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Edema represents

localized swelling due to an accumulation of tissue fluid

Lymph is

returned to the circulatory system at the subclavian vein

Elephantiasis is a tropical disease where small nematode larvae block the lymphatic ducts. As a result, the legs become large like those of an elephant and the scrotum and arms may also swell. This problem would be a severe form of


Any disease-causing agent, either virus or bacteria, is a/an


Which of the following lyphoid organs secretes thymosin?


Which molecule causes the capillaries to dilate and become more permeable?


Which of the following is considered a specific defense against infection?

antibodies in mother's milk

Which protein forms an orderly cascade of reactions in the blood and ends be forming pores in bacterial cell membranes?


Which of the following is specifically responsible for antibody-mediated immunity?

B cell

The clonal selection theory states that

when a B or T cell is stimulated by encountering the correct antigenm it divides to form a clone of cells that will respond to the same antigen.

Most antibodies found in the blood belong to the __class of immunoglobulins


Which portion of the antibody binds to the antigen?

variable portion

Which type of T cell improves the immune response

helper T cell

The AIDS virus attacks the

helper Tcell

Which Type of lymphocyte is somtimes called a "killer cell" that brings about destruction of antigen-bearing cells?

cytotoxic T cell

Apoptosis is

a natural programmed cell death necessary to regulate cell numbers

Which molecule is released from a viral infected cell that interferes with viral replication


Cancer is more likely to occur in individuals who

have a faulty immune system

Which antibody class is most responsible for the allergic reaction


A person who is blood type AB has

antigens A and B on the surface of RBCs

Edward Jenner promoted the use of cowpox infection, that was very similar to more dangerous smallpox, as a vaccination to provide patients immunity from future smallpox epidemics. This was a case of these subjects

developing active immunity

When you have been bitten by a highly venomous snake and received a dose of venom sufficient to kill several people, you do not have the time to build up your own immunity over the next week. However, hospitals carry antivenin" made from injecting horses with small to larger dosages of snake venom, and then harvesting the antibodies from the horse plasma. This is a case of you

borrowing passive immunity

The textbook describe the problem with Rh factor hemolytic disease of the newborn in the case where the mother is Rh- and the father is Rh+

This is only a problem in the given case because the Rh -mother lacks the Rh+ protein and only a Rh + father could produce an Rh+ child

Allergies are associated with increased concentration of


Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease? MS,systemic lupus, RA, inflammation, all of the above


Red bone marrow

is capable of producing WBC

Which of the following is/are examples of non-specific immunity? Natural killer cells, compliment, inflammation, interferon, all of the choices are correct

all of the choices are correct

__ infections are those that become established in people whose immune systerms are compromised by some other cause


Before a monocyte can phagocytize bacteria or dead WBC'S it must transform into a/an


The migration of neutrophils through the wall of a blood vessel is called


__ is the attraction of neutrophild to a site of inflammation by a chemical called kinin


Interleukins are chemical messengers secreted by ___ to communicate with each other


Natural Killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that do/do not depend on recognition of a specific foreign antigen

do not depend

One role of macrophages is to "present" antigens so that ___ can recognize them

helper T cells

Complement proteins, unlike___ , can lyse a foreign cell.


Which term can be described as the process of coating bacteria with complement, making them easier to phagocytize?


Bacterial infection is especially likely to elevate the __ count


The formed elements most directly responsible for humoral immunity are

B lymphocytes

The function of an antigen-presenting cell depends on the presence of ___ on its plasma membrane.

MHC proteins

Which of the following cells are destroyed by the AIDS virus?

helper T cells

When an antigen triggers the multiplication of B lymphocytes, some daughter cells transform into antibody producing cells and mount an attack, while others become

memory cells

MALT is lymphatic tissue found in such places as

the digestive mucosa

Antibodies belong to a class of plasma proteins called


Which of the following is not a form of nonspecific resistance?


T cells become immunocompetent during their stay in

the thymus

Cytotoxic T cells can destroy cancer cells by means of a secretion called


Tapeworms, hookworms and other parasites too large to phagocytize are attacked mainly by


Which of these is not one of the cardinal signs of inflammation? redness, fever, swelling, heat, pain


All of the following are autoimmune diseases except: anaphalaxis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatic fever, type II diabetes mellitus, myasthenis gravis


Air that is moving out during expiration will become __ compared to air in the lungs.

cool and lose moisture

Which is not a major function of the respiratory tract?

transferring and extracting nutrients

Trace the path of an inhaled air molecule

nasal cavity-pharynx-glottis-larynx-trachea-bronchi-bronchioles-alveoli

Which respiratory organ normally allows both air and food passage?


Which of the following statements correctly describes air movement along the respiratory tract? Cillia and hairs in the nose help to screen out foreign particles in the air, food and air both enter the pharynx, presenting a potential danger to respiration, air reaching the lungs has been warmed to boduy temperature by passage through the nose and upper respiratory system, the glottis is the passageway through the larynx by which air enters the trachea, all choices are true

all choices are true

The vocal cords are found in the


Food is prevented from entering the trachea by the


Which part of the respiratory system is composed of c-shaped cartilaginous rings and cilia?


The operation in which an incision is made in the trachea is called a(n)


The greatest surface area for gas exchange occurs within the


From the trachea, air next passes into the __ during inhalation in a human.


From the bronchioles, air next passes into the ___ during inhalation in a human.


It is extremely difficult to save a premature baby at 4 or 5 months of pregnancy because physicians say there is a wall that prevents survival much earlier than six months. What causes this wall past which they cannot push infant survival

The premature alveoli do not develop surfactant to prevent their collapsing shut

A short while after a person has died a "gasp" of air may occur as the lungs collapse. This flow would represent the

tidal volume

If a person was born and grew up at a higher altitude in the Andes mountain, what consquences would we expect

1. Larger vital capacity from larger chest volume. 2. Ability to breathe slower at sea level than natives of sea level areas 3. Greater endurance in marathon sports conducted at sea level 4. More hemoglobin

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