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integrated systems of learned beliefs, values, attitudes & behaviors that a group accepts & passes along from older to newer members (exists at conscious & unconscious level)
culture with no writing & no technology for recording messages apart from face-to-face transactions
speakers' & listeners' mutual engagement with the ideas, which allows them to jointly forge meanings
self-control or moderation, contrasts with arrogance; civil speakers persuade, consult, & compromise rather than coerce & manipulate
response to diversity in which you refuse to change & defend your own positions or attack others
highlights the tension between our right to free speech & our responsibility for our speech
listening that requires you to reflect & weigh the merits of messages before you accept them
references to historical, literary & religious sources that are culturally specific
the difference between the rate you think (about 500 words per minutes) & the average speaking rate (about 150 words per minute)
listeners' impressions of your character, intensions & abilities that make you more or less believable
dialogical speaker who hears audience interests & concerns before, during & after a speech
describes a sequence of steps or stages that follow one another in a fairly predictable pattern
presents relatively equally weighted speech points within a thematic circle that binds them together; order of points may vary
points arranged into various levels, with the points on a specific level having basically the same value or weight
formal record of your major ideas & their relationship to one another in your speech
using a repetitive style such as alliteration of main points throughout the speech
engage ideas of common interest for a diverse group of people ethically & effectively
unconscious incompetence, conscious incompetence, conscious competence, unconscious incompetence
Stages of competence
cause/effect, chronological, topical, spatial, familiar to unfamiliar/simple to complex
Types of arrangement
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