Acidosis and Alkalosis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments
Terms in this set (7)
the arterial blood has a normal pH of?
what is acidosis?
if the CO2 level increases, it produces more H2CO3 and more H3O+, lowering the pH
what is alkalosis?
a decrease in the CO2 level leads to a high blood pH
What is respiratory acidosis?
CO2 increases, pH decreases
failure to ventilate, suppression of breathing, disorientation, weakness, coma
lung disease blocking gas diffusion (e.g. emphysema, pneumonia, bronchitis, asthma); depression of respiratory center by drugs, cardiopulmonary arrest, stroke, poliomyelitis, or nervous system disorders
correction of disorder, infusion of bicarbonate
what is metabolic acidosis?
H+ increases, pH decreases
increased ventilation, fatigue, confusion
renal disease, including hepatitis and cirrhosis; increased acid production in diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, alcoholism, and starvation; loss of alkali in diarrhea; acid retention in renal failure
sodium bicarbonate given orally, dialysis for renal failure, insulin treatment for diabetic ketosis
what is respiratory alkalosis?
CO2 decreases, pH increases
increased rate and depth of breathing, numbness, light-headedness, tetany
hyperventilation because of anxiety, hysteria, fever, exercise; reaction to drugs such as salicylate, quinine, and antihistamines; conditions causing hypoxia (e.g. pneumonia, pulmonary edema, heart disease)
elimination of anxiety-producing state, rebreathing into a paper bag
what is metabolic alkalosis?
H+ decreases, pH increases
depressed breathing, apathy, confusion
vomiting, diseases of the adrenal glands, ingestion of excess alkali
infusion of saline solution, treatment of underlying diseases