Questions that can be answered by using experiments and factual reasoning.
The study of living organisms and how they function.
A method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
1st part of the scientific method
Experimental design refers to how participants are allocated to the different conditions (or IV groups) in an experiment.
factors that are kept constant or unchanging.
The process of studying of something to gain information.
A conclusion made up of facts and inferring knowledge.
The final ending or idea of a process
A statement about the hypothesis
To or estimate by expanding know information
An assumption based on limited information or something that hasn't yet been proved
something thats unchanging
detailed examination with your senses only
measuring something with numbers
Balancing human or any living organisms
The chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life
The genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring.
packages proteins from the ER and materials and sends them to other parts of the cell
network or tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell with a smooth surface; functions in a variety of different metabolic processes such as synthesis of lipids, oils, phospholipid and steroids; process drugs, alcohol, and store calcium ions
network of tubular membanes within the cytoplasm of the cell with a rough surface (ribosomes are attached to it); helps the ribosomes make proteins, such as insulin
tiny structures within the cell that carry out specific functions
forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings; made if phospholipids
oval-shaped organelle that contains DNA and controls much of the cell's activities by directing protein synthesis
actin filaments; solid rods of globular proteins
straight, hollow tubes used for transportation; composed of globular proteins
carries out cellular respiration; rod-shaped organelle that makes energy for the cell to function with; converts the energy stored in food to energy the cell can use (ATP); "powerhouse" of cell
nuclear subdomain that assembles ribosomal subunits in eukaryotic cells; makes rRNA to form the subunits of ribosomes, which then exit to the cytoplasm
complex of DNA and proteins that form within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells; directs the cells' functions
sac-like organelle that holds water, food and organisms; can also store waste products until removed
green structure that captures energy from sunlight and changes it to energy that cells can use in making food.
plant, bacteria or archea cell
animal cell with nucleus
small grain-shaped organelle that produces proteins
thin, flexible barrier that surrounds the cell and controls what goes in and out; found in animal cells
the thick fluid region of a cell inside the membrane or next to the nucleus
membrane-enclosed sac of digestive enzymes; contains chemicals that break down bigger food particles so they can be used in the cell; also break down used cell parts. The cell's "recycling center".
rigid layer surrounding the cells of plants
made of many cells
small set of microtubules arranged in a specific way
thin membrane of lipid molecules
part of cytoplasm not held by an organelle
the appendages that propel certain cells
helps hold cells together in tissues and protects and supports the plasma membrane. Made up of glycoproteins (proteins bonded with carbohydrates)
networks of protein fibers that extend through the cell
all living things are composed of cells and all cells come from other cells
why are cells so small?
smaller cells have more surface area across which to pass oxygen, nutrients and waste materials
a projection from a prokaryotic cell that propels it through its liquid environment
chemical activities of cells
double membrane enclosing the nucleus; controls the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus
messenger RNA that direct protein synthesis
where are ribosomes found?
free-floating in the cytosol, or bound to the rough ER or the nuclear envelope
A system of membranes that are specific to a eukaryotic cell. Some are physically connected, while others link when vesicles transfer membrane segments between them.
sacs made of membranes
what makes up the endomembrane system?
nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles and the plasma membrane.
What does the Golgi apparatus do?
processes, warehouses and ships (outside and inside cell) ER products
Adenine Triphosphate - main energy source for cellular work
What type of cell is this?
What type of cell is this?
X) cell wall
Which of the following is NOT a structure found in human cells: W) mitochondrion X) cell wall Y) lysosome Z) peroxisome
W) wing of a bat and the arm of a human
Which of the following are homologous structures: W) wing of a bat and the arm of a human X) leg of a cat and the wing of a fly Y) stinger of a bee and the fang of a snake Z) rattler of a rattle snake and the whistle of a song bird
What organelle functions to isolate a human cell's chromosomes from the cytoplasm?
In the taxonomical name Homo sapiens, what taxonomical rank does 'sapiens' represent?
What is the basic unit of life?
In what organelle of a plant cell does photosynthesis occur?
In which of the following places would meiosis (cell division) most likely occur in a mammal: W) skin X) liver Y) heart Z) ovary
Which of the following is the most common source of energy for brain cells in humans: W) nucleic acids X) proteins Y) glucose Z) pectins
W) have no known function in their present owners
Vestigial structures: W) have no known function in their present owners X) function in an analogous fashion in species Y) evolve homologously until functional Z) control nervous system functions
It is generally believed that most of the oxygen in the air on Earth today came from what general biological process:
What is the most common term for the biological polymer found in chromosomes that stores genetic information?
The spontaneous movement of molecules through a semi-permeable membrane in order to create equilibrium.
These structures are located inside of a cell's...
Sets of organs in our bodies that do the work to keep us healthy and alive.
Tiniest part of all living and non-living things.
Small part of all living things.
Many cells working together.
Made of thousands of cells, connected by several body systems to do work to keep our bodies healthy & alive.
Classifications of Living things.
Living things with vertebra, hair or fur, gives birth to babies, feed the babies milk form their bodies & warm blooded.
May or may not fly, with vertebra, lay eggs, have feathers
Land & water animals, no vertebra, most lay eggs some have babies, smooth or rough scaly skin, no legs or arms.
Mostly water animals but can live on land, smooth or rough scaly skin, lay eggs & may have lungs.
Slimy animals, no skin or vertebra & no shells.
Hard body sections & no vertebra.
No vertebra, ears or eyes live underground & slimy.
Have long electric tentacles, soft bodies & no vertebra.
Shells soft bodies, no vertebra &Hard shells.
Gills & fins, cold blooded.
2 - 6 Legs, no vertebra, lay eggs, many eyes.
8 Legs, no vertebra, may have wings, lay eggs.
Mammals but with baby pouch on outside of bodies.
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy. products of photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen
photosynthesis equation(very important)
6CO2 + 6H2O --> light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food. main function of chloroplasts is to produce food (glucose) Chloroplasts contain the pigment, chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs most of the colors in the color spectrum, and reflects only green and yellow wavelengths of light. This is why we see leaves as green or yellow - because these colors are reflected into our eyes.
another name for sugar C6H12O6 three things used for making glucose are sunlight water and carbon dioxide used for energy and growth
main source of energy
C6H1206->CO2 + H20+ ENERGY (released) goal is to create ATP occurs in all living things
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work the energy is stored in ATP until it is released by the reactions remove a phosphate from ATP a simple way of remembering it is just that it's just energy
The sum total of all processes in an organism which convert energy and matter from outside sources and use that energy and matter to sustain the organism's life functions.
The sum total of all processes in an organism which use energy and simple chemical building blocks to produce large chemicals and structures necessary for life.
The sum total of all processes in an organism which break down chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks.
The process by which green plants and some other organisms use the energy of sunlight and simple chemicals to produce their own food.
Organisms that eat only plants.
Organisms that eat only organisms other than plants.
Organisms that eat both plants and other organisms.
Organisms that produce their own food.
Organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers for food.
Organisms that break down the dead remains of other organisms.
Organisms that are able to make their own food.
Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food.
Special structures that allow living organisms to sense the conditions of their internal or external environment.
Reproduction accomplished by a single organism.
Reproduction that requires two organisms
The process by which physical and biological characteristics are transmitted from the parent (or parents) to the offspring.
An abrupt and marked change in the DNA of an organism compared to that of its parents
An educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question.
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data.
A theory that has been tested by and is consistent with generations of data.
Living creatures that are too small to see with the naked eye.
A cell that has no distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
A cell with distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
A unit of one or more populations of individuals that can reproduce under normal conditions, produce fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such units.
The science of classifying organisms.
Naming an organism with its genus and species name.
An organism that causes disease.
An organism that feeds on a living host.
An organism that requires oxygen.
An organism that does not require oxygen.
A state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are born.
Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population.
Population growth that is controlled by limited resources.
A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer.
The DNA and other essential parts of a bacterium coated with several hard layers.
Organisms from the same species that have markedly different traits.
A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food.
The region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell's main DNA.
A membrane-bounded "sac" within a cell.
A protozoan that propels itself with a flagellum.
A firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane.
An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
A pigment necessary for photosynthesis.
A light-sensitive region in certain protozoa
A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits.
A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the association.
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited.
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed.
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion.
A reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating.
Tiny organisms that float in the water.
Tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa.