1) The masses of data stored and being made available, and
2) to the tools necessary to comb through the information and highlight points of interest.
1) the variety of the information available (from mobile phone records to air travel
information, from social network inputs to stock trading);
2) the volume of information produced, measured per second;
3) the velocity at which the information is produced
4) its veracity (that is, its meaningfulness)
>What information about one's self or one's associations must a person reveal to others, under what conditions and with what safeguards?
>What things can people keep to themselves and not be forced to reveal to others?
>Physical Privacy: Drones? Use of CCTV in public places, computer generated junk mail (SPAM)
>Information Privacy: How much, which, and to whom should information about an individual be available? e.g. Employers spying on internet activities of employees
>Who is responsible for the authenticity and accuracy of information?
>Who is to be held accountable for errors in information and how is the injured party to be properly compensated?
>Who owns information? (e.g. E‐health records)
>What are the just and fair prices for its exchange?
>Who owns the channels, especially the data channels, through which information is transmitted?
>How should access to this scarce resource be
>What information does a person or an organisation have a right or a privilege to obtain? (e.g. Criminal records, Credit ratings).
>Under what conditions and with what safeguards?
-Social Contract: the right to privacy is expected by rational people, and all entities must uphold this right.
-Deontological: Autonomous moral agents need some privacy, helping us to develop ourselves as seperate moral beings.
-Consequentialist: Security vs Freedom, benefits of the
many may outweigh what seem to be the minor benefits to the individual (Is the privacy of one person worth the overall security of everyone?).
-For Deontologism, its always wrong to breach privacy.
-For Consequentialism, weighing up pros and cons.
-For Social Contract, similar to Consequentialism (pros vs cons).
>parents spying on their Babysitters using "Nanny Cams" to see how their children are treated.
>Social Contract: the right to privacy is expected by rational people; therefore considered wrong.
>Kant: cannot universalise it, and treating the nanny as means to an end (by not disclosing secret monitoring); therefore considered wrong.
>Rule: weighing up the pros/cons - nannies
would be on their best behaviour, but would also lead to increased stress and less job satisfaction (i.e. would we satisfy greatest happiness?); therefore considered wrong.
> However, Act Utilitarianism would find the particular action of monitoring babysitters to ensure that their children are safe, is an ethical action that will lead to the overall increase in happiness.
*Virtue ethics disagrees, since this action is characteristic of good parents, and would discontinue surveillance once they were reassured they could trust the
-the interest that individuals have in sustaining their personal space, free from interference from others.
-as technology has improved, it has become harder to hide one's personal life from public scrutiny (as society puts more stuff online).
-4 threats to privacy:
>Ubiquitous connection: "information has a need to flow" (if something is posted online, it is there forever; information will not be kept static once posted, will flow from one individual to another e.g. data mining).
>Dataveillance for Businesses (monitoring people's activities via the surveillance of their online behaviour; done via data mining and text mining techniques/ data capture => for strategic advantage and targeting (organisations) e.g. Target).
>Dataveillance by Government (Echelon: Collects, monitors and filters all global communication between Aus, Canada, New Zealand, UK, US).
>Privacy has evolved (From physical privacy, to freedom from excessive surveillance to information privacy).
>Dataveillance by Business
>Dataveilannce by Governments
-For business used to gain strategic advantages and targeted marketing, and provide things like loyalty programs or discounts tailored to consumer needs.
-Whilst governments, used for security reasons e.g. terorism, blacklisted website controls or drug or human trafficking (but still monitoring).
-Hacking for personal gain, and for nefarious purposes, therefore worse than the other two (use of spyware can leave a whole company susceptible to corporate espionage e.g. LinkedIn spyware).
-Refers to the situation in which some people have access to modern IT while others do not.
-Global divide - % of people by country without access to computers and the internet,
-Social divide - % of people within a country without access to computers and the internet.
-South Korea has the most internet connections.
-Global divide is a cycle (lack of information, due to technological skills being lost, which leads to low income jobs, cannot buy tech and education, then the cycle begins as there is a lack of information).
-An inequality of access to information and the
internet across global regions and internationally.
-Language barriers as english is dominant langauage.
-Literacy and education is inadequate.
-Cultural differences causes problems.
-Wealthier countries can buy better tech, to increase their access to internet.
-Internet use varies within wealthy countries - the
extent to which people use the internet varies
according to age, wealth and education.
-Information rich vs information poor.
-To reduce divide:
>Accessible by all; sometimes free
>Enables Information sharing
>Supports anti corruption drives
>Provision of education in rural areas
Winner takes all:
-Disproportionate shares of wealth and resources : in USA "top 0.1% of people are worth as much as the bottom 90%"
-Those who "have" possess the resources to grow their wealth even more, and produce even greater inequality (unlike the 90%).
>ICT and good transportation makes it easier and
cheaper to distribute products, local products can
struggle to succeed (e.g. Amazon setting up a distribution centre, making harder for local businesses e.g. Coles).
>English as the lingua franca of the (business) world facilitates product dominance. 12 countries speak English, while another 56 teach English in schools.
>Vigorous global competition for top executives has given rise to stratospheric salaries for CEOs (banking commission where CEOs are receiving more salaries than they should).
>Increases the gap between rich and poor (article on first page of this section)
>Too many chase a small number of the winning jobs, that pay well (for personal gains); e.g. teaching vs business manager.
>Fierce competition generates corrupt practice and excessive consumption of goods designed to "impress"; money laundering by Commonwealth Bank (corrupt practice).
>Legislation: Restricted opening hours
Cooperation: Salary caps in sports, Agreement to curb (Sarbanes-Oxley Act) marketing efforts that just result in status quo.
>Progressive taxation: Prevents accumulation of excessive wealth (for example, introducing luxury taxes).
>Campaign finance reform: Reduces the political power of the wealthy and hence the extent to which governments are captive to sectoral interests for example, Murdoch's monopoly on English press.