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Science 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, and 7.4
Terms in this set (50)
General types of chemical reactions
Synthesis, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion
a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single substance.
In a synthesis reaction the reactants have to be....
Elements or compounds
In a synthesis reaction the product has to be....
General equation for a synthesis reaction
a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances
In a decomposition reaction the reactant must be a....
In a decomposition reaction the product must be a....
Element or compound
The general equation for a decomposition reaction
a reaction in which one element takes the place of another element in a compound
General form for a single-replacement reaction
A reaction which two differ compounds exchange positive ions and form two new compounds
General form of a double replacement reaction
a reaction in which a substance reacts rapidly with oxygen, often producing heat and light
A reaction in which electrons are transferred from one reactant to another. They don't always involve complete transfers of electrons
Types of synthesis reactions in which a metal combines with oxygen
The process in which an element gains electrons during a chemical reaction
oxidation and reduction
They always occur together. When one element loses electrons another element must stain electrons
A reactant that gains electrons
A reactant that losses electron
What happens to chemical bonds during a chemical reaction?
Chemical reactions involve the breaking of chemical bonds in the reactants and the formation of chemical bonds in the products.
The energy stored in the chemical bonds of a substance
Somthimes Breaking chemical bonds requires energy. You have to break a bond before you can form a new bond
Formation of chemical bonds releases energy. Heat and light can be a result of the formation of new bonds.
What happens to energy during a chemical reaction?
Energy is either released or absorbed
A chemical reaction that releases energy to its surroundings. The energy released as the product is greater then the energy required to break the bonds in the reactants.
Energy in an exothermic reaction
The energy released as the product is greater then the energy required to break the bonds in the reactants. (Chemical energy of reactants is greater then the chemical energy of the products.
Why might a exothermic reaction not occur?
Particles must collide with enough energy to break these bonds, or the reaction will not occur.
A reaction that absorbs energy from its surroundings.
Energy in an endothermic reaction
More energy Is required to break the bond in the reactants then is released by the formation of the products. (Energy of the products is greater then the energy of the reactants)
exothermic reaction chart
Reactants/ energy (is released by reaction) goes down during the reaction/ products
Peak is the amount of energy needed to break the bond.
endothermic reaction chart
Reactants/ energy (is absorbed by reaction) goes up during reaction/ products
Exothermic and endothermic reaction charts
STUDY ON GUIDED NOTES
What does a reaction rate tell you?
It tells how fast a reaction is going
The rate which reactants change into products over time. It can be how fast the reactants are being consumed, how fast the products are being formed, or how fast energy is being absorbed or released.
Any change that happens over a period of time can be expressed as rate
What factors cause reaction rate to change
Temperature, surface area, concentration, stirring, and catalysts
The reaction rate of a chemical reaction depends on.....
How often reactant particles collide. The more frequently the reaction rate increases. The less frequently the reaction rate decrease. This is the most influential reason reaction rate decrease or increases.
Increase in temp will increase the reaction rate. A decrease in temp will decrease the reaction rate.
conservation of energy in exothermic reaction
The chemical energy of the reactants is converted into heat chemical energy of the products.
conservation of energy in endothermic reactions
Heat plus the chemical energy of the reactants converted into the chemical energy of the products
conservation of energy
The total energy before and after the reaction is the same.
Increased surface area increases collision that involve reacting particles and with more collisions the reaction rate increases. (Smaller the particle size of a a given mass the larger its surface is)
Stirring reactants increases their exposure to each other.
Number of particles in a given volume. By changing the concentration of the reactants you can change the rate. The more reaction particles means more opportunities for collisions which means the reaction rate is faster.
Concentration with gases
The concentration changes with pressure, so the greater the pressure the faster the reaction rate is.
Affects the reaction rate without being used up in the reaction it always raises the reaction rate
It states the number of moles or the number of molecules involved in the reaction.
Contrast chemical reaction and chemical equation
A chemical reaction is represented by a chemical equation. A chemical equation is a statement of what can happen and not what will happen
6.02 x 10^23
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