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BIO TEST UNIT 8
Terms in this set (89)
disease causing agent
consists of cells and tissues found thoughout the body where the body uses non-specific and specific mechanisms to defend and destroy pathogens
1st line of defense-layers of epitheal tissue that produce sticky, viscous fluid called mucus
where can mucous membranes be found
digestive system, nasal passages, lungs, respiratory system, cells lining bronchi and bronchioli
2nd line of defense-injury or local infection causes inflammatory response where there are a series of events to suppress infection and speed recovery-bring WBC's
causes local blood vessels to dilate increating blood flow to bring WBC's which causes swelling and redness
enhances the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane
defense protein released by cells infected with a virus to prevent viruses from making proteins and RNA
a type of WBC, engulfs and destroys pathogens by releasing a chemical to kill bacteria and itself & they squeeze between cells in the walls of capillaries to attack
a type of WBC, ingest and kill pathogen as well as clear dead cells and debris-travel thru blood and extracellular fluid
natural killer cells
a type of large WBC, attacks cells infected with pathogen by puncturing the cell membrane to make the cell swell and burst
attack and kill infected cells (own cells)
label invaders for later destruction by macrophages
activate both cytotoxic T & B cells
substance that triggers an immune response which include proteins and other parts of viruses or pathogen cells, present on the surface of infected body cell
a fully differentiated B cell that produces a single type of antibody.
An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses
in tears and saliva, break up cell wall and break chemical barrier to digest bacterial cell walls
why does the body respond with a fever if there are pathogens in the body
b/c this prevents more bacterial growth
aids the removal of extracellular pathogens from body
involves destruction of intracellular pathogens by cytotoxic T-cells
How do skin and mucous membranes defend the body?
they are natural barriers and they have an acidic surface
What proteins kill or inhibit pathogens?
interferons?? i have no clue tbh
what is the difference between specific and nonspecific defenses
nonspecific is the initial immune reaction
specific involves the production of antibodies against a particular antigen.
List four kinds of cells involved in the immune response, and describe their functions.
macrophages, cytoxic t-cells, b-cells, and helper t-cells
How do white blood cells recognize and bind to pathogens?
antibodies and antigens
Compare the roles of T cells with that of B cells in the immune response.
T-cells attack and kill infected cells and b-cells label invaders for later destruction
Explain the role of helper T cells in the immune response. What might happen if you had no helper T cells? What disease causes this condition?
helper t cells activate b-cells (secrete antibodies), macrophages to destroy ingested microbes, but they also help activate cytotoxic T cells to kill infected target cells. without the helper t-cells the immune system would not even function because nothing would activate
-AIDS is a disease that causes this condition
what are both immune responses regulated by
helper t cells
segments of nucleic acids contained in a protein coat (nonliving)
viruses that attack bacteria
single cells prokaryotes that lack a nucleus and have a cell membrane, wall, and ribosomes
hair-like appendage found on the surface of many bacteria where other bacteria can adhere to surface for sources of nutrition and exchange genetic material
a rod-shaped bacterium.
any spherical or roughly spherical bacterium.
a bacterium with a rigid spiral structure, found in stagnant water and sometimes causing disease.
viscous substance forming a covering layer or envelope around the cell wall of a bacteria
inhibits/interferes the growth of or destroys microorganisms.
a resistant asexual spore that develops inside some bacteria cell to survive harsh conditions-resistant to heat, pressure, and radiation
process by which 2 organisms exchange genetic material-cell to cell contact thru pili and bridge cytoplasm
relating to, involving, or requiring an absence of free oxygen.
relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen.
poisionous chemical compounds to eukaryores and can be secreaed into body of infected person or into food where bacteria is growing
extremely severe or harmful in its effects.
pickng up DNA from dead bacterial cells
List seven differences between bacteria and eukaryotic cells.
lack of many cell parts, cell size, multicellularity, chromosomes, reproduction, flagella, metabolic diversity
Describe the different shapes of bacteria, and what they are called,
bacillus-rod, cocculus-round, spirillum-spiral
What are antibiotics? How do they destroy bacteria? Do they work on viruses?
chemicals that interfere with life proccesses in bacteria but they do not work against virus
Describe three different ways bacteria can obtain energy.
performing photosynthesis, decomposing dead organisms and wastes, or breaking down chemical compounds.
How do antibiotic resistant bacteria arise, and why are they especially dangerous?
they arise due to natural selection and adaptation-this means that they can pass on these helpful genes to their offspring and then they can reproduce which will make them fully resistant
How does antibiotic resistance in bacteria support the theory of evolution by natural selection?
if these antibiotic resistant bacteria survive because they evolved and were selected for, then they will continue to survive and pass on their genes
Identify three ways that bacteria benefit humans.
aid in digestion, convert nitrogen in soil, Streptomyces is used in making antibiotics.
1. a pathogen that is found in animal with the disease and not in the healthy animal
2.pathogen must be isolated from the sick animal and grown in a lab culture
3. when the isolated pathogen is injected into the healthy animal, the animal must develop the disease
4.pathogen should be taken from the 2nd animal and grown in lab culture and it should be the same as the first culture
resistant to a particular disease
medical procedure used to produce immunity
solution that contains a dead or weakened pathogen or genetic material from the pathogen which triggers the immune response against the pathogen without symptoms of the infection, after a few days the immune system develops anibodies and memory cells against that certain pathogen
viruses are constantly mutate over time and they produce new antigens that the immune system does not recognize so the body must make new antibodies
what is disease transmission prevented by
sanitation, hygeine, removal or dirty needles
what is active immunity
getting the disease and surviving or vaccination which creates t and b cells
when a body takes in antibodies from another human/animal (maternal immunity-passed down from mom)
How would an enzyme that destroys interleukins affect the immune response?
It would affect it by preventing the helper T-Cells to activate the B-Cells and cytotoxic T-Cells. Interleukins activate the helper T-Cells, which activate the B-Cells and cytotoxic cells. The B-Cells find the pathogen, while the cytotoxic T-cells kill them, prevent helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells from dividing, weaken immune system
activate helper t cells
List five ways diseases can be transmitted to humans.
blood, saliva, dirty needles, air, food, animal bites, water, sexual transmission
How does vaccination produce immunity?
prepare the body to fight disease without exposing it to disease symptoms. When foreign invaders such as bacteria or viruses enter the body, immune cells called lymphocytes respond by producing antibodies, which are protein molecule
Why can you not get many diseases more than once?
because your body creates antibodies for them so you are now immune
Your nose runs (immune response level)
. first line of nonspecific defenses
an area you have injured swells up and gets hot (immune response level)`
.proteins attack the membrane of pathogens (immune response level)
skin (immune response level)
interferon proteins attack viruses (immune response level)
oil, acidic sweat, and lysozymes inhibit the growth of bacteria (immune response level)
You get a fever (immune response level)
White blood cells engulf pathogens and infected body cells (immune response level)
Having a fever of 103 degrees F is beneficial because
disease-causing bacteria don't grow well at high temperatures
engulfs and destroys pathogens (nonspecific)
attacks and kills body cells infected with a specific pathogen
ingests and kills pathogens and clears dead cells and debris
label invaders for later destruction
punctures the cell membrane of body cells infected with pathogens (nonspecific)
natural killer cell
activate B cells and cytotoxic T cells to destroy a specific pathoge
helper t cell
release antibodies to a specific pathogen
They can confer immunity to a specific disease you have previously been exposed to, Each is specific to one pathogen, can be B or T cells
The reason you can get multiple colds each year, and that you need a new flu shot each year is that
flu and cold viruses constantly mutate and develop new antigens that your body does not recognize
what are avantages of forming endospore
Allows the preservation of an organism's genetic material, Can allow the same organism to regrow and germinate after years of dormancy, Can ensure survival of the species in times of high heat or pressure, Can ensure survival of the species in times of low nutrients
Which of the following are benefits of microbes?
used in mining, Normal flora for organisms to aid digestion, Creation of fermented and food products
A membrane around the capsid that allows a virus to enter a cell
The virus's protein coat, and the antigen that alerts the body's immune system of an invasion
Which step of the HIV cycle leads to a full blown case of AIDS?
HIV finds a way to enter helper T-cells, where it replicates and destroys them, releasing more HIV that go on to infect and kill more helper T-cells
In retroviruses, such as HIV, the enzyme reverse transcriptase allows the virus to
create DNA from the virus's RNA and insert itself into the host's genome
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