57 terms

SPCM Midterm

SPCM 1100 Marinelli
integrated systems of learned beliefs, values, attitudes & behaviors that a group accepts & passes along from older to newer members (exists at conscious & unconscious level)
Oral culture
culture with no writing & no technology for recording messages apart from face-to-face transactions
speakers' & listeners' mutual engagement with the ideas, which allows them to jointly forge meanings
self-control or moderation, contrasts with arrogance; civil speakers persuade, consult, & compromise rather than coerce & manipulate
presenting the words, images, or ideas of others as if they were your own
response to diversity in which you refuse to change & defend your own positions or attack others
highlights the tension between our right to free speech & our responsibility for our speech
Comprehensive listening
listening to learn, understand, or get information
Critical listening
listening that requires you to reflect & weigh the merits of messages before you accept them
Cultural allusions
references to historical, literary & religious sources that are culturally specific
preformed biases or judgments, whether negative or positive
Speech-thought differential
the difference between the rate you think (about 500 words per minutes) & the average speaking rate (about 150 words per minute)
Affective effects
influences on listeners' feelings
Behavioral effects
influences on audience reactions
Cognitive effects
influences on beliefs, understandings & other mental processes
General purpose
four general purposes are: to inform, to persuade, to entertain, or to commemorate
Specific purpose
the cognitive, affective, or behavioral responses a speaker desires
Thesis statement
a single sentence that names the subject & establishes its significance
short summary of the major points you'll develop in your speech
Audience analysis
identifying audience characteristics to communicate more effectively
listeners' impressions of your character, intensions & abilities that make you more or less believable
Demographic analysis
identifying audiences by populations they represent, such as age or ethnicity
Listening speaker
dialogical speaker who hears audience interests & concerns before, during & after a speech
Psychological profile
assessment of an audience's beliefs, values & attitudes
Cause-effect pattern
presents reasons (causes) & implications (effects) of a topic
Chronological pattern
presents points in a sequential or time order
Problem-solution pattern
describes a problem & a possible solution to it
Process speech
describes a sequence of steps or stages that follow one another in a fairly predictable pattern
Pro-con arrangement
presents arguments in favor of & arguments against an issue
Organic pattern
alternative pattern that provides a clear speech structure in a less linear form
Spatial pattern
presents points by place or location
Spiral pattern
repetitive pattern with a series of points that increase in drama or intensity
Star pattern
presents relatively equally weighted speech points within a thematic circle that binds them together; order of points may vary
Topical arrangement
divides a subject into subtopics, each of which is part of the whole
points arranged into various levels, with the points on a specific level having basically the same value or weight
placement of supporting points under major points
Full-sentence outline
formal record of your major ideas & their relationship to one another in your speech
Speaking notes
key words & phrases you use during your speech & discard afterwards
Parallel points
making the points similar in construction
Discourse consistency
using a repetitive style such as alliteration of main points throughout the speech
Expository speaking
the "speech to teach" that explains an idea in detail
Information age
an era with vast amounts of available information
Information overload
feeling overwhelmed by the sheer amount of available data
repeating the same idea more than once, but developing it differently each time
saying the same thing more than once
open, wide ranging, diverse, common interests
Public speaking
engage ideas of common interest for a diverse group of people ethically & effectively
manuscript, memorized, extemporaneous, impromptu
Modes of delivery
written, conversational, performance
Skills of the public speaker
90/10 rule
90% of what you're doing is effective & the other 10% sets you back
unconscious incompetence, conscious incompetence, conscious competence, unconscious incompetence
Stages of competence
invention, arrangement, style, delivery, memory
Canons of rhetoric
cause/effect, chronological, topical, spatial, familiar to unfamiliar/simple to complex
Types of arrangement
brainstorming, cluster, label, narrow/expand
Stages of preparation
testimony, statistics, definition
Informative strategies
analytical, performative/operational, negation, historical, etymology
Types of definition
the art of finding available means of persuasion in a given situation