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64 terms

A&P II Lymphatic/Immune, Respiratory Systems

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Edema represents
localized swelling due to an accumulation of tissue fluid
Lymph is
returned to the circulatory system at the subclavian vein
Elephantiasis is a tropical disease where small nematode larvae block the lymphatic ducts. As a result, the legs become large like those of an elephant and the scrotum and arms may also swell. This problem would be a severe form of
edema...
Any disease-causing agent, either virus or bacteria, is a/an
pathogen
Which of the following lyphoid organs secretes thymosin?
thymus
Which molecule causes the capillaries to dilate and become more permeable?
histamine
Which of the following is considered a specific defense against infection?
antibodies in mother's milk
Which protein forms an orderly cascade of reactions in the blood and ends be forming pores in bacterial cell membranes?
complement
Which of the following is specifically responsible for antibody-mediated immunity?
B cell
The clonal selection theory states that
when a B or T cell is stimulated by encountering the correct antigenm it divides to form a clone of cells that will respond to the same antigen.
Most antibodies found in the blood belong to the __class of immunoglobulins
IgG
Which portion of the antibody binds to the antigen?
variable portion
Which type of T cell improves the immune response
helper T cell
The AIDS virus attacks the
helper Tcell
Which Type of lymphocyte is somtimes called a "killer cell" that brings about destruction of antigen-bearing cells?
cytotoxic T cell
Apoptosis is
a natural programmed cell death necessary to regulate cell numbers
Which molecule is released from a viral infected cell that interferes with viral replication
interferon
Cancer is more likely to occur in individuals who
have a faulty immune system
Which antibody class is most responsible for the allergic reaction
IgE
A person who is blood type AB has
antigens A and B on the surface of RBCs
Edward Jenner promoted the use of cowpox infection, that was very similar to more dangerous smallpox, as a vaccination to provide patients immunity from future smallpox epidemics. This was a case of these subjects
developing active immunity
When you have been bitten by a highly venomous snake and received a dose of venom sufficient to kill several people, you do not have the time to build up your own immunity over the next week. However, hospitals carry antivenin" made from injecting horses with small to larger dosages of snake venom, and then harvesting the antibodies from the horse plasma. This is a case of you
borrowing passive immunity
The textbook describe the problem with Rh factor hemolytic disease of the newborn in the case where the mother is Rh- and the father is Rh+
This is only a problem in the given case because the Rh -mother lacks the Rh+ protein and only a Rh + father could produce an Rh+ child
Allergies are associated with increased concentration of
IgE
Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease? MS,systemic lupus, RA, inflammation, all of the above
inflammation
Red bone marrow
is capable of producing WBC
Which of the following is/are examples of non-specific immunity? Natural killer cells, compliment, inflammation, interferon, all of the choices are correct
all of the choices are correct
__ infections are those that become established in people whose immune systerms are compromised by some other cause
opportunistic
Before a monocyte can phagocytize bacteria or dead WBC'S it must transform into a/an
macrophage
The migration of neutrophils through the wall of a blood vessel is called
diapedisis
__ is the attraction of neutrophild to a site of inflammation by a chemical called kinin
chemotaxis
Interleukins are chemical messengers secreted by ___ to communicate with each other
leukocytes
Natural Killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that do/do not depend on recognition of a specific foreign antigen
do not depend
One role of macrophages is to "present" antigens so that ___ can recognize them
helper T cells
Complement proteins, unlike___ , can lyse a foreign cell.
antibodies
Which term can be described as the process of coating bacteria with complement, making them easier to phagocytize?
OPONIZATION
Bacterial infection is especially likely to elevate the __ count
neutrophil
The formed elements most directly responsible for humoral immunity are
B lymphocytes
The function of an antigen-presenting cell depends on the presence of ___ on its plasma membrane.
MHC proteins
Which of the following cells are destroyed by the AIDS virus?
helper T cells
When an antigen triggers the multiplication of B lymphocytes, some daughter cells transform into antibody producing cells and mount an attack, while others become
memory cells
MALT is lymphatic tissue found in such places as
the digestive mucosa
Antibodies belong to a class of plasma proteins called
globulins
Which of the following is not a form of nonspecific resistance?
vaccination
T cells become immunocompetent during their stay in
the thymus
Cytotoxic T cells can destroy cancer cells by means of a secretion called
perforin
Tapeworms, hookworms and other parasites too large to phagocytize are attacked mainly by
eosinophils
Which of these is not one of the cardinal signs of inflammation? redness, fever, swelling, heat, pain
fever
All of the following are autoimmune diseases except: anaphalaxis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatic fever, type II diabetes mellitus, myasthenis gravis
anaphalaxis
Air that is moving out during expiration will become __ compared to air in the lungs.
cool and lose moisture
Which is not a major function of the respiratory tract?
transferring and extracting nutrients
Trace the path of an inhaled air molecule
nasal cavity-pharynx-glottis-larynx-trachea-bronchi-bronchioles-alveoli
Which respiratory organ normally allows both air and food passage?
pharynx
Which of the following statements correctly describes air movement along the respiratory tract? Cillia and hairs in the nose help to screen out foreign particles in the air, food and air both enter the pharynx, presenting a potential danger to respiration, air reaching the lungs has been warmed to boduy temperature by passage through the nose and upper respiratory system, the glottis is the passageway through the larynx by which air enters the trachea, all choices are true
all choices are true
The vocal cords are found in the
Larynx
Food is prevented from entering the trachea by the
epiglottis
Which part of the respiratory system is composed of c-shaped cartilaginous rings and cilia?
trachea
The operation in which an incision is made in the trachea is called a(n)
tracheostomy
The greatest surface area for gas exchange occurs within the
alveoli
From the trachea, air next passes into the __ during inhalation in a human.
bronchi
From the bronchioles, air next passes into the ___ during inhalation in a human.
alveoli
It is extremely difficult to save a premature baby at 4 or 5 months of pregnancy because physicians say there is a wall that prevents survival much earlier than six months. What causes this wall past which they cannot push infant survival
The premature alveoli do not develop surfactant to prevent their collapsing shut
A short while after a person has died a "gasp" of air may occur as the lungs collapse. This flow would represent the
tidal volume
If a person was born and grew up at a higher altitude in the Andes mountain, what consquences would we expect
1. Larger vital capacity from larger chest volume. 2. Ability to breathe slower at sea level than natives of sea level areas 3. Greater endurance in marathon sports conducted at sea level 4. More hemoglobin