment?
(1) French was the international language of the educated classes, and France was the wealthiest and most populous country in Europe (2) rising unpopularity of Louis XV and his mistresses generated growing discontent and calls for reform among the educated elite (3) the French philosophes wanted to reach a larger audience of elites- joined together by the Republic of Letters
His satire "The Persian Letters" (the first major work of the French Enlightenment) supposedly written by two traveling Persians as outsiders who saw European customs in unique ways, allowing him to criticize existing practices and beliefs. He was disturbed by the growth of absolutism under Louis XIV, set out to apply the critical method to the problem of government in "The Spirit of Laws"- a complex, comparative study of republics, monarchies, and despotisms. Argued for a separation of powers, believed France's 13 high courts (parlements) were defenders of liberty against royal despotism.
philosophe, the pen name of François Marie Arouet. Arrested twice for insulting noblemen. Moved to England to avoid longer prison sentences in France, came to appreciate English liberties and institutions. Met Châtelet, who invited him to live with her and her tolerant husband. Wrote works praising England and popularizing English science, lauded Newton as history's greatest man. Concluded that the best one could hope for in government was a good monarch since people "are rarely worthy to govern themselves". Praised Louis XIV and admired Frederick the Great of Prussia. Did not believe in social or economic equality. His philosophical and religious beliefs much more radical- challenged the Catholic Church and Christian theology. He believed in God, but was a deist, thinking of God as a clockmaker who set the universe in motion and then ceased to intervene in the human affairs. He hated religious intolerance- which led to fanaticism.
Madame du Châtelet
(Gabrielle-Emilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil) a noblewoman with a passion for science, companion of Voltaire under the eyes of her tolerant husband. She studied physics and mathematics and published scientific articles and translations, including the translation of Newton's Principia into French. Women's limited role in science due to their unequal education
son of a poor Swiss watchmaker, contributed articles on music to the Encyclopedia. Believed the philosophes were plotting against him he kept to himself as an outsider. Committed to individual freedom, attacked rationalism and civilization as destroying, rather than liberating the individual. His ideas greatly influenced the romantic movement, which rebelled against the culture of the Enlightenment in the late 18th century. He called for rigid division of gender roles- women destined by nature to assume a passive role in sexual relations should also be subordinate in social life. Rejected the sophisticated way of life of Parisian elite women. His contribution to political theory- "The Social Contract" was based on general will and popular sovereignty. General will is not necessarily the majority, may be the long-term needs of the people as determined by the minority- had great impact on the American and French Revolutions.
many strains of the Enlightenment- Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish sought to reconcile faith with reason.
centered at Edinburgh, emphasis on common sense and scientific reasoning. After Act of Union with England 1707, Scotland was freed from political crisis to an era of intellectual growth, also stimulated by the first public education system in Europe.
central figure of the Scottish Enlightenment, emphasis on civic morality and religious skepticism. Human mind is a bundle of impressions originating from sensory experiences so human reason cannot answer questions about the origin of the universe or the existence of God. Wrote "Of Natural Characters"
major figure of Scottish Enlightenment. "Theory of Moral Sentiments"- commercial life produces civic virtue through values of competition, fair play, and individual autonomy. "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations" attacked laws and regulations that prevented commerce from reaching its full capacity.
German-speaking professor of East Prussia, great German philosopher. "What Is Enlightenment?" in a pamphlet, the answer "Sapere Aude" (dare to know). Individuals must obey laws, no matter how unreasonable and should be punished for "impertinent" criticism. He tried to reconcile absolute monarchical authority and religious faith.Wrote "On the Different Races of Man"- there are 4 human races each of which derived from the original race of the white inhabitants of northern Germany
What kingdom achieved independence from Habsburg rule in 1734?
kingdom of Naples
a central figure in northern Italy, a nobleman educated at Jesuit schools and the University of Pavia. "On Crimes and Punishment"- called for reform of the penal system that decried the use of torture, arbitrary imprisonment, and capital punishment, and advocated the prevention of crime over the reliance on punishment.
The transition in Europe from a society where literacy consisted of patriarchal and communal reading of religious texts to a society where literacy was commonplace and reading material was broad and diverse
Regular social gathering held by talented and rich Parisians in their homes, where philosophes and their followers met to discuss literature, science, and philosophy. Many hosted by women(salonnières). Represented an accommodation between the ruling classes and the leaders of Enlightenment thought. Invitations were highly coveted.
Madame du Deffand
a salonnière whose weekly Parisian salon included such guests as Montesquieu, d'Alembert, and Benjamin Franklin.
A popular style in Europe in the eighteenth century, known for its soft pastels, ornate interiors, sentimental portraits, and starry-eyed lovers protected by hovering cupids.
An idealized intellectual space that emerged in Europe during the Enlightenment, where the public came together to discuss important issues relating to society, economics, and politics.
Institutions which provided lower classes of society with access to Enlightenment ideas
Lending libraries, coffeehouses, book clubs, debating societies, Masonic lodges, and newspapers
Common People in the Enlightenment
Philosophes believed peasants had neither the time nor talent for philosophical speculation, and that educating them could be a dangerous process. They were viewed as children in need of parental guidance. Yet, rising literacy, dropping book prices, and cheap pamphlets of popularized philosophical ideas allowed peasants to participate in the Enlightenment outside of salons and academies
Carl von Linné
Swedish botanist, "The System of Nature"- nature organized into a God-given hierarchy
comute de Buffon
argued that humans originated from one species that developed into distinct races due largely to climatic conditions
idea that Europeans were biologically superior to the peoples of Africa and the New World, justified the growth of the slave trade.
"History of the Two Indies" (1770)
by the abbé Raynal, attacked slavery and the abuses if European colonization
Encyclopedia editor who adopted Montesquieu's technique of criticizing European attitudes through the voice of outsiders in his dialogue between Tahitian villagers and their European visitors.
Scottish philosopher pointed out that Europeans had started out as savage nonwhites supposedly had and that many non-European people in the Americas, Asia, and Africa had achieved high levels of civilization,
Olaudah Equiano and Ottobag Cugoana
former slaves who published memoirs testifying to the horrors of slavery and the innate equality of all humans.
Term coined by historians to describe the rule of eighteenth-century monarchs who, without renouncing their own absolute authority, adopted Enlightenment ideals of rationalism, progress, and tolerance.
Frederick the Great of Prussia
(Frederick II) built on the work of his father Frederick William I, but embrace culture and literature rather than the military. Invaded Maria Theresa of Austria's province of Silesia, defying the Pragmatic Sanction- thus starting the War of Austrian Succession. He took nearly all of Silesia- doubling Prussia's population. Later, had to fight against great odds to keep Prussia from total destruction after the ongoing competition between Britain and France for colonial empire. A near lost in the Seven Years' War ended Frederick's desire to expand territory and considered other ways to strengthen the state. Allowed freedom of religious and philosophical thoughts, promoted the advancement of knowledge- improved the schools, tried to make the lives of his subjects better. Prussia's laws were simplified, torture was abolished, and judges decided cases quickly and impartially. He promoted the reconstruction of agriculture and industry. However, he did not free serfs, he extended the privileges of the nobility. He drew on the principles of cameralism.
View that monarchy was the best form of government, that all elements of society should serve the monarch, and that, in turn, the state should use its resources and authority to increase the public good.
Seven Years' War
Maria Theresa, seeking to regain Silesia, formed an alliance with France and Russia which each wanted to conquer and divide up Prussia. Frederick the Great was spared when a new leader came to power in Russia, Peter III and called off the attack on Prussia
Catherine the Great of Russia
adored by the French philosophes, a German princess from Anhalt-Zerbst, her mother was related to the Russian Romanov's. She married Peter III, then benefited from his unpopularity by conspiring against him. Her lover, Gregory Orlov, and his military brothers murdered Peter III and she became the empress of Russia. She had three main goals (1) Continue Peter the Great's westernization- imported Western architects, musicians, and intellectuals, bought Western art and patronized the philosophes, offered to publish the Encyclopedia in St. Petersburg, sent money to Diderot (2) domestic reform- appointed a legislative commission to prepare a new law code but this was never completed. She restricted torture and allowed limited religious toleration. Improved education and local government. (3) territorial expansion- subjugated the last descendants of the Mongols and Crimean Turks, began the conquest of the Caucasus. the partition of Poland
a common Cossack soldier, Emelian Pugachev led an uprising of serfs much like Stenka Razin, proclaimed himself the new tsar he outlawed serfdom, taxes, and army service. But he was quickly defeated and executed. Proved to Catherine the Great that peasants were dangerous. She gave nobles complete control of their serfs and extended serfdom into new areas.
partition of Poland
when Catherine's armies scored unprecedented wins against the Ottomans and threatened to disturb the balance of power between Russia and Austria in eastern Europe, Frederick of Prussia came up with a deal in which Prussia, Austria, and Russia each took a gigantic slice of the weakly ruled Polish territory. First in 1772, then in 1793, then 1795 where Poland disappeared from the map.
female monarch of Austria, set out to reform her nation. A devout Catholic mother and wife who inherited power from her father Charles VI she was an old-fashioned absolutist. (1) initiated church reform, limiting the papacy's influence, eliminating many religious holidays, and reducing the number of monasteries (2) strengthened the central bureaucracy, smoothed out provincial differences, and revamped the tax system- taxing even nobles (3) improved the lot of agricultural population, reducing the power of lords
the radical son of Maria Theresa, "revolutionary emperor", he abolished serfdom and decreed that peasants could pay landlords in cash rather than through labor on their land- this was violently rejected by both peasants and lords. When he died early at 49, his brother Leopold II canceled his radical decrees to re-establish order.
Jews before the Enlightenment
lived under highly discriminatory laws, confined to tiny, overcrowded ghettos, excluded from most professions, and could be ordered out of the kingdom at a moments notice. Yet, some were still able to succeed because rulers relied on Jewish bankers for loans and Jewish merchants in international trade.
The Jewish Enlightenment of the second half of the eighteenth century, led by the Prussian philosopher Moses Mendelssohn. Controversial social change within Jewish communities, rabbinic controls loosened and there was heightened interaction with Christians. British passed a law allowing the naturalization of Jews but it was later repealed. Joseph II tried to integrate Jews more fully into society including eligibility for military service, admission to higher education and artisanal trades, and removal of requirements for special clothing or emblems. Many monarchs rejected all idea of emancipation, however. The first European state to remove all restrictions on Jews was France under the French Revolution.
advocated for the freedom and civil rights for European Jews, said restrictions on religious grounds could not stand.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 15 Absolutism and Constitutionalism
Chapter 14 European Exploration and Conquest
Chapter 17 The Expansion of Europe
Chapter 13 Reformation and Religious Wars
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