Organic Molecules: From Atoms to Cells
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function
the living body considered as made up of interdependent components forming a unified whole
Any living thing
A measure of disorder. One form of disorder is heat, which is random molecular motion.
basic unit of matter
an electron in the outer shell of an atom which can combine with other atoms to form molecules
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
having slightly opposite charges, making the molecule "sticky" and attracted to other charged particles. (ex. water)
tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick to one another (ex. water-water)
the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition
a phenomenon at the surface of a liquid caused by cohesion
the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid
weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
A class of nutrients made of sugars; these nutrients include sugar and starch. Main source of energy in living things.
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues
single sugar molecule (monomer)
long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers
storage form of glucose in plants
a fatty substance that does not dissolve in water
electrons are shared equally, so there is no overall charge on the molecule, therefore it is not attracted to charged particles (ex. fats)
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
substances that release hydrogen ions in water.
substances that release OH ions in water
a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
the strength of a base
Mixture that is the same throughout
negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
basic unit of matter
the curved upper surface of a liquid in a column. caused by cohesion and adhesion.