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40 terms

Organic Molecules: From Atoms to Cells

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Cell
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
tissue
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
organ
a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function
System
the living body considered as made up of interdependent components forming a unified whole
Organism
Any living thing
Entropy
A measure of disorder. One form of disorder is heat, which is random molecular motion.
atom
basic unit of matter
valence electron
an electron in the outer shell of an atom which can combine with other atoms to form molecules
molecule
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
ion
a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)
covalent bond
bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
polar
having slightly opposite charges, making the molecule "sticky" and attracted to other charged particles. (ex. water)
cohesion
tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick to one another (ex. water-water)
adhesion
the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition
surface tension
a phenomenon at the surface of a liquid caused by cohesion
capillary action
the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid
hydrogen bond
weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms
metabolism
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
polymer
large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together
monomer
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
carbohydrate
A class of nutrients made of sugars; these nutrients include sugar and starch. Main source of energy in living things.
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues
monosaccharide
single sugar molecule (monomer)
polysaccharide
long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers
starch
storage form of glucose in plants
lipid
a fatty substance that does not dissolve in water
nonpolar
electrons are shared equally, so there is no overall charge on the molecule, therefore it is not attracted to charged particles (ex. fats)
solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solute
substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
solvent
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
acid
substances that release hydrogen ions in water.
base
substances that release OH ions in water
pH
a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
alkalinity
the strength of a base
homogenous
Mixture that is the same throughout
electron
negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
proton
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
neutron
a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
atom
basic unit of matter
meniscus
the curved upper surface of a liquid in a column. caused by cohesion and adhesion.