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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
First 3 topics for PRAXIS II Social Studies, US History topic
Terms in this set (55)
Permanent settlements turned into these, usually there was a system of trade and government and art and science and a written language.
Came from Asia over Beringia, an area of dry land between Asia and Alaska that was exposed during the Ice Age. Survive mainly along coasts hunting marine animals and gathering around that area. 30,000-5,000 years ago. Pre-agricultural peoples who migrated south after ice age recedes.
The first people to build a civilization in America. Coastal regions of Gulf of Mexico, from 1200 BC. Lead to Mayans and Aztecs. Credited for first writing system in America, build temples and created calendars.
the first major South American civilization, which flourished in the highlands of what is now Peru from about 900 to 200 BC. Eventually would lead to Incan Empire.
Mesoamerican Civilization thriving during the Classic Period (1800 BC-900AD). Noted for fully developed written language, art, architecture and math. Decline upon arrival of Spanish Conquistadors who sought to destroy the culture. Succeeded in destroying all but three manuscripts telling of the Mayan culture, religion, and lifestyles; the architecture survives today due to preservation by forests and the difficulty to destroy.
Certain ethnic groups of central Mexico during the late Post-Classic Period. Dominated large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14, 15 and 16th centuries. Tenochtitlan famous city and center of growth for Aztec empire at the time. A more violent culture, based on war and human sacrifices for their patron diety, Huitzilopochtli, god of war and symbol of the sun who feeds on human blood. Tens of thousands are sacrificed to please the gods. Cortez is explorer who discovers Aztecs and is able to infiltrate and conquer them into submission in 1519.
Incan Empire became largest empire in Pre-Columbian America. Began as a tribe in the Cuzco area and controlled much of the land in the Andes in the 15th and 16th centuries. In height empire stretches from Quito, Ecuador to Maule River, Chile (2500 miles). A wealthy empire known for textiles and ways of life that allow women to have important roles in society. Conquered by Francisco Pizarro in 1532, after a 2 year march through Ecuador to reach the empire. The conquering is dramatic and gruesome, pretty much eliminating the Inca.
from about 1000 BC, build great burial mounds constructed around a tomb of log or wood. Refers to many tribes of native Americans who bury dead in mounds and are mainly agricultural. Adena in Ohio Valley is the earliest tribe, followed by Hopewell tribes. Greatest activity is from 1st century BC to 5th century AD. Leads to farming communities who settle on lands in Mississippi valley and southwest.
1584 - 1586 Indians who the English first made contact with at Roanoke Island off of the North Carolina Coast. At first it is a friendly encounter with trading but when more settlers arrive tensions grow as the Secotan realize the English are there to settle permanently, unlike the tribe which is used to moving and believes land is communal and cannot be owned by one man.
1607 - 1644 a confederacy of nine Algonquian tribes, Jamestown was settled in powhatan territory. The confederacy leads attacks on the settlement killing hundreds of settlers and bringing on the retaliation of the Jamestown inhabitants. Eventually the English are able to put down the Indians and have no further problems in Virginia.
1621 - 1676 near the Plymouth settlement, a different confederacy of Algonquian tribes who help the Pilgrims to survive with a truce between to the two different peoples. Evenutally there are so many settlers the Indians are forced to work for them or be shipped off for slavery in the West Indies. Metacom, or King Philip, leads the Indians on a large scale attack against New England. It is eventually put down and Metacom is killed. The event is referred to as King Philips War in 1675.
16th - 17th centuries, a rival to the Huron tribes, composed of Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca to make the Iroquois the area League. This league was a key for French and English settlers. They lived in the area from the eastern great lakes down through the appalchian mountians into the state of new York. Very organized and more aggrtessive than their Huron counter parts. Sided with both French and English settlers but had a problem with the French settlers who had befriended the Huron first. Drove Huron further west to gain control of more fur trading territory.
Rivals to the Iroquois League, confederacy comprised of Bear, Cord, Rock and Deer tribes. 20,000 people about, less organized than Iroquois. Same linguistic family as Iroquios. Tries to befriend French and English settlers with fur trading.
Northern Canada, lived near sea, Artic region. They used all the limited resources of their environment to survive. They hunted seal, whale, walrus and caribou and used ice & snow to make igloos.
W of Mississippi to Rockies
-Sioux, Pawnee, Crow, Cheyenne, Comanche.
-Lived in villages along rivers, farmed, during summer they hunted buffalo herds, tepees
-Life changed dramatically by horses/European approx 1600's....went from farming to mostly hunters, following the herds
No need to farm b/c food was so abundant, totem poles, built wood houses, wealthiest families made decisions, held potlatches - host family gave gifts to members of community
-Either farmers or hunters/gatherers. lived in pueblos like the cliff dwellers
-Largest was Pueblos, Hopi and Zuni
-Skilled farmers-beans, corn, squash, tobacco, built irrigation canals. Apache and Navajo came to region around 1500...Navajo eventually farmed, but Apache never did
Most densely populated, Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Seminole, Natchez, fished, hunted, women farmed
-Women had high standing in cultures, could be members of war councils and warriors
When Spanish came to New World...
Searching for weath, Spanish conquered the advanced civilizations of Mexico and South America. Goal was to take wealth back to Spain. Became leaders of the civilizations, which died out due to exposure to new diseases.
When other Europeans came to New World...
Looking to explore and settle the new land. Could not conqure the native tribes due to the large amounts of different tribes and their migrations to new areas following the seasons. Different from Spanish in that they did not want to only take wealth back to home country, but find new areas to live.
Reasons for exploring America...
Europeans wanted to find a faster way to China and the "East" than going around Africa. Explorers were sent out to find water routes west to sail directly to China. America was "in the way", which led to explorations and claiming the new land for the mother country of the explorer.
Consequences of contact between Europeans and Natives...
-Disease wiped out many Natives, Europeans learned how to grow crops such as tobacco, natives learned new weapons, horses
-Exchange of ideas/goods became known early on as Columbian Exchange
1009 AD, from present day Sweden, Denmark, or Norway. Founded Vinland - modern day Newfoundland in Canada. First European to reach America almost 500 years before Columbus.
1271 went eastward to China and East Asia, came back to Europe in 1295. Trading journey to East Asia-China/Cathay, traveled 15,000 miles. Brought back riches and treasures to help spark the Renaissance.
1492, 1504-Carribean, westward route to Asia, "Founded" the Americas. (Bahamas) Opened up awareness of American continents to the Europeans. Resulted in the Age of Discovery. From Genoa, Italy; Authorized by Spain to go on expeditions. 1492 voyage prompted western imperialism and economic competition between nations.
English, 1497, landed in Newfoundland. First man to land in the New World for the English. All other claims were by the Spanish since Columbus' first voyage.
Ponce de Leon
1508, From Spain, looked for the fountain of youth, named Florida.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa
1513, Spanish conquistador, crossed through Isthmus of Panama, the first European to reach the Pacific coast of America and to see the Pacific Ocean.
1519, a Spanish Conquistador, explored the middle of Mexico and conquered the Aztecs and Montezuma, was looking for cities of gold to bring back to Spain for the glory.
1519-22, for Spain. Sailed around tip of South America, first to sail around the world, although he died in battle in the Philippines, named the Pacific Ocean.
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
1540 - 1542, Spanish conquistador who explored the Southwest of the United States in hopes to conquer the "Seven Cities of Gold." Used rivers and went as far East to Kansas in his searches.
Hernando de Soto
Spanish, in 1531 helped Fransico Pizarro to conquer the Inca. 1539 led his own search deep into North America. First European to cross the Mississippi River, where he died in 1542.
1534, French, clamined Canada for France.
1585, Englishman who established the first English colony in the New World - Roanoke, in Virgina which he named for Queen Elizabeth. He left Roanoke twice and coming back a third time the colony was gone, thus creating the "Lost Colony of Roanoke." This lead the way for actual colonization of North America.
1609, Englishman who sailed for the Dutch East India Company. Wanted to find a Northwest passage through America to China, discovered a straight and large bay in Northeast America, now named for Hudson. Led the way for Dutch settlement in the New World.
Samuel de Champlain
1609 - 1616, French navigator, founded Quebec, large fur trader. Mapped the coast of Canada. Known as the Father of New France.
Robert de Lasalle
1673 - 1689, French, Explored the Great Lake regions and followed the Mississippi River to see how long it is. Claimed the Mississippi River valley for France.
Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet
1673, French, Father and Son who explored and mapped much of the Mississippi River.
Reasons for Colonization of US...
Economic/fur trading, religious disagreement in England/Separatists/Pilgrims, investment
1607 - first successful English colony in Virginia, led to the permanent colonization of North America
Colonial leader in Plymouth in 1620. Pilgrims landed in what is now Massachusetts.
Led another group of Pilgrims to the Americas, stockholder in the Massachusetts Bay Company
Banished from Massachusetts, started a colony called Providence, where the government had no authority in religious matters
Everyone has an inner light from God, no need for church or ministers, led by William Penn, started the colony of Pennsylvania
A colony started by James Oglethorpe for poor people in England who were in prison because they couldn't pay their debts
Mexico, Florida, Texas, Central America, Caribbean, California, etc.; gold, silver mining, and ranching
Eastern seaboard of North America, trade and farming
Canada, St. Lawrence River, and Louisiana Territory; exporting furs
Other English Colonization
East India Trading Company
English took over trading in India, Hong Kong, and Other Asian Countries
Slave Trade - British Slave ships (Fifteen million Africans were removed from societies causing political instability in some of the African kingdoms.)
Australia - Island for British Convict Exile
Plantations - Tabacco, Cotton, etc...
Other Dutch (Netherlands) Colonies
South Africa, New Amsterdam became New York
Other Spanish Colonies
Destruction and take over of Mesoamerica and S. America, Africa - Slave Trade, Plantations - Sugar, Coffee, etc..
Other Portuguese Colonies
Slave Trade - Cuba, Atlantic Islands and S. America
How African Americans were represented in the Constitution...
*Great Compromise = two houses, House of Representatives by population. South wanted to count slaves as population, but not for paying taxes to national govt.
*Also North agreed congress couldn't outlaw slave trade for 20 years (until 1808)
*Article 1 - Section 2 - 3/5 compromise, Native Americans not counted at all
*Article 1-Section 9 - migration or importation of people shall not be restricted until 1808, but a tax may be levered up to $10
*Article 4-Section 2 - slaves cannot become free by escaping
How did Europeans, Africans and Native Americas interact?
Europeans were the "rulers" of the community who made the laws, controlled the money, were the politicians, and ran the cities. Africans were slaves and were sold in the slave trade mainly to plantations owners in the South, although many families had servants. Native Americans were treated lower than the slaves. The goal of the Europeans was to colonize the land no matter if the Native Americans had been living there for generations.
From Europe ships carried supplies to barter and trade for slaves in West Africa to take to the Caribbean and North America for sugar and crops grown in those areas to take back to England. The trip would take 5 - 12 weeks to complete the entire triangle. It was a continuous cycle from the 16th - 19th centuries.
Recommended textbook explanations
HMH Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present Guided Reading Workbook
The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century (California Edition)
Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch
United States History: Beginnings to 1877
Deborah Gray White, William Deverell
American Anthem: Modern American History
Deborah Gray White, Edward L. Ayers, Jesús F. de la Teja, Robert D. Schulzinger
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