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SPCM 1100 Marinelli


integrated systems of learned beliefs, values, attitudes & behaviors that a group accepts & passes along from older to newer members (exists at conscious & unconscious level)

Oral culture

culture with no writing & no technology for recording messages apart from face-to-face transactions


speakers' & listeners' mutual engagement with the ideas, which allows them to jointly forge meanings


self-control or moderation, contrasts with arrogance; civil speakers persuade, consult, & compromise rather than coerce & manipulate


presenting the words, images, or ideas of others as if they were your own


response to diversity in which you refuse to change & defend your own positions or attack others


highlights the tension between our right to free speech & our responsibility for our speech

Comprehensive listening

listening to learn, understand, or get information

Critical listening

listening that requires you to reflect & weigh the merits of messages before you accept them

Cultural allusions

references to historical, literary & religious sources that are culturally specific


preformed biases or judgments, whether negative or positive

Speech-thought differential

the difference between the rate you think (about 500 words per minutes) & the average speaking rate (about 150 words per minute)

Affective effects

influences on listeners' feelings

Behavioral effects

influences on audience reactions

Cognitive effects

influences on beliefs, understandings & other mental processes

General purpose

four general purposes are: to inform, to persuade, to entertain, or to commemorate

Specific purpose

the cognitive, affective, or behavioral responses a speaker desires

Thesis statement

a single sentence that names the subject & establishes its significance


short summary of the major points you'll develop in your speech

Audience analysis

identifying audience characteristics to communicate more effectively


listeners' impressions of your character, intensions & abilities that make you more or less believable

Demographic analysis

identifying audiences by populations they represent, such as age or ethnicity

Listening speaker

dialogical speaker who hears audience interests & concerns before, during & after a speech

Psychological profile

assessment of an audience's beliefs, values & attitudes

Cause-effect pattern

presents reasons (causes) & implications (effects) of a topic

Chronological pattern

presents points in a sequential or time order

Problem-solution pattern

describes a problem & a possible solution to it

Process speech

describes a sequence of steps or stages that follow one another in a fairly predictable pattern

Pro-con arrangement

presents arguments in favor of & arguments against an issue

Organic pattern

alternative pattern that provides a clear speech structure in a less linear form

Spatial pattern

presents points by place or location

Spiral pattern

repetitive pattern with a series of points that increase in drama or intensity

Star pattern

presents relatively equally weighted speech points within a thematic circle that binds them together; order of points may vary

Topical arrangement

divides a subject into subtopics, each of which is part of the whole


points arranged into various levels, with the points on a specific level having basically the same value or weight


placement of supporting points under major points

Full-sentence outline

formal record of your major ideas & their relationship to one another in your speech

Speaking notes

key words & phrases you use during your speech & discard afterwards

Parallel points

making the points similar in construction

Discourse consistency

using a repetitive style such as alliteration of main points throughout the speech

Expository speaking

the "speech to teach" that explains an idea in detail

Information age

an era with vast amounts of available information

Information overload

feeling overwhelmed by the sheer amount of available data


repeating the same idea more than once, but developing it differently each time


saying the same thing more than once


open, wide ranging, diverse, common interests

Public speaking

engage ideas of common interest for a diverse group of people ethically & effectively

manuscript, memorized, extemporaneous, impromptu

Modes of delivery

written, conversational, performance

Skills of the public speaker

90/10 rule

90% of what you're doing is effective & the other 10% sets you back

unconscious incompetence, conscious incompetence, conscious competence, unconscious incompetence

Stages of competence

invention, arrangement, style, delivery, memory

Canons of rhetoric

cause/effect, chronological, topical, spatial, familiar to unfamiliar/simple to complex

Types of arrangement

brainstorming, cluster, label, narrow/expand

Stages of preparation

testimony, statistics, definition

Informative strategies

analytical, performative/operational, negation, historical, etymology

Types of definition

the art of finding available means of persuasion in a given situation


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